Places Known For

literary tradition


Socialist Republic of Macedonia

title МИА - Македонска Информативна Агенцијa - НА ДЕНЕШЕН ДЕН publisher Mia.com.mk date accessdate 2010-08-15 and has since developed a thriving literary tradition (Macedonian literature). Most of the codification (Codification (linguistics)) was formalized during the same period. Studies in contact linguistics, G. Gilbert, Glenn G. Gilbert, Janet M. Fuller, Linda L. Thornburg, Peter Lang, 2006, ISBN 0820479349, 9780820479347,p. 213. Friedman, V. (1998) "The implementation of standard Macedonian: problems and results" in ''International Journal of the Sociology of Language'', Vol. 131, pp. 31-57 thumb left 250px The Socialist Republic of Macedonia (File:SFRY Macedonia.png) highlighted in red within the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Greece was concerned by the initiatives of the Yugoslav government, as they were seen as a pretext for future territorial claims against the Greek province of "Northern Greece" which formed the bulk of historical Macedonia and was also officially called 'Macedonia'. The Yugoslav authorities also promoted the development of the Macedonians (Macedonians (ethnic group))' ethnic identity and Macedonian language. The Macedonian language was codified in 1944 (Keith 2003), from the Slavic dialect spoken around Veles (Veles (city)). This further angered both Greece and Bulgaria, because of the possible territorial claims of the new states to the Greek and Bulgarian parts of the region of Macedonia received after the Balkan Wars. The territory of Skopje has been inhabited since at least 4000 BC; remains of Neolithic settlements have been found within the old Kale Fortress (Skopje Fortress) that overlooks the modern city centre. On the eve of the 1st century AD, the settlement was seized by the Romans and became a military camp. The provincial at Rome: and, Rome and the Balkans 80BC-AD14, Liverpool University Press, Classical Studies and Ancient History, Authors Ronald Syme, Anthony Richard Birley, Publisher University of Exeter Press, 1999, ISBN 0859896323, 130. Pannonia and Upper Moesia, Volume 4 of History of the provinces of the Roman Empire, Author András Mócsy, Publisher Routledge, 1974, ISBN 0710077149, p. 116. When the Roman Empire was divided into eastern and western halves in 395 AD, Scupi came under Byzantine (Byzantine Empire) rule from Constantinople. During much of the early medieval (Early Middle Ages) period, the town was contested between the Byzantines and the Bulgarian Empire (First Bulgarian Empire), whose capital it was between 972 and 992. From 1282 the town was part of the Serbian realm (Serbian Empire) and its capital city since 1346. In 1392 the city was conquered by the Ottoman (Ottoman Empire) Turks (Turkish people) who called the town ''Üsküp''. The town stayed under Ottoman control over 500 years, serving as the capital of pashasanjak of Üsküb and later the Vilayet of Kosovo. At that time the city was famous for its oriental architecture. In 1912 the city was conquered by the Kingdom of Serbia during the Balkan Wars and after the First World War the city became part of the newly formed Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (Kingdom of Yugoslavia) (Kingdom of Yugoslavia). In the Second World War the city was conquered by the Bulgarian Army (Bulgarian Army#World War II), which was part of Axis powers. In 1944 it became the capital city of Democratic Macedonia (Socialist Republic of Macedonia) (later Socialist Republic of Macedonia), which was a federal state, part of Democratic Federal Yugoslavia (later Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia). The city developed rapidly after World War II, but this trend was interrupted in 1963 when it was hit by a disastrous earthquake (1963 Skopje earthquake). In 1991 it became the capital city of independent Macedonia (Republic of Macedonia). The territory of Skopje has been inhabited since at least 4000 BC; remains of Neolithic settlements have been found within the old Kale Fortress (Skopje Fortress) that overlooks the modern city centre. On the eve of the 1st century AD, the settlement was seized by the Romans and became a military camp. The provincial at Rome: and, Rome and the Balkans 80BC-AD14, Liverpool University Press, Classical Studies and Ancient History, Authors Ronald Syme, Anthony Richard Birley, Publisher University of Exeter Press, 1999, ISBN 0859896323, 130. Pannonia and Upper Moesia, Volume 4 of History of the provinces of the Roman Empire, Author András Mócsy, Publisher Routledge, 1974, ISBN 0710077149, p. 116. When the Roman Empire was divided into eastern and western halves in 395 AD, Scupi came under Byzantine (Byzantine Empire) rule from Constantinople. During much of the early medieval (Early Middle Ages) period, the town was contested between the Byzantines and the Bulgarian Empire (First Bulgarian Empire), whose capital it was between 972 and 992. From 1282 the town was part of the Serbian realm (Serbian Empire) and its capital city since 1346. In 1392 the city was conquered by the Ottoman (Ottoman Empire) Turks (Turkish people) who called the town ''Üsküp''. The town stayed under Ottoman control over 500 years, serving as the capital of pashasanjak of Üsküb and later the Vilayet of Kosovo. At that time the city was famous for its oriental architecture. In 1912 the city was conquered by the Kingdom of Serbia during the Balkan Wars and after the First World War the city became part of the newly formed Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (Kingdom of Yugoslavia) (Kingdom of Yugoslavia). In the Second World War the city was conquered by the Bulgarian Army (Bulgarian Army#World War II), which was part of Axis powers. In 1944 it became the capital city of Democratic Macedonia (Socialist Republic of Macedonia) (later Socialist Republic of Macedonia), which was a federal state, part of Democratic Federal Yugoslavia (later Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia). The city developed rapidly after World War II, but this trend was interrupted in 1963 when it was hit by a disastrous earthquake (1963 Skopje earthquake). In 1991 it became the capital city of independent Macedonia (Republic of Macedonia). thumb 200px right Members of the US Army were sent to the site to provide medical care to the victims. (File:US army in Skopje 1963.jpg) Until 1991 Skopje was the capital of the Socialist Republic of Macedonia. In 1990, the Socialist Republic of Macedonia elected its first non-Communist government and the following year declared its independence as the "Republic of Macedonia", sparking a dispute (Macedonia naming dispute) over the name ''Macedonia (Macedonia (terminology))'' with neighbouring Greece.


Nanyang, Henan

Hán Yù ) (768–824), born in Nanyang (Nanyang, Henan), Henan, China, was a precursor of Neo-Confucianism as well as an essayist and poet (List of Chinese authors), during the Tang dynasty. The ''Indiana Companion'' calls him "comparable in stature to Dante, Shakespeare or Goethe" for his influence on the Chinese literary tradition (p. 397). He stood for strong central authority in politics and orthodoxy in cultural matters. He


Poitou

Lutton , Northamptonshire. However in 1229 their manor of Chingford Earls was temporarily in the hands of a creditor, Robert de Winchester. In 1242 they leased the advowson of Chingford to William of York, Provost of Beverley. Trovatori The earliest vernacular literary tradition in Italy was in Occitan, a language spoken in parts of northwest Italy. A tradition of vernacular lyric poetry arose in Poitou in the early twelfth century and spread south and east


Neo-Assyrian Empire

marginalized by Koine Greek, even though Neo-Assyrian cuneiform remained in use in literary tradition well into Parthian (Parthian Empire) times. The latest known text in cuneiform Babylonian is an astronomical text dated to 75 AD. Adkins 2003, p. 47. The youngest texts written in Akkadian date from the 3rd century AD. A number of Akkadian words and many personal names survive to this day in the modern Assyrian (or Neo Aramaic) language spoken by ethnic Assyrians (aka Chaldo-Assyrians)in Iraq, Iran, Syria and Turkey. In 1046 BC, the Zhou force, led by King Wu of Zhou, overthrows the last king of the Shang Dynasty. The Zhou Dynasty is established in China shortly thereafter. In 1000 BC, the Mannaeans Kingdom begins in Western Asia. Around the 10th to 7th centuries BC, the Neo-Assyrian Empire forms in Mesopotamia. In 800 BC, the rise of Greek (Ancient Greece) city-states begins. In 776 BC, the first recorded Olympic Games are held. Assyria was originally (in the Middle Bronze Age) a region on the Upper Tigris river, named for its original capital, the ancient city of Assur. Later, as a nation and empire that came to control all of the Fertile Crescent, Egypt and much of Anatolia, the term "Assyria proper" referred to roughly the northern half of Mesopotamia (the southern half being Babylonia), with Nineveh as its capital. The Assyrian kings controlled a large kingdom at three different times in history. These are called the ''Old'' (20th to 15th c. BC), ''Middle'' (15th to 10th c. BC), and ''Neo-Assyrian (Neo-Assyrian Empire)'' (911–612 BC) kingdoms, or periods, of which the last is the most well known and best documented. Assyrians invented excavation to undermine (sapping) city walls (fortification), battering rams to knock down gates, as well as the concept of a corps of engineers, who bridged rivers with pontoons or provided soldiers with inflatable skins for swimming. '''Quwê''' – also spelled '''Que''', '''Kue''', '''Qeve''', '''Coa''', '''Kuê''' and '''Keveh''' – was a "Neo-Hittite" Assyria (Neo-Assyrian Empire)n vassal state or province at various times from the 9th century BCE to shortly after the death of Ashurbanipal around 627 BCE in the lowlands of eastern Cilicia, and the name of its capital city, tentatively identified with Adana, in modern Turkey. According to many translations of the Bible, it was the place from which King Solomon obtained horses. (I Kings 10: 28, 29; II Chron. 1:16).


Wuhan

to Guangzhou, and from Wuhan via Nanjing to Shanghai. Nowadays, the medium-to-high-speed regional network (155M) connecting 21 cities is just under construction. Some 40 to 50 universities and colleges have accessed to CERNET backbone at speed of 10M to 100M. *Hubei **Wuhan (Wuhan Tianhe International Airport) *Hunan Yellow Crane Tower (1927) Yellow Crane Tower, a building at the bank of Yangtze River in Wuhan, is very famous in Chinese history and literary

tradition. It is one of the Four Great Towers in China. Its fame mainly comes from a poem written by Cui Hao (Cui Hao (poet)) in early Tang Dynasty, part of which is : The CAS has eleven regional branches at Shenyang, Changchun, Shanghai, Nanjing, Wuhan, Guangzhou, Chengdu, Kunming, Ningbo, Xi’an, Lanzhou, Hefei and Xinjiang. The CAS has over 100 institutes, one university (the University of Science and Technology of China at Hefei, Anhui) and one graduate school (the Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences). Backed by institutes of CAS, GUCAS is headquartered in Beijing, with graduate education bases in Shanghai, Chengdu, Wuhan, Guangzhou and Lanzhou, four Science Libraries of Chinese Academy of Sciences, three technology support centers and two news and publishing units. These CAS branches and offices are located in 20 provinces and municipalities throughout China. CAS has invested in or created over 430 science- and technology-based enterprises in eleven industries including eight companies listed on stock exchanges. Xiangyang city is divided by the Han River, which runs through its heart and divides the city north-south. The city itself is an incorporation of two once separate, ancient cities: Fancheng and Xiangzhou (Xiangzhou District, Xiangyang). What remains of old Xianyang is located south of the Han River (Han River (Hanshui)) and contains one of the oldest still-intact city walls in China while Fancheng was located to the north of the Han River. Both cities served prominent historical roles in both the Ancient and Pre-Modern Periods of Chinese history. Today, the city is the second largest in Hubei, located about halfway between Wuhan and Xi'an. Xiangyang has an urban population of around 466,000 while its outlying county contains approximately 5,787,700 people. The strategic decision and the flood Following the onset of the Second Chinese-Japanese War in 1937, the Imperial Japanese Army marched rapidly into the heart of Chinese territory. By June 1938, the Japanese had control of all of North China. On June 6, they captured Kaifeng, the capital of Henan, and threatened to take over Zhengzhou. Zhengzhou was the junction of the arterial Pinghan (Beijing–Guangzhou Railway) and Longhai Railways, and Japanese success would have directly endangered the major cities of Wuhan and Xi'an. In fall 560, Chen forces under Hou Tian began to engage Northern Zhou and Western Liang forces in the modern Hunan region, which Western Liang had taken from Xiao Zhuang when he fled to Northern Qi. The armies stalemated, and in spring 561, unable to prevail over the Northern Zhou general Heruo Dun (賀若敦), Hou Tian offered to allow Heruo to withdraw with his army if he would yield the territory. Heruo agreed, and the territory became Chen possession. Seeking peace, Northern Zhou offered to return Chen Xu to Chen, and Emperor Wen, pleased, offered to trade the city of Lushan (魯山, in modern Wuhan, Hubei) for Chen Xu's release. Chen Xu returned to Chen in 562 and became a key official in Emperor Wen's administration. Initially, Northern Zhou continued to detain Chen Xu's wife Liu Jingyan (Empress Liu Jingyan) and son Chen Shubao, but after further negotiations, Northern Zhou released them as well. Background Zhang Liping was born in Wuhan, Hubei (about 650 miles south-west of Beijing) and is the daughter of a classical musician and a dancer. She studied to be a dancer for five years, before entering the Wuhan Conservatoire to study voice. She continued her studies at the Beijing Conservatory (Central Conservatory of Music) where, as a young student, she was selected to sing with Plácido Domingo in Tian'anmen Square. WikiPedia:Wuhan Dmoz:Regional Asia China Hubei Wuhan commons:武汉


Sri Lanka

; It was followed by a series of popular dramas like ''Sinhabāhu'', ''Pabāvatī'', ''Mahāsāra'', ''Muudu Puththu'' and ''Subha saha Yasa''. Sri Lankan literature spans at least two millennia, and is heir to the Aryan (Aryan race) literary tradition as embodied in the hymns of the Rigveda. ref name

இலக்கியம் ) refers to the literature in the Tamil language. Tamil literature has a rich and long literary tradition spanning more than two thousand years. The oldest extant works show signs of maturity indicating an even longer period of evolution. Contributors to the Tamil literature are mainly from Tamil people from South India, including the land now comprising Tamil Nadu, kerala, Sri Lankan Tamils (Sri Lankan Tamil people) from Sri Lanka, and from Tamil diaspora. Also

language Tamil ''' is a Dravidian language related to Kannada (Kannada language), Telugu (Telugu language) and Malayalam (Malayalam language), among others. As one of the few living classical languages, it has an unbroken literary tradition of over two millennia, with the earliest writings having been dated to circa 500 B.C. Tamil, like other Dravidian languages, is agglutinative (agglutinative language) and the writing is largely phonetic. It is spoken by a majority of people


Guadalajara

serves as the guest of honor, presenting books that represent its particular literary tradition. Winter *


Jersey

in the Channel Islands. The literary tradition in Jersey is traced back to Wace, the 12th century Jersey-born poet, although there is little surviving literature in Jèrriais dating to before the introduction of the first printing press in Jersey in the 1780s. The first printed Jèrriais appears in the first newspapers at the end of the 18th century, and the earliest identified dated example of printed poetry is a fragment by Matchi L’Gé (Matthew Le Geyt 1777-1849) dated 1795


Guernsey

a literary following outside their native regions, for example William Barnes in Dorset, George Métivier (1790–1881) in Guernsey and Robert Pipon Marett in Jersey. George Métivier published ''Rimes Guernesiaises'', a collection of poems in Guernésiais and French in 1831 and ''Fantaisies Guernesiaises'' in 1866. Métivier's poems had first appeared in newspapers from 1813 onward, but he spent time in Scotland in his youth where he became familiar with the Scots literary

tradition although he was also influenced by Occitan literature. The first printed anthology of Jèrriais poetry, ''Rimes Jersiaises'', was published in 1865. Philippe Le Sueur Mourant's tales of Bram Bilo, an innocent abroad in Paris, were an immediate success in Jersey in 1889 and went through a number of reprintings. Denys Corbet published collections of poems ''Les Feuilles de la Forêt'' (1871) and ''Les Chànts du draïn rimeux'' (1884), and also brought out an annual poetry anthology


Normandy

by the example of the Norman writers of Jersey and Guernsey, began their own production of literary works. However, differing (if mutually comprehensible) writing systems have been adopted in Jersey, Guernsey and mainland Normandy. The question is sometimes raised as to whether Jèrriais should move to a writing system based on English orthography, however this would have implications for the continuity of the literary tradition over two centuries or more (note though, that the digraph "

and Guernsey, began their own production of literary works. However, differing (if mutually comprehensible) writing systems have been adopted in Jersey, Guernsey and mainland Normandy. The question is sometimes raised as to whether Jèrriais should move to a writing system based on English orthography, however this would have implications for the continuity of the literary tradition over two centuries or more (note though, that the digraph "th" for the typical dental fricative of Jèrriais


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