Places Known For

local population

Venetian Dalmatia

number 1 date November 1977 issn 0353-295X publisher Faculty of Philosophy, Zagreb location Zagreb, Croatia pages 218–221 accessdate 2012-07-08 Venetian Dalmatia during the Cretan War Category:History of Dalmatia Category:Venetian period in the history of Croatia Category:16th century in Croatia Category:17th century in Croatia Category:18th century in Croatia Category:History of Italy


to the south along Kuril Islands (was first to map sixteen of Kuril Islands) down to Hokkaidō. On the Kuril Islands they collected taxes from the local population, then through Kamchatka, Okhotsk and Yakutsk they returned to Tobolsk and finally to Kazan, there Ivan reported about his findings to Peter the Great. Ivan Evreinov was not able to answer whether America and Asia are connected by land, but he was first to make accurate mapping of Kamchatka, Kuril Islands and Russian

. On the Kuril Islands they collected taxes from the local population, then through Kamchatka, Okhotsk and Yakutsk they returned to Tobolsk and finally to Kazan, there Ivan reported about his findings to Peter the Great. Ivan Evreinov was not able to answer whether America and Asia are connected by land, but he was first to make accurate mapping of Kamchatka, Kuril Islands and Russian Pacific Coast, before him even coordinates of local forts and villages were not known. Germany


; The Franciscans were the first to arrive in the 1520s to evangelize the local population and they built a small church on the site. However, this church was destroyed in a fire. The Augustinians took over evangelization in the 1530s and formally established the monastery, dedicated to John the Baptist. This figure was chosen because Yacapitzauac was depicted with a staff as a sign of his authority, and John the Baptist is often depicted with a staff. Most of the monastery was constructed between 1535 and 1540. At that time, there was sufficient income to the order to not only finish much of the monastery in a short time, but also to add a number of fine details. Construction of a number of smaller elements continued until 1586. The complex presents similarities with others built by the Augustinians in eastern Morelos at this time, such as a stone wall around the perimeter and the use of merlons, which give these monasteries the look of a medieval castle. Due to the diminishing importance of Yecapixtla, the monastery was mostly abandoned by the 17th century, with the Augustinians losing formal control of the church and community in the mid 18th century. The complex remained mostly untouched until the late 19th century, when Father José Pilar Sandoval did some remodeling work in the main nave of the church. More restoration work was undertaken by Father Evaristo Nava in the early 20th century, which included the addition of an organ and changing the sacristy into a tabernacle. In 1994, the complex became part of the Monasteries on the Slopes of Popocatépetl World Heritage Site. As common to monasteries of the time, the complex is fronted by a very large atrium (Atrium (architecture)). This atrium is surrounded by a stone wall topped with merlons. The main entrance to the atrium from the street has merlons, as well as the chapels found on each of the wall’s four corners. From the main entrance to the church, there is a volcanic stone walkway, divided by an atrium cross, which has a heart, a chalice and a depiction of the Host (sacramental bread) in low relief. The atrium cross is not the original. The original was broken by a child in 1961 when he was trying to climb onto its base. The cross fell onto the child killing him. Along the atrium walls on the inside, there are a number of empty niches that remain, which probably held images related to the Stations of the Cross. Access to the chapels in the corners, called capillas posas, is in the atrium. These chapels’ primary function was the house the Host during processions on Corpus Christi (Corpus Christi (feast)). At the back of the atrium is the complex which consists of a large church and cloister. The front of the church has a very tall facade, which is mostly undecorated, flanked by two corner buttresses and topped by a small recessed tower. Along the top of the facade and on this tower, there are merlons. The church also has a bell tower, but it is somewhat recessed from the facade and is also topped with merlons. Under the cornice, there is a frieze which divides into two parts. On the right hand side, there is the date of 1526 depicted in Aztec style, when the Franciscans arrived, accompanied by the coat of arms of that order. On the left is the year in which the pre-Hispanic teocalli was destroyed. Between the merlons and the main portal, there is a Gothic (Gothic architecture) rose window and below this is a main portal with subtle design work. The rose window stands out most. It is a circular stone which was cut in a floral like pattern to let in light, surrounded by a frame with elaborate ornamentation. It is one of very few rose windows in Mexico from this time period. While the overall style of the window is Plateresque Gothic, it was fashioned by indigenous hands. It contains indigenous elements as well. The “flower” in the center indicates the four cardinal directions and the twenty cherubs in the frame surrounding it represents the days of the month of the Aztec calendar. This frame also contains the bust of a bound woman who probably represents the mother of Huitzilopochtli. The portal is a simple arch with subtle reliefs with small angels, cherubs and vegetative motifs on the archivolt as well as portraits of saints and friars. One of these portraits may be Jorge de Avile y Ro, the founder of the monastery. On the left side there is a portrait of a lay person with a Roman style haircut, who was probably the architect. The wooden doorjambs are decorated with the heads of angels and rose patterns as well as vegetative motifs. The bars on the main doors were added in 1910 by Father Evaristo Nava, who also donated the clock that can be seen on the complex’s back tower. Around the arch and the doors, the portal is sculpted in both a detailed and subtle way. To the side of the doorway, there are two pairs of pilasters. These are in Renaissance style while the rest of the portal mixes Gothic and Plateresque. However, the columns also have channels which are more often associated with the later Churrigueresque. At the base of the columns there are busts of Saint Ambrose, bishop of Milan (Ambrose) and Cicero, who was an influence on the philosophy of Saint Augustine. The pilasters are topped with capital (Capital (architecture))s, which support a frieze that contains reliefs of small angels flying with a cross in the center. Above the frieze, there is a panel with a niche, today empty, flanked by the coats of arms of the Augustinians and the Franciscans. Underneath the coats of arms, there is an angel riding a dragon. Topping this is a pediment. The northeast side of the church is marked by a long wall with three Gothic windows and the side portal in Renaissance style. This is the portal most often used by parishioners as it is closest to what is now the main plaza of the town. This portal has a barrel arch flanked by two sets of pilasters. Between the sets, there are very worn decorative details, including two medallions. These are notable because they depict a man and a woman in civil attire with no religious aspect. The archivolt of the arch contains bundles of spears tied with different elements. In the center of one of these bundles, there is a heart, a symbol of the Augustinians. A cornice encloses the area. thumb Baptismal font, "piscina" and pillar in the baptistry (File:FontsSanJuanYeca02.JPG) The main entrance of the church leads into a space under the choir area, which is covered by a Gothic vault with nerves that form the shape of a star. The highly stylized murals painted in black on the side walls have been retouched. They consist of bands of decorations with contains elements such as letters, niches and coats of arms. This entrance area ends with an arch that opens into the main nave. This area serves as the baptistery and contains three monolithic pieces, which originally were part of the teocalli. The first two are used for baptisms. The first is the large basin to hold water for baptism. The second, called a “piscina” is meant to receive the water that pours off the head of the one being baptized. On the outside of the main basin, there are the heads of animals and humans, which may indicate that the bowl was originally part of a fountain, readapted to its current function. The heads that protrude indicate the duality of life with the masculine represented by a jaguar and the feminine represented by a woman. The use of a jaguar symbol indicates Olmec influence. Next to these two, there is a small pillar with worn, unidentifiable designs, whose purpose are unknown. A small door in the entrance area covers a stairway that leads to the choir area above. This choir area contains medieval style murals and a balustrade with a crest of flor-de-lis sculpted of sandstone. It also contains an organ similar to the ones used in medieval European cathedrals, and is the only one of its kind in the Augustinian monasteries of the region. The only other one in the region is in the originally Franciscan cathedral of Cuernavaca. It was donated by Evaristo Nava in 1915, using money he was saving to go to the Holy Land. thumb left Main nave of the church, decorated for Christmas (File:MainNaveYecaXmas.JPG) The main nave is enormous and very tall. At the front is an apse, which like the area under the choir has a vault with Gothic nerves which form a star pattern. The current main altar found here is not the original. The original altar was Baroque (Baroque architecture) which contained twelve paintings with each of the Apostles as well as one of John the Baptist and Saint Augustine. These paintings have since been moved to the pinacotheca of the Cuernavaca cathedral. The current altar is a large white 19th century Neoclassical (Neoclassical architecture) style piece, inspired by a Roman mausoleum. It has two levels on a circular base with a Corinthian (Corinthian order) style capitol. It features an image of John the Baptist. Most of the original mural work that covered the walls and ceilings are deteriorated or lost, but reconstructed murals have been added to parts, especially in the spaces between the nerves of the vaults. These murals contain soft colors which form lines, geometrical shapes and floral shapes reminiscent of ironwork. These probably date to the last third of the 19th century but this is mostly conjecture. The side walls contain faded remnants of narrative scenes, which have not been dated either. One of the best conserved elements inside the church is the 16th century pulpit, made of sandstone sculpted with fine Gothic style designs. In each of the faces of the design, anagrams of the name of Christ or the coat of arms of the Augustinians appear. There is none like it from all of the Mexican colonial period. The original confession booths are built into the wall on the right hand side of the nave, separating the church and the cloister, with the priest entering one side and the confessor entering through the other. They were covered up for much of the church’s history until 1954, when Father Jose Maria Mendez moved the altars on this wall to reveal them. Between them and the baptistery area, there is a large door that leads to the cloister of the former monastery. In colonial times, this door was only opened for Mass (Mass (liturgy)) on major festivals. The facade of the cloister has two levels and is fronted by an arched porch area, called a portería. Above the portería, there are two windows, and the remains of the pilasters of an arch that corresponds to the open chapel, which was like a balcony. However, this balcony area was eventually walled in to make more interior space. The portería contains two arches and a frieze adorned with round forms which protrude. The portería contains the main entrance to the cloister area, above which is a crucifix set on top of a skull, which represents Calvary. The foyer of this entrance used to serve as a baptistery in the late 19th and early 20th century. The paintings here are from that era. They depict stories about the Virgin Mary who is shown with the infant Jesus in her arms and symbols of the Trinity around them. Inside, the cloister has only one floor that surrounds a central courtyard, separated by sixteen simple arches which have buttresses. On the interior of each arch, there are dark red circles, which are all that remain of medallions which probably had religious anagrams. In the center of the courtyard, there is a fountain and a sundial etched onto a pillar. There are two main interior portals, one that leads to the refectory and the other that leads to the current priest’s quarters. Like other cloisters of this area and time, there are remnants of mural work. Near the large doorway to the church, there is a group of four saints done in black and white, which look upon a scene which has since been lost. There are areas that conserve parts of friezes with images drawn in white over a black background, especially in the upper parts of the walls. Images of saints appear on the spaces between the arches, which are drawn to simulate sculptures contained in niches with Plateresque columns and topped with shells. In one corner, there is a seated figure of a sainted pope, whose face and eyes are finely done. Most of the rest of the paintings are narratives, but most of the work has been partially or fully lost, and those that remain are not in good condition. One exception is a depiction of the road to Calvary and the Crucifixion. The vaults of the passageways are decorated with coffers, some of which are hexagons, which may indicate the influence of Italian architect Sebastian Serlio. The Sala de Profundis, or meditation room, contains well-preserved multichromatic murals which depict a large number of saints including a series of martyrs and a depiction of Saint Augustine. These images are in the process of restoration by the Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia. In the south wing of the cloister there is an entrance to an underground area, which tradition says used to lead to Hernán Cortés’ house, but since destroyed. There is also a door that leads to the garden area, which grew food for the monks. Fruit trees bearing mangos, guavas, coffee, limes, oranges and plums and more still grow here. It is one of the few monasteries which still has its garden area, although it is greatly diminished. Missing from view are the kitchen area and latrines. It is thought that the Chapel of San José, now opening into the church, was originally the kitchen of the monastery. This chapel is known to have existed in this form at least since the 19th century. The monastery has an archive which dates back to the year 1600, which mostly records baptisms, confirmations, marriages and deaths of the local population. During the Mexican Revolution, this archive was sealed behind a wall in order to avoid its destruction. History The name Yecapixtla has been translated in a number of ways. Several sources claim that the name refers to the wearing of a stone called a “chalchuihite” through the nose, translating to “land of pierced noses.” This was indeed practiced in the area among pre-Hispanic governors as a sign of their status. This translation may come from documents written by Gutierrez de Lievana from 1580. The Aztec glyph of the area does show a pierced nose. The government of Morelos claims that the name translates to “land of gentle airs” referring to the calm weather and lack of strong winds. The glyph also contains a flying insect which could allude to this. However, the name is very close to the name of a god of commerce, Yacapitzauac, whose teocalli was the center of the pre-Hispanic settlement. This teocalli was destroyed by the Spanish and a church dedicated to John the Baptist put in its place. The eastern portion of what is now Morelos state had been settled since the Olmec period, and this culture controlled most of the area through the main settlement of Chalcatzingo. It is also known that groups of Chalcas and Xochimilcas passed through. Xochimilcas and Tlahuicas came to settle around 1325. Yecapixtla itself was established by a group of Xochimilcas. This same area of Morelos was conquered by Moctezuma I in 1440, and Yecapixtla became a tributary collection center for the Aztecs due to its strategic position in the basin of the Amatzinac River. The Aztecs called this settlement Tlalnahuac. During the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire, a few months before the fall of Tenochtitlan, Spanish soldiers under Gonzalo de Sandoval came to Yecapixtla to conquer it. Sandoval arrived to the settlement from Huejotzingo (Huejotzingo (municipality)), bringing warriors from this place, which had been a traditional enemy of Yecapixtla. The battle between Spanish and local eagle warriors took place at the Xaplan ravine on 15 March 1521, and the town resisted the invaders fiercely. However, the warriors were unable to withstand the Spaniards’ superior weapons and the eagle warrior dynasty of this area was destroyed. The remaining warriors retreated from Yecapixtla permanently, but some went to Tenochtitlan to defend it. The victorious Spanish sacked, destroyed and killed many in the town. Yecapixtla lay in ruins, but Hernán Cortés had interest in it and the surrounding area because of the well-established tribute collection system and the land’s aptitude for fruit orchards. Cortés built a house in the town and laid claim to the area. However, the first colonial government in Mexico City gave the lands in the area to Diego de Olguín. Cortés left for Spain in 1529, making the area an encomienda called Tlalnahuac, which included fourteen communities including Yecapixtla. When Cortés returned from Spain, he carried a seal making him the Marquis of the Valley of Oaxaca, giving him possession of large swaths of land, including the Yecapixtla area and four others in Morelos. The Cortés family would keep these lands through the rest of the 16th century. Yecapixtla kept its function as a tribute collection center and became a commercial center, especially for the cattle trade. The first missionaries to the areas were the Franciscans, who arrived and built a small church in 1525. In the 1530s, they were replaced by the Augustinians. This order began to construct the monastery complex which remains to this day. It was mostly built over a period of five years, from 1535 to 1540, made possible by the income provided by the settlement’s status as a tribute collection center. The monastery and town was dedicated to John the Baptist. He was chosen because he is often depicted with a cloak, sandals and staff, much like the pre-Hispanic patron of the settlement, Yecapetzauac. After the monastery was built, it became a regional administrative center because of its location along a number of commercial routes. The town of Yecapixtla was reorganized around the monastery complex in 1550, into four neighborhoods: San Pablo, La Concepción, Santa Mónica and San Esteban, which still exist. These roughly correspond to the pre-Hispanic organization of the town, but it was much reduced in size due to population loss, especially on the south side. The town at that time was crisscrossed by arroyos (Arroyo (creek)) and ravines spanned by small bridges, especially around the monastery, but since then many have dried out and filled in. Depopulation continued at the end of the 16th and early 17th centuries, and the monastery’s importance diminished. By the end of this time, the monastery was all but abandoned, as Cuautla (Cuautla, Morelos) grew and became the regional center. In the 17th century, those who had land rights under what were called “primordial title” began to struggle with Spanish owned haciendas over surface water. Much of the land in the municipality is not suited for the growing of crops, but is instead suited for the raising of livestock, especially cattle. For this reason, the area’s industry in providing beef and dairy products such as cream and cheese began relatively early in the colonial period. Orchards established in the very early colonial period were still important. There was another period of depopulation in the 18th century when many residents went to work in haciendas in Cuautla and other areas in Morelos. In the 18th century, the Augustinians officially lost control of the monastery complex and the population to regular clergy in 1754. During this time, many of the popular religious festivals such as the Semana de San Juan (Week of Saint John) and Day of the Dead became established in the town and surrounding area, often encouraged by the new clergy. The development and growth of local religious festivals would continue through the rest of the colonial period and into the 19th century, through the establishment of brotherhoods (cofradías) dedicated to a particular saint or other religious element. Because of its strategic position between the Mexico City area and points south, armies associated with the Mexican War of Independence, Reform War and Mexican Revolution all passed through here. In 1810, Yecapixtla was part of the Jonacatepec municipality. It became an independent municipality in 1869. For a brief period in the late 19th century, Yecapixtla experienced a surge in economic development when a railway was built through connecting it to Mexico City through what is now the eastern panhandle of the State of Mexico. Electricity and telephone were introduced. During this time Evaristo Navo was the head clergyman in the area and is credited with a number of developments including a parish school, the installation of a church organ, with accompanying encouragement of musical training. He also installed the clock on the San Juan Bautista Church. One purpose of the parish school was to preserve and in some cases restitute old traditions which had been lost due to the Liberal reforms of the latter 19th century (Reform War). The school closed in 1911. Further attempts to keep older traditions alive were headed by Juventino Pineda Enriquez who created the “Misiones Culturales” (Cultural Missions). The town shrank again in population due to the Mexican Revolution, with men going off to fight and the remaining women and children dispersing, with some going to Mexico City. The war ruined the town’s economy and after the war, many families who had left never returned. After the war, agriculture returned when an ejido was established to the south of the town and slowly the town recovered. Development remained slow until the mid-20th century when new infrastructure such as the reestablishment of electricity and telephone, a new highway and a bank allowed for more economic contact with the outside. The new infrastructure attracted new residents. Public schools were opened in the 1930s and 1940s. An agricultural technical school was opened in 1972. The municipality As municipal seat, the town of Yecapixtla is the local governing authority for over 100 named communities which cover a territory of 192.33km2. - 030 Yecapixtla Yecapixtla -


the Russian Empire thumb left Palace of the Prince of Oldenburg (File:Oldenburg palace.jpg) In the 16th century, Gagra and the rest of western Georgia was conquered by the Ottoman Empire. The western merchants were expelled and the town entered a prolonged period of decline, with much of the local population fleeing into the mountains. By the 18th century the town had been reduced to little more than a village surrounded by forests and disease-ridden swamps. Its fortunes were restored in the 19th century when the Russian Empire expanded into the region, annexing whole Georgia. The swamps were drained and the town was rebuilt around a new military hospital. Its population, however, was still small: in 1866, a census recorded that 336 men and 280 women, mostly local families or army officers and their dependents, lived in Gagra. The town suffered badly in the Russo-Turkish War, 1877-1878, when Turkish troops invaded, destroyed the town and expelled the local population. Russia won the war, however, and rebuilt Gagra again. 250px thumb View of Gagra's wharf sometime between 1905 and 1915. (File:Gagry.jpg) After the war, the town was "discovered" by Duke Alexander Petrovich of Oldenburg (Duke Peter Alexandrovich of Oldenburg), a member of the Russian royalty. He saw the potential of the region's subtropical climate and decided to build a high-class resort there. Having raised a large sum of money from the government, he built himself a palace there and constructed a number of other buildings in an eclectic variety of styles from around Europe. A park was laid out with tropical trees and even parrots and monkeys imported to give it an exotic feel. Despite the expensive work, the resort was not initially a success, although it did later attract a growing number of foreign tourists visiting on cruises of the Black Sea. Gagra under the Soviet Union In the Russian Revolution of 1905, a local uprising produced a revolutionary government in the town, which founded a short-lived Republic of Gagra. This was soon defeated and the revolutionaries arrested ''en masse''. The First World War (World War I) a few years later was a disaster for Gagra, destroying the tourist trade on which it depended. The Russian Revolution (Russian Revolution of 1917) shortly afterwards saw the Bolsheviks take over the town; despite a brief French (France) attempt to repel them during the Russian Civil War, the town was firmly incorporated into the new Soviet Union within Georgia (Georgia (country))n SSR. The Bolshevik leader, Vladimir Lenin, issued a decree in 1919 establishing a "worker's resort" in Gagra, nationalising the resort that had been built by Oldenburg. It became a popular holiday resort for Soviet citizens and during World War II gained a new role as a site for the rehabilitation of wounded soldiers. After the war, various state-run sanatoriums were built there. The resort grew and was developed intensively as part of the "Soviet Riviera". Gagra in post-soviet Abkhazia In the late 1980s, tensions grew between the Georgian and Abkhazian communities in the region. All-out war erupted between 1992-1993 which ended in a defeat of the Georgian government's forces. Hundreds of thousands of ethnic Georgians were expelled from their homes in Abkhazia in an outbreak of mass ethnic cleansing (Ethnic cleansing of Georgians in Abkhazia) in which thousands of Georgian civilians were massacred. Murphy, Paul J. (2004), ''The Wolves of Islam: Russia and the Faces of Chechen Terror''. Brassey's, ISBN 1-57488-830-7. Human Rights Watch Arms Project. Human Rights Watch Helsinki. March 1995 Vol. 7, No. 7. Georgia Abkhazia: Violations of the Laws of War and Russia’s Role in the Conflict Gagra and the Abkhazian capital Sukhumi were at the centre of the fighting and suffered heavy damage. wikipedia:Gagra Commons:Category:Gagra

Beloeil, Quebec

-Hilaire train disaster worst train disaster in the history of Canada killed 99 on the bridge between Mont-Saint-Hilaire and Belœil-Station By 1768, however, local population had grown to the point where a request to the Bishop of Quebec (Jean-Olivier Briand) for the establishment of a mission was successful. In 1772, a presbytery (Presbytery (architecture))-chapel was completed, and the registry of the parish of Saint-Mathieu-de-Belœil (Saint-Mathieu-de-Beloeil, Quebec), was opened.<

Montréal-Saint-Hilaire, Agence Métropolitaine de Transport , retrieved 2008-12-14 Liste des Circuits, CITVR, retrieved 2008-12-14 However, the vast majority of the population of Beloeil prefer to use the road to commute to work. In 2006, among the local population that worked outside their home, 81% reported driving to work, and 5% reported going in someone else's car, whereas only 7.5% reported using


terrorist attack on the city. Afghan blasts: 'Dozens killed' in Nimroz province Due to Zaranj's close proximity to Iran, the city relies mostly on Iranian products. With the increase of trade the Afghan Border Police is dealing with a rise in smuggling, particularly illegal drugs and weapons. The overall economic situation is becoming better for the local population of the city. Hundreds of trucks containing merchandise from the Middle East enter the city on a daily basis. In the last decade, the U.S. Marines (United States Marine Corps) and others of the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) have been visiting Zaranj city. The US Marines and other U.S. officials are involved with the Afghan government (politics of Afghanistan) in major development projects. This includes improvement made to the irrigation network of the city, building of Afghan military (military of Afghanistan) and Afghan National Police barracks as well as a hospital and a school. The city is served by Zaranj Airport, which is also being improved by the United States. US Marines assigned to 3rd Marine Aircraft Wing have been visiting Zaranj since US Marine Base Forward Operating Base Delaram was built in Delaram district of Zaranj. The 3rd Marine Aircraft Wing built two concrete helicopter landing zones on western side of the gravel runway of Zaranj Airport to ease the landing of USMC V-22 Osprey (Bell Boeing V-22 Osprey) helicopters from 3rd Battalion 4th Marines. The helipads now serve all helicopters landing at Zaranj airport. Climate Zaranj has a hot desert climate (Köppen climate classification ''BWh'') with very hot summers and cool winters. Precipitation is very low, and mostly falls in winter. Temperatures in summer may approach The Emperor of China at this time was Emperor Gaozong of Tang.

Dresden, Ontario

and tomatoes. thumb Centennial (File:Tischwimpel 100 Jahre Dresden.jpg) table flag (1982) with achievement (Achievement (heraldry)) including the motto: ''Vestigia&nbsp;nulla&nbsp;retrorsum'' Culture Dresden is rich in features of interest to visitors and the local population. As an important terminus of the Underground Railroad via overland and marine routes the town was part of a settlement formerly known as the Dawn Settlement. It is the site of Uncle Tom's Cabin Historic Site, which lies just outside its borders at the corner of Park St. and Uncle Tom's Road (the former 3rd concession). The town and its many organizations including the Horticultural Society, Rotary and IODE, have striven to develop the town's historical legacy and its natural features, particularly the Sydneham River. Dresden's floodplain area, since a 100 year flood in 1968, has been constantly improved with the addition of beautifully landscaped parklands, an arboretum featuring the area's original and diverse Carolinian flora, and the Trillium Trail which includes a historical walk portion. The gateway to the Trillium Trail with its eight interpretive signs can be accessed at St. George St. in the heart of the town, near the bridge. The trail itself features 20 plaques which point out historical sites along a bricked path. The trail celebrates history which is both typical to small rural towns of the period and unique to Dresden's ties to the Underground Railroad story. Guides to the trail are available at the town's Service Centre at the corner of Main and St. George St. Dresden was once home to not only Rev. Josiah Henson famous because of his association with the title character of Harriett Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin, but a variety of prominent figures from the Underground Railroad period. A recent discovery through the Trillium Trail Project which has been verified by research done in partnership with the Promised Land Project, headed by Boulou de B'beri of the University of Ottawa, is that large sections of the original town site were owned between 1853 and 1873 by William Whipper, a prominent member of the William Still Underground Railroad network. Today a number of artifact houses from this time period are still extant in the community. The local Catherine McVean Chapter of the IODE offers historical tours to visitors who wish to know more of the town's history. The town is also home to civil rights actions both in the 1850s and 1950s, and this and other historical events are commemorated on various Ontario Heritage historical plaques in the town. The Sydenham River which flows through the town, is known for its rare fauna, and the Trillium Trail, particularly in the downtown's arboretum area features signage that educates on rare plants and animals that live here. The town features a number of special events each year, including a Show and Shine for classic autos, and weekly concerts on Thursday evenings during the summer months at Rotary Park. Dresden is also the location of the Dresden Raceway, the only harness racing facility in the municipality of Chatham-Kent. It features a 1 2-mile track and modern grandstand facility. The track also serves as a training facility for young pacers and trotters. Dresden is also home to the Dresden Slots operated by the Ontario Lottery and Gaming Corporation. It is also the only slots facility in the municipality. The downtown area runs for about 3 blocks, with stores and businesses that serve the local and surrounding community and tourists. For a bit of colour, the streets are lined with planters courtesy of the Dresden Horticultural Society and many volunteers. In October, just before Halloween, there are cornstalk and scarecrow decorations on the lampposts. There is a grocery store, a drug store, jewellery and gifts, photography studio, a Sears outlet, post office, automotive supplies, dentist, doctors, optometrist, a gym, legal advice, and more. A new medical facility, operated by the Chatham-Kent Family Health Team, opened in 2012. http: news dresden-healthcare-on-the-mend Climate and Geography The climate is mild, being classified as humid continental (Köppen climate classification ''Dfb'') that closely borders on the Dfa climate type. Summer days can be hot and humid with a July high of The '''British-American Institute''' was a school started in 1842 by Josiah Henson near Dresden (Dresden, Ontario), Western District (Western District, Upper Canada), Canada West (Upper_Canada#Canada_West), Province of Canada, as part of the Dawn Settlement, a community of fugitive slaves who had escaped to Canada. The institute was a school for all ages designed to provide a general education and teacher training. It was taken over by the British and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society in 1849. The school closed down in 1868. The site of the school is encompassed today by the Uncle Tom's Cabin Historic Site. From the 1987 election until its abolishment in 1999 the riding included the (now former) municipalities of Dover Township (Dover Township, Ontario), Chatham Township (Chatham Township, Ontario), Camden Township (Camden Township, Ontario), Zone Township (Zone Township, Ontario), the towns of Wallaceburg (Wallaceburg, Ontario), Dresden (Dresden, Ontario) and Bothwell (Bothwell, Ontario) plus the city of Chatham (Chatham, Ontario).

Pontianak, Indonesia

live in Java have a long line (10 generations) of forefathers before them, where the ethnic Chinese who live in Sumatra have a relatively short generation of forefathers (4 or 5 generations). There is also a small population of Hakka Chinese in Indonesia, most notably in Bangka Belitung province, Pontianak (Pontianak, Indonesia) and Singkawang where they form a significant part of the local population, while in the areas from Pontianak to Kendawangan on the southern tip of West Kalimantan are populated by Teochew speakers much like Bangkok, Thailand. ) of the highway has been completed. The Tenom–Sipitang section, completed in 2006, is the newest segment of the highway. The construction of the final section from Kalabakan to Sepulut is expected to begin in 2008, therefore the entire Pan Borneo Highway is expected to be fully completed within the Ninth Malaysia Plan period. Meanwhile, the Indonesian (Indonesia) sections of the Pan Borneo Highway is known as the Trans-Kalimantan Highway. The western route connects the city of Pontianak (Pontianak, Indonesia) to Tebedu. * Cleanup needed (updated by bot) ** 110 - Abu Kamal, Al Khan, Al Qasha, Alonissos, Altamira, Pará, Anbaran, Antalya, Antioch, Pisidia, Antopol, Astana, Babolsar, Bambalapitiya, Bangar, India, Banya, Plovdiv Province, Basra, Benkovac, Biała Podlaska, Campo Grande, Canillas de Aceituno, Cehu Silvaniei, Celje, Chilaw, Chuluuthoroot, Dornod, Cúcuta, Dehiwala-Mount Lavinia, Dhahran, Drvar, Fochville, North West, Fusagasugá, Garwolin, Georgetown, Guyana, Gostivar, Grad (občina), Gullaug, Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City, Irene, Gauteng, Jamaame, Jeonju, Jonestown, Karnobat, Kastraki, Phocis, Kato Nevrokopi, Keratea, Komnina (Kozani), Greece, Koster, North West, Kratonohy, Križevci, Slovenia, Krośniewice, List of cities in Latvia, List of villages and municipalities in Slovakia, Ljubojno, Lukla, Magdeburg, Makrakomi, Malang, Mariupol, Megalopolis, Greece, Misoča, Mohale's Hoek, Mosul, Mørsvikbotn, Nuevitas, Nærbø, Opaka, Orinoca, Oţelu Roşu, Petrohori, Platy, Greece, Pontianak, Indonesia, Portimão, Písek, Raphana, Ribeira Brava, Madeira, Rose-Hill, Roseau, Ryn, Sacavém, San Pedro Sula, Sanare, Santa Cruz del Seibo, Santo Domingo, Santo Domingo, Chile, Sari, Iran, Saudi Aramco Residential Camp in Dhahran, So Lo Pun, Spanish Town, Støren, Sulaymaniyah, Tebnine, Temirtau, Thaba Nchu, Thessaloniki, Tirana, Tongaat, KwaZulu-Natal, Torghabeh, Tukums, Valandovo, Vermio, Virginia, Free State, Xemxija, Zaprešić, Šmartno ob Paki, Šmartno pri Litiji, Šoštanj, Štore, Žalec, Železniki, Žetale, Žiri * Expansion needed (updated by bot)


in the region of Serres, led by Yane Sandanski and an insurgent detachment of the Supreme Committee, held down a large Turkish force. These actions began on the day of the Feast of the Cross (Krastovden in Bulgarian, September 27) and did not involve the local population as much as in other regions, and were well to the east of Monastir and to the west of Thrace. * '''Kičevo''', Macedonia *

National Disaster Response Force

components of proactive approach on Disaster Management (Emergency management). In case of any disaster, the local population is the actual first responder. It may take some time for the district state administration to mobilise rescue teams, including police, fire personnel etc. If the local people is properly sensitised about the precautions and preventive actions to be taken in case of any calamity (Disaster), the loss of life and damage to property can be drastically reduced. Thus, one of the most important tasks of NDRF is to continuously engage themselves in the Community Capacity Building (Capacity building) and Public Awareness programmes in a big way which includes training of people (the first responders) and concerned government officials at different levels in the areas with high vulnerability. Along with Community Capacity Building (Capacity building) and Public Awareness exercises NDRF is also actively engaged in area familiarisation exercises. Such exercises provide first-hand knowledge about the topography, access route to various disaster prone areas, availability of local infrastructure logistics which can be used in disaster response operations. '''Year wise Figure of Community Volunteers trained by NDRF''' class "wikitable" - ! Year ! No. of Volunteers - 2007–08 48,374 - 2008–09 196,477 - 2009–10 410,830 - '''Total''' '''655,681''' A pilot project on Community Capacity Building and Public Awareness campaigns on floods, earthquakes and other natural disasters was organised by NDRF teams during June–July 2007 in 14 high vulnerable districts (Araria, Saharsa, Kishanganj, Madhepura, Supaul, Khagaria, Begusarai, Darbhanga, Madhubani (Madhubani district), Munger, Patna, Muzaffarpur, Sitamarhi and Samastipur) of Bihar. In this project, 2,200 volunteers and State Disaster Management Authority (SDMA) officials were trained by the NDRF. This capacity building programme was continued next year also. '''State wise Figure of Community Volunteers trained by NDRF''' class "wikitable" - ! S.No !! State !! No of Beneficiaries - 1 Gujarat 147,018 - 2 North-Eastern States (Northeast India) 93,349 - 3 Maharashtra 82,735 - 4 Rajasthan 79,524 - 5 Bihar 74,095 - 6 Karnataka 31,809 - 7 Haryana 31,349 - 8 West Bengal 21,086 - 9 Kerala 18,363 - 10 Tamil Nadu 16,110 - 11 Uttar Pradesh 14,490 - 12 Uttarakhand 9,946 - 13 Madhya Pradesh 9,550 - 14 Himachal Pradesh 7,440 - 15 Punjab (Punjab (India)) 7,060 - 16 Andhra Pradesh 6,345 - 17 Other States 5,412 - '''Total''' '''655,681''' In 2008, NDRF embarked in a big way upon the community capacity building and public awareness programmes in Bihar which included training of vulnerable people and officials in various districts. NDRF carried out 3-day Flood Preparedness training programme for a month in 15 vulnerable districts (Bhagalpur, East Champaran, Vaishali (Vaishali district), Munger, Muzaffarpur, Saharsa, Madhepura, Khagaria, Begusarai, Darbhanga, Madhubani, Patna, Sitamarhi, Samastipur and Sheohar) of Bihar before monsoon season at district Block levels. More than 15,000 village volunteers, local people, students, State Police, and also Central and State Govt. personnel participated in the programme. NDRF also conducts regular mock exercises on various disasters like cyclone, flood, earthquake, NBC emergencies, mass causality management etc. Participation in such exercises on the one hand improve the professionalism of NDRF personnel to tackle the real emergency situations and on the other provides an opportunity to interact with various State Government officials and to develop cordial relations with them that can be of great help during response to actual disasters. Till 31 March 2010 NDRF has trained more than 6.5 lacs community volunteers throughout the country. Workshops Exhibitions left thumb 280px NDRF Exhibition at IIT Mumbai (Image:IIT Mumbai exhibition.JPG) left thumb 280px NDRF Exhibition on Disaster Awareness at Arunachal Pradesh (Image:Itanagar Workshop 1 April 17-18 2008.JPG) left thumb 280px Exhibition on Disaster Awareness at Tripura (Image:Agartala Workshop 1 Dec 12-13 2008.JPG) right thumb 280px Disaster Awareness Exhibition at Orissa (Image:Orissa Exhibition Dec 13-14 2008.JPG) right thumb 280px Workshop on Disaster Risk Reduction in Mizoram (Image:Aizwal workshop June 11-12 2009.JPG) NDRF Bn Pune put up an exhibition of International standard at TechFest 2010 (The annual International Science and Technology Festival of IIT Mumbai) and organised demonstrations on Heli-Rescue, Collapsed Structure Search & Rescue, High-Rise Building Rescue and Dog Show between 22–24 Jan 2010 aimed at generate awareness among the visitors. TechFest 2010 was inaugurated by Gen. N. C. Vij. Hon’ble vice-chairman, NDMA. This three-day event witnessed more than 70,000 visitors, 15,000 participants, nearly 2,000 colleges and approximately 5,000 members of Industry and academia. The exhibition and demonstrations of NDRF were highly appreciated by the visitors. Some of the important exhibitions organised by NDRF are as below: '''2007''' * UNOCHA, Annual USAR Team Leaders Meeting – 13–15 March 2007 * 2nd Asian Ministerial Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction – Nov 2007 '''2008''' * Workshop on ‘Disaster Risk Management’ at Itanagar, Aurnachal Pradesh – 17–18 April 2008 * Workshop on ‘Disaster Preparedness’ at Shillong, Meghalaya – 10–11 June 2008 * Workshop on ‘Disaster Risk Reduction’ at Agartala, Tripura – 12–13 Dec 2008 * Exhibition on Disaster Management, Army Training Command at Bhubaneswar, Orissa – 13–14 Dec 2008 '''2009''' * A workshop cum exhibition on Disaster Management, University of Pune, Maharashtra – 12–13 Jan 2009 * Workshop on ‘Disaster Risk Reduction’ at Aizawl, Mizoram – 11–12 June 2009 '''2010''' * TechFest 2010 (The annual International Science and Technology Festival of IIT Mumbai) – 22–24 Jan 2010 * Technika 2010, the annual technical festival of Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra −26 March 2010 * Exhibition on Disaster Awareness, Bihar Divas at Gandhi Maidan, Patna – 22–24 March 2010 * Participation in TATPAR 2010 (Mega-Exhibition on disaster management organized by Disaster Management Department of Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai) at Shivaji Park, Mumbai – 26–27 Feb 2010 References Category:Disaster preparedness in India Category:Natural disasters in India Category:Ministry of Home Affairs (India) Category:Government agencies of India Category:Government agencies established in 2006 Category:Organisations based in Delhi

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