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low agricultural


Swaziland

(on SNL) on the other, may well explain the country's overall low growth, high inequality and unemployment. Economic growth in Swaziland has lagged behind that of its neighbours. Real GDP growth since 2001 has averaged 2.8%, nearly 2 percentage points lower than growth in other Southern African Customs Union (SACU) member countries. Low agricultural productivity in the SNLs, repeated droughts, the devastating effect of HIV AIDS and an overly large and inefficient government sector are likely contributing factors. Swaziland's public finances deteriorated in the late 1990s following sizeable surpluses a decade earlier. A combination of declining revenues and increased spending led to significant budget deficits. The considerable spending did not lead to more growth and did not benefit the poor. Much of the increased spending has gone to current expenditures related to wages, transfers, and subsidies. The wage bill today constitutes over 15% of GDP and 55% of total public spending; these are some of the highest levels on the African continent. The recent rapid growth in SACU revenues has, however, reversed the fiscal situation, and a sizeable surplus was recorded since 2006. SACU revenues today account for over 60% of total government revenues. On the positive side, the external debt burden has declined markedly over the last 20 years, and domestic debt is almost negligible; external debt as a percent of GDP was less than 20% in 2006. The Swazi economy is very closely linked to the South African economy, from which it receives over 90% of its imports and to which it sends about 70% of its exports. Swaziland's other key trading partners are the United States and the EU, from whom the country has received trade preferences for apparel exports (under the African Growth and Opportunity Act – AGOA – to the US) and for sugar (to the EU). Under these agreements, both apparel and sugar exports did well, with rapid growth and a strong inflow of foreign direct investment. Textile exports grew by over 200% between 2000 and 2005 and sugar exports increasing by more than 50% over the same period. The continued vibrancy of the export sector is threatened by the removal of trade preferences for textiles, the accession to similar preferences for East Asian countries, and the phasing out of preferential prices for sugar to the EU market. Swaziland will thus have to face the challenge of remaining competitive in a changing global environment. A crucial factor in addressing this challenge is the investment climate. The recently concluded Investment Climate Assessment provides some positive findings in this regard, namely that Swaziland firms are among the most productive in Sub-Saharan Africa, although they are less productive than firms in the most productive middle-income countries in other regions. They compare more favourably with firms from lower middle income countries, but are hampered by inadequate governance arrangements and infrastructure. Swaziland's currency is pegged to the South African Rand, subsuming Swaziland's monetary policy to South Africa. Customs duties from the Southern African Customs Union, which may equal as much as 70% of government revenue this year, and worker remittances from South Africa substantially supplement domestically earned income. Swaziland is not poor enough to merit an IMF program; however, the country is struggling to reduce the size of the civil service and control costs at public enterprises. The government is trying to improve the atmosphere for foreign direct investment. Society Demographics Commons:Category:Swaziland WikiPedia:Swaziland Dmoz:Regional Africa Swaziland


Malawi

; In 2006, in response to disastrously low agricultural harvests, Malawi began a program of fertiliser subsidies that were designed to re-energize the land and boost crop production. It has been reported that this program, championed by the country's president, is radically improving Malawi's agriculture, and causing Malawi to become a net exporter of food to nearby countries.


Nairobi

, Plant and Environmental Health, with the aim of improving the overall health of communities in tropical Africa by addressing the interlinked problems of poverty, poor health, low agricultural productivity and degradation of the environment. icipe's headquarters are located in Kasarani, Nairobi. It has a major field research centre at Mbita Point on Lake Victoria. There are four further field sites in Kenya, and one at Port Sudan in Sudan (on the Red Sea). icipe also runs a "Biovillage Initiative" in southern Ethiopia. image 200px (File:Kenyatta University Logo.png) location Nairobi, Kenya chancellor Justice (Rtd) Onesimus Mutungi (2010) '''Kenyatta University''', located in Nairobi, Kenya is the second largest public university in the country (after University of Nairobi). The University is located in Kahawa, about Wikipedia:Nairobi Dmoz:Regional Africa Kenya Localities Nairobi Commons:Category:Nairobi


Portsmouth

. A fertile strip of land on the north side of the River Rother (River Rother (Western)) is also used for vegetable growing, but most of the area north of the Downs is of low agricultural value and there are large areas of forest and pasture, interspersed with arable cropping. Early career ''Glowworm'' was ordered from the yards of John I. Thornycroft and Company, at Woolston, Hampshire on 5 March 1934 under the 1933 Construction Programme. She was laid down on 15 August 1934 and launched on 22 July 1935. She was completed on 22 January 1936 at a total cost of £248,785, excluding government-furnished equipment like the armament. English, pp. 89–90 Adjusted for inflation to 20 WikiPedia:Portsmouth Commons:Category:Portsmouth


Kenya

WikiPedia:Kenya Dmoz:Regional Africa Kenya Commons:Category:Kenya


Japan

of 1929 and the Great Depression resulted in widespread unemployment, which was worsened by drought and low agricultural prices. ''The Dirty Thirties in Prairie Canada'': 11th Western Canada Studies. Western Canadian Studies Conference (11th: 1979: University of Calgary). Edited by R. D. Francis and H. Ganzevoort. Vancouver: Tantalus Research, 1980. ISBN 0-919478-46-8. The Depression ended after the start of World War II in 1939, when war requirements


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