Places Known For

leading family


Ston

; The Draživojevići of Nevesinje as vassals of Bosnian Ban, become the leading family of Hum in 1330s. Fine (The Late Medieval Balkans – 1994), pp. 267. Because of the war in 1327-1328 between Serbia and Dubrovnik, Bosnian lordship of inner Hum and the war in Macedonia, Stephen Uroš IV Dušan (Stephen Uroš IV Dušan of Serbia) sold Ston and Pelješac to Dubrovnik, and turned fighting to east in Macedonia. ref name "Fine 267"


Francia

and the promise to the papacy of continued Frankish protection. In 788, Tassilo, ''dux'' (duke) of Bavaria rebelled against Charles. Crushing the rebellion incorporated Bavaria into Charles's kingdom. This not only added to the royal ''fisc'', but also drastically reduced the power and influence of the Agilolfings (Tassilo's family), another leading family among the Franks and potential rivals. Until 796, Charles continued to expand the kingdom even farther southeast, into today's Austria and parts of Croatia. Charles thus created a realm that reached from the Pyrenees in the southwest (actually, including an area in Northern Spain (''Marca Hispanica'') after 795) over almost all of today's France (except Brittany, which the Franks never conquered) eastwards to most of today's Germany, including northern Italy and today's Austria. In the hierarchy of the church, bishops and abbots looked to the patronage of the king's palace, where the sources of patronage and security lay. Charles had fully emerged as the leader of Western Christendom, and his patronage of monastic centres of learning gave rise to the "Carolingian Renaissance" of literate culture. Charles also created a large palace at Aachen, a series of roads, and a canal. On Christmas Day, 800, Pope Leo III crowned Charles as "Emperor of the Romans (Emperor)" in Rome in a ceremony presented as a surprise (Charlemagne did not wish to be indebted to the bishop of Rome), a further papal move in the series of symbolic gestures that had been defining the mutual roles of papal ''auctoritas'' and imperial ''potestas.'' Though Charlemagne, in deference to Byzantine (Byzantine Empire) outrage, preferred the title "Emperor, king of the Franks and Lombards", the ceremony formally acknowledged the Frankish Empire as the successor of the (Western) Roman one (although only the forged "Donation" gave the pope political authority to do this), thus triggering a series of disputes with the Byzantines around the Roman name (Names of the Greeks). After an initial protest at the usurpation, in 812, the Byzantine Emperor Michael I Rhangabes acknowledged Charlemagne as co-Emperor. The coronation gave permanent legitimacy to Carolingian primacy among the Franks. The Ottonians later resurrected this connection in 962. Upon Charlemagne's death on 28 January 814 in Aachen, he was buried in his own Palace Chapel at Aachen (Aachen Cathedral). Divided empire, after 840 thumb 300px The Carolingian Empire at its greatest extent, with borders displaying the three territorial divisions of 843, from left to right: ) is the reversed base of an ancient Ionic order Ionic (File:Partage de l'Empire carolingien au Traité de Verdun en 843.JPG) column that played an important role in the ceremony surrounding the installation (Carantania#The Ducal Inauguration) of the princes of Carantania in the Early Middle Ages. After the incorporation into the Frankish Empire (Francia) the procedure held in Slovene language was continued as the first part of the coronation of the Dukes of Carinthia (Duchy of Carinthia), followed by a mass (mass (liturgy)) at Maria Saal cathedral and the installation at the Duke's chair, where he swore an oath in German (German language) and received the homage of the estates. History Several sources attest the existence of a distinctive Gallican rite in the Frankish (Franks) lands between the 5th and 9th centuries. The Celtic Rite and Mozarabic rite, which are liturgically related to the Gallican, are sometimes collectively referred to as "Gallican" as opposed to the different structure of the Roman rite (Roman Rite). Lack of a central authority led to the development of local traditions of the Gallican rite in Francia, sharing a basic structure but varying in details. These traditions endured until the Carolingian dynasty. During a papal visit in 752-3, Pope Stephen II had Mass (Eucharist) celebrated using Roman chant. According to Charlemagne, his father Pepin (Pippin the Younger) and Chrodegang of Metz abolished the Gallican rites in favor of the Roman use, in order to strengthen ties with Rome that would culminate in Charlemagne's elevation to Holy Roman Emperor. Charlemagne completed the job his father had begun, so that by the 9th century the Gallican rite and chant had effectively been eliminated. However, the Roman chant brought to the Carolingian churches was incomplete, and ended up incorporating musical and liturgical elements from the local Gallican traditions. The resulting Carolingian chant, which developed into Gregorian chant, was a Romanized chant, but one in which traces of the lost Gallican repertory may still be found.


Kotor

against Serbia and Branivojević family. The Hum nobles approached to Stjepan Kotromanić II (Stephen II, Ban of Bosnia), the ban of Bosnia, who then annexed most of Hum. The Draživojevići of Nevesinje as vassals of Bosnian Ban, become the leading family of Hum in 1330s. Fine (The Late Medieval Balkans – 1994), pp. 267. Because of the war in 1327-1328 between


Gujranwala

, the Chauhan King of Delhi, and brother (from a different mother) of the ancestor of the Cheema. In the 10th from Chattha, as otherwise stated, some 500 years ago, Dahru came from Sambhal in Moradabad, where the bards of the Karnal Chauhans still live, to the banks of the Chenab and married among the Jat tribes of Gujranwala. They were converted to Islam about 1600 AD. They rose to considerable political importance under the Sikhs; and the history of their leading family is told by Sir


Colombo

;facing death" 1920's Colombo, Sri Lanka -bgcolor #CCCCCC birth_date birth_place Colombo, Sri Lanka office Member of the European Parliament for South East England (South East England (European Parliament constituency)) Family background and education Deva was born in Colombo, Sri Lanka, to a leading family of Rajasthani (Rajasthan) (Indian (demographics of India)) descent, and is a Roman Catholic


Bavaria

large and constant donations from the Etichonids, a leading family in Alsatia (Elsaß), and the Conradines, predecessors of the Salian Holy Roman Emperors (Holy Roman Empire). Under Sturm, the donations Fulda received from these and other important families helped in the establishment of daughter houses Johannesberg and Petersberg near Fulda. Image:Wittelsbach Arms.svg thumb right Wittelsbach Coat of Arms: With the Palatinate the Wittelsbach acquired also the lion as heraldic


Vienna

, Austria. thumb 230px Waiter in an Indian Coffee House (Image:India-coffee-house-bangalore.jpg) in Bangalore, India. Gall was born in Baden, in the village of Tiefenbronn to a wealthy Roman Catholic wool merchant. The Galls had been the leading family in the area for over a century. As the second eldest son, he was intended for the priesthood but chose instead to study medicine at the University of Strasbourg. He later completed his degree in Vienna, Austria. Farmer then moved to Europe, ultimately settling in Vienna, where he performed with The Kenny Clarke-Francy Boland Big Band. Farmer also recorded extensively as a leader throughout his later career. With Golson he revived 'The Jazztet' in the 1980s for a number of engagements, with the original trombonist Curtis Fuller returning to the group. Career Having succeeded to the peerage in 1702, Sunderland was one of the commissioners for the union between England and Scotland, and in 1705, he was sent to Vienna as envoy extraordinary. Although he was tinged with republican ideas and had made himself obnoxious to Queen Anne (Anne of Great Britain) by opposing the grant to her husband, Prince George (Prince George of Denmark), through the influence of Marlborough he was foisted into the ministry as Secretary of State for the Southern Department, taking office in December 1706. From 1708 to 1710, he was one of the five Whigs (Whig (British political faction)) collectively called the ''Junto (Whig Junto)'', who dominated the government, but he had many enemies, the queen still disliked him, and in June 1710, he was dismissed. Anne offered him a pension of £3000 a year, but this he refused, saying "if he could not have the honour to serve his country he would not plunder it." In 2001, Adria Airways recorded a large decrease in the number of annual passengers as a result of the September 11, 2001 attacks. In winter 2001-2002 Adria started flying in the EU (European Union) market on the Vienna-Frankfurt-Vienna route. In July 2002, Bombardier Aerospace selected Adria as the first authorised heavy maintenance facility for CRJ aircraft in Europe. In the 17th century it was the capital of Upper Hungary (in 1563-1686 as the seat of the "Captaincy of Upper Hungary", and in 1567-1848 as the seat of the Chamber of Szepes county (Szepes County) (Spiš, Zips), which was a subsidiary of the supreme financial agency in Vienna responsible for Upper Hungary). Due to Ottoman (Ottoman Empire) occupation, the city was the residence of Eger's archbishop from 1596 to 1700. Wikipedia:Vienna Commons:Category:Vienna


Iraq

"Morris, 1999. p.221" Morris, 1999. p.221 al-Shaalan was born in Diwaniyya, southern Iraq, into a leading family of the Ghazal tribe. Iraq Ministers, ''Middle East Reference'', accessed on 2007-10-14 He is a Shia Arab. He graduated from Baghdad University with a degree in Economics and was an inspector general of the Iraqi Real Estate Bank from 1983 until he left Iraq in 1985. He managed a real estate firm in London until the invasion of Iraq in 2002, after which he returned to Iraq. What has happened to Iraq's missing $1bn?, The Independent, 2005-09-19 An Iranian news agency reported documents showing that al-Shaalan had been a member of Saddam Hussein's secret police, the Mokhaberat. Documents reveal Iraqi defense minister was member of dreaded Mokhaberat, mehr news agency, 2005-01-15 A member of Ahmad Chalabi's Iraqi National Congress, he was appointed Governor of Al-Qādisiyyah Governorate in 2003 and then as Iraq's Defence Minister from June 2004 until May 2005 under the Iraqi Interim Government of Ayad Allawi. He appointed Ziyad Cattan, as the Defence Ministry's procurement chief, who has since fallen under suspicion of involvement in the greatest theft in history- embezzling $1bn intended for weapons purchase. al-Shaalan had received an exemption from the cabinet for having his ministry's expenditures overseen by the cabinet's audit committee. al-Shaalan claimed that the Coalition Provisional Authority's interim administrator of Iraq, Paul Bremer (L. Paul Bremer), had signed off the appointment of Cattan, but Bremer claims he had never heard of Cattan. ** Four US Soldiers die from two roadside bombs (Improvised explosive device) in Baghdad, bringing the total death toll of US troops to over 1,700. (Associated Press) ** Kurdish parliament in Northern Iraq elects Masoud Barzani as a president of the region (Reuters) * June 14–22 people have died following a suicide bombing in Kirkuk, northern Iraq. June 16 - Five U.S. Marine s die from a roadside bomb in Ramadi, Western Iraq. June 20 - A Suicide bomber in Iraq kills 13 policemen (Iraqi police), and injured more than 100 people, in the city of Irbil, northern Iraq. BBC News July * July 3 - Ihab al-Sherif, Egypt's most senior envoy to Iraq is kidnapped (kidnapping) by gunmen while buying a newspaper. He was to be promoted to ambassador, representing the first Arab nation (Arab world) to recognize the new Iraqi government. July 8 - Egypt ian ambassador-designate Ihab al-Sharif is killed in Baghdad. A group related to Abu Musab al-Zarqawi has claimed responsibility. (CNN) (Guardian) * July 17 - A fuel truck bomb kills 98 people south of Baghdad as three more suicide car bombers strike the Iraqi capital. July 21 - Algeria 's two most senior diplomatic staff in Iraq are kidnapped from outside a restaurant in the western Mansour district. July 24 - At least 39 people, mostly civilian s, have been killed when a Suicide Truck Bomb (Suicide Bomb) exploded at a police station in the Iraqi Capital (Capital (political)) of Baghdad. (BBC) July 21 - Algeria 's two most senior diplomatic staff in Iraq are kidnapped from outside a restaurant in the western Mansour district. July 24 - At least 39 people, mostly civilian s, have been killed when a Suicide Truck Bomb (Suicide Bomb) exploded at a police station in the Iraqi Capital (Capital (political)) of Baghdad. (BBC) July 25 - At least seven people have died following a twin Suicide Bomb suicide car bomb attack on police (Iraqi Police) checkpoint (border checkpoint)s in the centre of the Iraqi Capital (Capital (political)) Baghdad. July 24 - At least 39 people, mostly civilian s, have been killed when a Suicide Truck Bomb (Suicide Bomb) exploded at a police station in the Iraqi Capital (Capital (political)) of Baghdad. (BBC) July 25 - At least seven people have died following a twin Suicide Bomb suicide car bomb attack on police (Iraqi Police) checkpoint (border checkpoint)s in the centre of the Iraqi Capital (Capital (political)) Baghdad. July 26 - ** Two Algeria n diplomatic staff who had been kidnapped by insurgents have been killed. At least five people have died following an apparent Suicide Bomb blast outside a hospital in the Iraqi Capital (Capital (political)), Baghdad. The interim Prime Minister of Iraq , Ibrahim Jaafari, has called on US troops to leave Iraq soon. The interim Prime Minister of Iraq , Ibrahim Jaafari, has called on US troops to leave Iraq soon. Seven Iraq i soldiers, guarding a water plant north of Baghdad, have been shot and killed by Insurgent (Iraqi insurgency)s. forces have detained 12 people, including three police officers, in connection with a series of deadly attacks on UK forces in southern Iraq. *October 10 - Insurgency Insurgent attacks throughout Iraq leave seven Iraqis, two security officials from the Arab league and one U.S. soldier (Military of the United States) dead. *October 11 - Insurgent (Insurgency) suicide bomb attacks leave over 30 people dead in Talafar, North West Iraq. *October 24 - The Palestine Hotel, Baghdad which houses the foreign journalists was bombed with three consecutive car bombs. This hotel was rocketed previously on November 21, 2003. *October 25 - Iraq's Independent Electoral Commission announces that the country's draft constitution was approved in the vote held (Iraqi constitution ratification vote, 2005) October 15. *October 26 - Three United States Soldiers (United States Army) die in two separate insurgent (insurgency) attacks in Baghdad and near Baqouba. **Trials of Saddam Hussein: Three gunmen assassinate (assassination) Adel al-Zubeidi, the defense lawyer for Taha Yassin Ramadan, a former Iraqi Vice President under Saddam Hussein. **Italian state-owned channel Rai News 24 airs a controversial documentary (documentary film) in which Iraqi people and ex-United States soldiers report that white phosphorus, a chemical weapon (chemical warfare), and Mk-77 (Mark 77 bomb) napalm bombs were used by the U.S. Army (United States Army) against civilians in Fallujah last year. *November 9 - In the United States, the visit of Iraqi Deputy Premier Ahmed Chalabi to the Department of State and Department of the Treasury arouses controversy. The '''Pizzeria Napoli''' is a pizza restaurant in Baghdad, Iraq. The owner Waleed Mamoud previously lived in Italy and along with his brother, set up the restaurant on Saturday, June 27, 2003 "Pizza Napoli in Baghdad." ''Time Magazine''. November 24, 2003. Retrieved on December 10, 2011. after the fall of Saddam Hussein's government after the 2003 invasion of Iraq. He made a risk business selling pizza to coalition troops, and even received a mobile phone from American forces to receive orders. His business suffered as the insurgency flared in Iraq and in December 2004, a suicide bomber blew up outside of coalition headquarters and severely damaged his restaurant, among other buildings nearby. VF-103, along with VF-74, took the more powerful breed of the Tomcat to sea in August 1990. When Kuwait was invaded by Iraq the same month, ''Saratoga'' was in the Mediterranean and soon joined ''Dwight D. Eisenhower'' (USS Dwight D. Eisenhower (CVN-69)) in the Red Sea. VF-103 and VF-74 worked together to develop the fighter tactics which were used in Operation Desert Storm. When the war started in January 1991, VF-103 conducted fighter escort for the air wing’s strike packages, reconnaissance and bomb damage assessment and combat air patrols. On the fourth day of the war, while on an escort mission, a VF-103 F-14A+ was shot down by what is believed to be an SA-2 'Guideline' (SA-2 Guideline) surface-to-air missile. After ejecting from his aircraft, the RIO (Radar Intercept Officer), Lieutenant Larry Slade, was captured by Iraqi troops and held in Baghdad as a POW (Prisoner of war) until the end of the war. The pilot (Aviator), Lieutenant Devon Jones, was able to evade capture and, after eight hours deep in enemy territory, was rescued by USAF Special Forces (Air Force Special Operations Command). *# Manouchehr Mottaki (2005-2010) * '''Iraq''' - Hoshyar Zebari (2003-present) * '''Israel''' - Silvan Shalom (2003-2006) '''Lishana Deni''' is a modern Jewish Aramaic language, often called ''Neo-Aramaic'' or ''Judeo-Aramaic''. It was originally spoken in the town of Zakho and its surrounding villages in northern Iraq, on the border with Turkey. Most speakers now live in and around Jerusalem. The name ''Lishana Deni'' means 'our language', and is similar to names used by other Jewish Neo-Aramaic dialects (Lishan Didan, Lishanid Noshan). Other popular names for the language are ''Lishan Hozaye'', 'the language of the Jews', and ''Kurdit'', 'Kurdish'. Scholarly sources tend simply to refer to Lishana Deni as ''Zakho Jewish Neo-Aramaic''. Origin and use today Various Neo-Aramaic dialects were spoken across a wide area from the Zakho region, in the west, to Lake Urmia, in the northeast to Sanandaj, in the southeast (the area covers northern Iraq and northwestern Iran). However, there is very little intelligibility between Lishana Deni and the other Jewish dialects. On the other hand, there is quite reasonable intelligibility between it and the Christian Neo-Aramaic dialects spoken in the region. The Christian dialect of Chaldean Neo-Aramaic is closest to Lishana Deni, followed by the less intelligible ''Ashiret'' dialects of Assyrian Neo-Aramaic. Like other Judaeo-Aramaic dialects, ''Lishana Deni'' is sometimes called ''Targumic (Targum (Aramaic dialect))'', due to the long tradition of translating the Hebrew Bible into Aramaic, and the production of targums. Origin and use today Various Neo-Aramaic dialects were spoken across a wide area from Lake Urmia to Lake Van (in Turkey), down to the plain of Mosul (in Iraq) and back across to Sanandaj (in Iran again). Lishán Didán, at the northeastern extreme of this area, is somewhat intelligible with the Jewish Neo-Aramaic languages of Hulaula (Hulaula language) (spoken further south, in Iranian Kurdistan (Kurdistan Province (Iran))) and Lishanid Noshan (formerly spoken around Kirkuk, Iraq). However, the local Christian Neo-Aramaic dialects of Assyrian Neo-Aramaic are unintelligible: Christian and Jewish communities living side by side developed completely different variants of Aramaic that had more in common with their co-religionists living further away than with their neighbours. Like other Judaeo-Aramaic dialects, Lishán Didán is sometimes called ''Targumic (Targum (Aramaic dialect))'', due to the long tradition of translating the Hebrew Bible into Aramaic, and the production of targums. Origin and use today Various Neo-Aramaic dialects were spoken across a wide area from Lake Urmia to Lake Van (in Turkey), down to the plain of Mosul (in Iraq) and back across to Sanandaj (in Iran again). Lishán Didán, at the northeastern extreme of this area, is somewhat intelligible with the Jewish Neo-Aramaic languages of Hulaula (Hulaula language) (spoken further south, in Iranian Kurdistan (Kurdistan Province (Iran))) and Lishanid Noshan (formerly spoken around Kirkuk, Iraq). However, the local Christian Neo-Aramaic dialects of Assyrian Neo-Aramaic are unintelligible: Christian and Jewish communities living side by side developed completely different variants of Aramaic that had more in common with their co-religionists living further away than with their neighbours. Like other Judaeo-Aramaic dialects, Lishán Didán is sometimes called ''Targumic (Targum (Aramaic dialect))'', due to the long tradition of translating the Hebrew Bible into Aramaic, and the production of targums. '''Bad-tibira''', "Wall of the Copper Worker(s)", W.F. Albright and T.O. Lambdin, "The Evidence of Language", in ''The Cambridge Ancient History'' I, part 1 (Cambridge University Press), 1971, ISBN 0521070511: 150. or "Fortress of the Smiths", Hallo, William W. and William Kelly Simpson, ''The Ancient Near East: A History'', Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc., New York, 1971, p. 32 identified as modern '''Tell al-Madineh''', between Ash Shatrah and Tell as-Senkereh (ancient Larsa) in southern Iraq, Vaughn E. Crawford, "The Location of Bad-Tibira", ''Iraq'' '''22''' "Ur in Retrospect. In Memory of Sir C. Leonard Woolley" (Spring - Autumn 1960:197-199); the secure identification is based on the recovery at the pillaged site of fragments of a known inscription of Entemena that had surfaced in the black market without provenance. Earlier excavations at a mound called Medain near the site of Lagash, following a report of a vendor of one of the inscriptions, had proved fruitless: see H. de Genouillac, ''Fouilles de Telloh'', ii:139 (noted by Crawford 1960:197 note 7). was an ancient Sumerian city, which appears among antediluvian cities in the Sumerian King List. Its Akkadian name was '''Dûr-gurgurri'''. Collection of taxes from Dûr-gurgurri features in correpondence of Hammurabi (first half of the 18th century BCE) noted in L. W. King and H. R. Hall, ''Egypt and Western Asia in the Light of Recent Discoveries'' (New York, 2005) p. 306f; it remained a city of metal-workers and the principal settlement of the guild of ''gugurrē'', "metalworkers" (L. W. King, ''The Letters And Inscriptions Of Hammurabi, King Of Babylon About B.C. 2200'' vol. III, p. 21, note 2.). It was also called Commons:Category:Iraq WikiPedia:Iraq Dmoz:Regional Middle East Iraq


Israel

in Israel led by Ahmad Tibi. Family Schaechter-Viswanath is a member of a leading family in Yiddish language and cultural studies (Schaechter-Gottesman). Her father, Mordkhe Schaechter, was an influential linguist of the Yiddish language. Her aunt Beyle Schaechter-Gottesman is a poet and songwriter; sister Rukhl Schaechter is a journalist with the Yiddish Forward; sister Eydl Reznik teaches Yiddish and directed a Yiddish chorus among the ultra-Orthodox community


Italy

for the decoration of church floors, but was also used to decorate church walls, pulpits, and bishop's thrones (Cathedra). The name derives from the Cosmati, the leading family workshop of marble craftsmen in Rome who created such geometrical decorations. The style spread across Europe, where it was used in the most prestigious churches; the high altar of Westminster Abbey, for example, The Guardian, Maev Kennedy, ''Carpet of stone: medieval mosaic pavement revealed'' http: www.bbc.co.uk cultureshow videos 2009 08 s6_e5_cosmati index.shtml is decorated with a cosmatesque marble floor. A journey to Italy in company with Auguste Barbier made a great impression on him, and a second visit (1834) resulted in 1841 in the publication of a complete French translation of Dante's ''Divine Comedy'' in ''terza rima''. In his collection ''Primel el Nola'' (1852) he included poems written under Italian influence, entitled ''Les Ternaires'' (1841), but in the rustic idyll of ''Marie'' (1836) turned to Breton country life; in ''Les Bretons'' (1845) he found his inspiration in the folklore and legends of his native province. In ''La chasse du Prince Arthur'' he created a narrative around the short life of Arthur I, Duke of Brittany, murdered by King John (John of England) of England. His ''Histoires poétiques'' (1855) was crowned by the French Academy. Biography Gary Valenciano was born in Santa Mesa (Santa Mesa, Manila), Manila on August 6, 1964. He is the sixth of Vicente Valenciano and Grimilda Santiago Ortiz's seven children. His parents met in New York (New York City), married, and settled in Manila. His father is from Bicol (Bicol Region), Philippines. bulletin.gif His mother is a Puerto Rican (Puerto Rico) woman of Italian (Italy) descent,


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