Places Known For

largest political

Dominion of Ceylon

Independent-Ceylon-1948-71 title Sri Lanka : Independent Ceylon (1948–71) – Britannica Online Encyclopedia publisher date 4 February 1948 accessdate 2012-08-17 The head of state was the British Monarch, represented by a predominantly ceremonial figure, the Governor General. The head of government was the prime minister (Prime Minister of Sri Lanka), and he and his cabinet consisted of the largest political party in the legislature. Initially, the prominent party was the UNP (United National Party), the United National Party. In the first parliamentary elections, the UNP gained 42 out of the 95 seats available, and also won the elections in 1952. When the first prime minister, D. S. Senanayake (Don Senanayake), died of a stroke, his son Dudley Senanayake, the Minister of Agriculture, was appointed as prime minister. This kind of hereditary succession was one of the problems with the new government. In 1956, the radical socialist SLFP (Sri Lanka Freedom Party) (SLFP) won the elections, and Solomon Bandaranaike took power. Riots caused by clashes between Sinhala and Tamil nationalists culminated in the assassination of the prime minister, Bandaranaike. His widow, Sirimavo (Sirimavo Bandaranaike), succeeded her husband as leader of the SLFP. She held office until 1977, with two exceptions in 1960 and 1965–1970, when the UNP held power. During her rule, she implemented a radical economic program of nationalisation and land reform, a pro-Sinhalese educational and employment policy, and an independent foreign policy as part of the non-aligned movement. President Dwight David Eisenhower (Dwight D. Eisenhower) United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Union of South Africa, Dominion of Ceylon, Ghana -

Hanford, California

Malaysia's largest political party, was founded, originally to oppose the constitutional framework of the Malayan Union. The National Weather Service Forecast Office for the San Joaquin Valley is located in Hanford (Hanford, California) and includes a Doppler weather radar. Weather forecasts and climatological information for the San Joaquin Valley are available from its official website.

Balochistan, Pakistan

List of cities in Balochistan In common with the other provinces of Pakistan, Balochistan has a parliamentary form of government. The ceremonial head of the province is the Governor (Governor of Balochistan (Pakistan)), who is appointed by the President of Pakistan on the advice of the provincial Chief Minister (Chief Minister of Balochistan). The Chief Minister, the province's chief executive, is normally the leader of the largest political party or alliance of parties in the provincial assembly. The unicameral Provincial Assembly of Balochistan comprises 65 seats of which 4% are reserved for non-Muslims and 16% exclusively for women. The judicial branch of government is carried out by the Balochistan High Court, which is based in Quetta and headed by a Chief Justice. For administrative purposes, the province is subdivided into 32 districts: . reservoir is fed by the Kech River and the Nihing River. http: doc 7844273 Mirani-Dam

North Lincolnshire

. North Lincolnshire operates under a Cabinet and Leader (Cabinet-style council) form of governance. The cabinet has eight members from the largest political party elected to the cabinet by the council of 43. Cabinet members make decisions on their portfolio individually. ref>


. This event, organised by the Russian government, and with the backing of President Dmitry Medvedev, has been running since 2009 and represents one of the highest level political-diplomatic forums in the world today. It is the largest political science event organised in Russia, and is held on an annual basis, with a number of foreign officials appearing as participants each year. In the past for example, the French and Italian prime ministers Francois Fillon and Silvio Berlusconi


b.jpg thumb Celebration of the declaration of independence of Kosovo The largest political parties in Kosovo are the centre-right Democratic League of Kosovo (LDK), which has its origins in the 1990s non-violent resistance movement led by Ibrahim Rugova until his death in 2006, "Kosovo Update: Main Political Parties ", European Forum, 18 March 2008 and two parties having their roots in the Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA): the centre-left Democratic Party of Kosovo (PDK) led by former KLA leader Hashim Thaçi and the centre-right Alliance for the Future of Kosovo (AAK) led by former KLA commander Ramush Haradinaj. In 2006 Swiss-Kosovar businessman Behgjet Pacolli, reputed to be the richest living Albanian, founded the New Kosovo Alliance (AKR), which came third in the 2007 elections and fourth in those of 2010. In 2010, the Constitutional Court ruled that the first President of the Republic, Fatmir Sejdiu, was violating the Constitution by remaining leader of the LDK as well as being President. He chose to resign the Presidency rather than resign as leader of the party, but lost his leadership of the LDK anyway to Isa Mustafa, who campaigned for the leadership on a platform of leaving the Government coalition with the PDK. In the early elections which resulted from this political crisis, the PDK emerged as victors over the LDK, and formed a coalition with Behgjet Pacolli, the Serb Samostralna Liberalna Stranka, and other minority community parties. The Assembly narrowly elected Behgjet Pacolli as President, but his election was subsequently declared invalid by the Constitutional Court on the grounds that it was unconstitutional for a Presidential election to have only one candidate. He was succeeded by Atifete Jahjaga. Politics in Serb areas south of the River Ibar are dominated by the Independent Liberal Party (Samostalna Liberalna Stranka), led by Slobodan Petrović; Serbs north of the river almost totally boycotted the Assembly elections of 2010. In February 2007 the Union of Serbian Districts and District Units of Kosovo and Metohija transformed into the Serbian Assembly of Kosovo and Metohija.


1930 Reichswehr 1918 battles World War I World War II In May 1925, Rediess joined the SA (Sturmabteilung) and in December 1925 was approved for membership in the Nazi Party. He led a Düsseldorf SA company in 1927 and was transferred to the SS (Schutzstaffel) with his unit in 1930. Promotion swiftly followed for Rediess, achieving the rank of Lieutenant General (''SS-Obergruppenführer'') in 1935. *This is for us a ground for satisfaction, since we desire that the fight in the religious camps should come to an end. We are happy that in Rome yesterday we succeeded in signing a Concordat (w:Concordat of 1933) on the basis of which all political action in the parties will be forbidden to priests for all time, happy because we know what is wanted by millions who long to see in the priest only the comforter of their souls and not the representative of their political convictions. Thus the political fight for power is finished. ** Speech to the Sturmabteilung (w:Sturmabteilung) (SA) at Dortmund (w:Dortmund), 9 July 1933; from

Ming dynasty

, the largest political division was the circuit (Circuit (country subdivision)) (''lu'' 路). Yuan (1994), 193–4. However, after the Jurchen invasion (Jingkang Incident) in 1127, the Song court established four semi-autonomous regional command systems based on territorial and military units, with a detached service secretariat that would become the provincial administrations of the Yuan, Ming, and Qing dynasties. Hartwell (1982), 397–8. Copied on the Yuan model, the Ming provincial bureaucracy contained three commissions: one civil, one military, and one for surveillance. Below the level of the province (Province (China)) (''sheng'' 省) were prefectures (Prefecture (China)) (''fu'' 府) operating under a prefect (''zhifu'' 知府), followed by subprefectures (Zhou (country subdivision)) (''zhou'' 州) under a subprefect. The lowest unit was the county (Counties of the People's Republic of China#History) (''xian'' 縣), overseen by a magistrate. Besides the provinces, there were also two large areas that belonged to no province, but were metropolitan areas (''jing'' 亰) attached to Nanjing and Beijing. Hucker (1958), 5. Institutions and bureaus Institutional trends thumb The Forbidden City (Image:Gugong.jpg), the official imperial household of the Ming and Qing dynasties from 1420 until 1924, when the Republic of China evicted Puyi from the Inner Court. Departing from the main central administrative system generally known as the Three Departments and Six Ministries system, which was instituted by various dynasties (Government of the Han dynasty) since late Han (Han dynasty) (202 BCE – 220 CE), the Ming administration had only one Department, the Secretariat, that controlled the Six Ministries. Following the execution of the Chancellor (Chancellor (China)) Hu Weiyong in 1380, the Hongwu Emperor abolished the Secretariat, the Censorate, and the Chief Military Commission and personally took charge of the Six Ministries and the regional Five Military Commissions. Hucker (1958), 28. Chang (2007), 15, footnote 42. Thus a whole level of administration was cut out and only partially rebuilt by subsequent rulers. The Grand Secretariat, at the beginning a secretarial institution that assisted the emperor with administrative paperwork, was instituted, but without employing grand counselors, or chancellors (Chancellor (China)). The Hongwu Emperor sent his heir apparent to Shaanxi in 1391 to "tour and soothe" (''xunfu'') the region; in 1421 the Yongle Emperor commissioned 26 officials to travel the empire and uphold similar investigatory and patrimonial duties. By 1430 these ''xunfu'' assignments became institutionalized as "grand coordinators". Hence, the Censorate was reinstalled and first staffed with investigating censors, later with censors-in-chief. By 1453, the grand coordinators were granted the title vice censor-in-chief or assistant censor-in-chief and were allowed direct access to the emperor. Chang (2007), 16. As in prior dynasties, the provincial administrations were monitored by a travelling inspector from the Censorate. Censors had the power to impeach officials on an irregular basis, unlike the senior officials who were to do so only in triennial evaluations of junior officials. Hucker (1958), 16. Although decentralization of state power within the provinces occurred in the early Ming, the trend of central government officials delegated to the provinces as virtual provincial governors began in the 1420s. By the late Ming dynasty, there were central government officials delegated to two or more provinces as supreme commanders and viceroys, a system which reined in the power and influence of the military by the civil establishment. Hucker (1958), 23. Grand Secretariat and Six Ministries thumb upright A portrait of Jiang Shunfu (Image:Portrait of Jiang Shunfu.jpg), an official under the Hongzhi Emperor, now in the Nanjing Museum. The decoration of two cranes (Crane (bird)) on his chest is a "rank badge (Mandarin square)" that indicates he was a civil official of the first rank. Governmental institutions in China conformed to a similar pattern for some two thousand years, but each dynasty installed special offices and bureaus, reflecting its own particular interests. The Ming administration had the Grand Secretaries assisting the emperor, with paperwork handled by them under Yongle (Yongle Emperor)'s reign and finally appointed as top officials of agencies and Grand Preceptor, a top-ranking, non-functional civil service post, under the Hongxi Emperor (ruled in 1424–5). Hucker (1958), 29–30. The Grand Secretariat drew its members from the Hanlin Academy and were considered part of the imperial authority, not the ministerial one (hence being at odds with both the emperor and ministers at times). Hucker (1958), 30. The Secretariat operated as a coordinating agency, whereas the Six Ministries—which were Personnel, Revenue, Rites, War, Justice, and Public Works—were direct administrative organs of the state: Hucker (1958), 31–32. # The Ministry of Personnel was in charge of appointments, merit ratings, promotions, and demotions of officials, as well as granting of honorific titles. Hucker (1958), 32. # The Ministry of Revenue was in charge of gathering census data, collecting taxes, and handling state revenues, while there were two offices of currency that were subordinate to it. Hucker (1958), 33. # The Ministry of Rites was in charge of state ceremonies, rituals, and sacrifices; it also oversaw registers for Buddhist and Daoist priesthoods and even the reception of envoys from tributary states. Hucker (1958), 33–35. # The Ministry of War was in charge of the appointments, promotions, and demotions of military officers, the maintenance of military installations, equipment, and weapons, as well as the courier system. Hucker (1958), 35. # The Ministry of Justice was in charge of judicial and penal processes, but had no supervisory role over the Censorate or the Grand Court of Revision. Hucker (1958), 36. # The Ministry of Works had charge of government construction projects, hiring of artisans and laborers for temporary service, manufacturing government equipment, the maintenance of roads and canals, standardization of weights and measures, and the gathering of resources from the countryside. Bureaus and offices for the imperial household thumb Chinese coinage in the Ming dynasty Ming coinage (File:Ming coinage 14th 17th century.jpg), 14–17th century The imperial household was staffed almost entirely by eunuchs and ladies with their own bureaus. Hucker (1958), 24. Female servants were organized into the Bureau of Palace Attendance, Bureau of Ceremonies, Bureau of Apparel, Bureau of Foodstuffs, Bureau of the Bedchamber, Bureau of Handicrafts, and Office of Staff Surveillance. Starting in the 1420s, eunuchs began taking over these ladies' positions until only the Bureau of Apparel with its four subsidiary offices remained. Hongwu had his eunuchs organized into the Directorate of Palace Attendants, but as eunuch power at court increased, so did their administrative offices, with eventual twelve directorates, four offices, and eight bureaus. The dynasty had a vast imperial household, staffed with thousands of eunuchs, who were headed by the Directorate of Palace Attendants. The eunuchs were divided into different directorates in charge of staff surveillance, ceremonial rites, food, utensils, documents, stables, seals, apparel, and so on. Hucker (1958), 25. The offices were in charge of providing fuel, music, paper, and baths. The bureaus were in charge of weapons, silverwork, laundering, headgear, bronzework, textile manufacture, wineries, and gardens. At times, the most influential eunuch in the Directorate of Ceremonial acted as a ''de facto'' dictator over the state. Hucker (1958), 11, 25. Although the imperial household was staffed mostly by eunuchs and palace ladies, there was a civil service office called the Seal Office, which cooperated with eunuch agencies in maintaining imperial seals, tallies, and stamps. Hucker (1958), 25–26. There were also civil service offices to oversee the affairs of imperial princes. Hucker (1958), 26. Personnel Scholar-officials thumb left upright Candidates who had taken the civil service examinations would crowd around the wall where the results were posted; detail from a handscroll in ink and color on silk, by Qiu Ying (Image:Ming-Beamtenprüfungen1.jpg) (1494–1552). Ebrey (1999), 200. After the reign of Hongwu—who from 1373 to 84 staffed his bureaus with officials gathered through recommendations only—the scholar-officials who populated the many ranks of bureaucracy were recruited through a rigorous examination system (Imperial examinations) that was first established by the Sui dynasty (581–618). Ebrey (2006), 96. Ebrey (1999), 145–6. Theoretically the system of exams allowed anyone to join the ranks of imperial officials (although frowned upon for merchants to join); in reality the time and funding needed to support the study in preparation for the exam generally limited participants to those already coming from the landholding class. However, the government did exact provincial quotas while drafting officials. Ebrey (1999), 199. This was an effort to curb monopolization of power by landholding gentry who came from the most prosperous regions, where education was the most advanced. Ebrey (1999), 198–9. The expansion of the printing industry since Song times (Technology of the Song dynasty#Movable type printing) enhanced the spread of knowledge and number of potential exam candidates throughout the provinces. Ebrey (1999), 201–2. For young schoolchildren there were printed multiplication tables and primers (Primer (textbook)) for elementary vocabulary; for adult examination candidates there were mass-produced, inexpensive volumes of Confucian classics and successful examination answers. Ebrey (1999), 202. As in earlier periods, the focus of the examination was classical Confucian texts, Hucker (1958), 12. while the bulk of test material centered on the Four Books outlined by Zhu Xi in the 12th century. Ebrey (1999), 198. Ming era examinations were perhaps more difficult to pass since the 1487 requirement of completing the "eight-legged essay", a departure from basing essays off progressing literary trends. Hucker (1958), 13. The exams increased in difficulty as the student progressed from the local level, and appropriate titles were accordingly awarded successful applicants. Officials were classified in nine hierarchic grades, each grade divided into two degrees, with ranging salaries (nominally paid in piculs of rice) according to their rank. Hucker (1958), 11–2. While provincial graduates who were appointed to office were immediately assigned to low-ranking posts like the county graduates, those who passed the palace examination were awarded a ''jinshi'' ('presented scholar') degree and assured a high-level position. Hucker (1958), 14. Brook (1998), xxv. In 276 years of Ming rule and ninety palace examinations, the number of doctoral degrees granted by passing the palace examinations was 24,874. Ebrey states that "there were only two to four thousand of these ''jinshi'' at any given time, on the order of one out of 10,000 adult males." This was in comparison to the 100,000 ''shengyuan'' ('government students'), the lowest tier of graduates, by the 16th century. The maximum tenure in office was nine years, but every three years officials were graded on their performance by senior officials. Hucker (1958), 15–6. If they were graded as superior then they were promoted, if graded adequate then they retained their ranks, and if graded inadequate they were demoted one rank. In extreme cases, officials would be dismissed or punished. Only capital officials of grade 4 and above were exempt from the scrutiny of recorded evaluation, although they were expected to confess any of their faults. There were over 4,000 school instructors in county and prefectural schools who were subject to evaluations every nine years. The Chief Instructor on the prefectural level was classified as equal to a second-grade county graduate. Hucker (1958), 17. The Supervisorate of Imperial Instruction oversaw the education of the heir apparent to the throne; this office was headed by a Grand Supervisor of Instruction, who was ranked as first class of grade three. Lesser functionaries thumb The Xuande Emperor (Image:Ming Emperor Xuande playing Golf.jpg) playing chuiwan with his eunuchs, a game similar to golf, by an anonymous court painter of the Xuande period (1425–35). Scholar-officials who entered civil service through examinations acted as executive officials to a much larger body of non-ranked personnel called lesser functionaries. They outnumbered officials by four to one; Charles Hucker estimates that they were perhaps as many as 100,000 throughout the empire. These lesser functionaries performed clerical and technical tasks for government agencies. Yet they should not be confused with lowly lictors, runners, and bearers; lesser functionaries were given periodic merit evaluations like officials and after nine years of service might be accepted into a low civil service rank. Hucker (1958), 18. The one great advantage of the lesser functionaries over officials was that officials were periodically rotated and assigned to different regional posts and had to rely on the good service and cooperation of the local lesser functionaries. Hucker (1958), 18–9. Eunuchs, princes, and generals thumb left 165px Detail of ''The Emperor's Approach'' showing the Wanli Emperor (File:Detail of The Emperor's Approach, Xuande period.jpg)'s royal carriage being pulled by elephants and escorted by cavalry (full panoramic painting here (:File:Departure Herald-Ming Dynasty.jpg)) Eunuchs during the Ming dynasty gained unprecedented power over state affairs. One of the most effective means of control was the secret service stationed in what was called the Eastern Depot at the beginning of the dynasty, later the Western Depot. This secret service was overseen by the Directorate of Ceremonial, hence this state organ's often totalitarian affiliation. Eunuchs had ranks that were equivalent to civil service ranks, only theirs had four grades instead of nine. Hucker (1958), 24–5. Descendants of the first Ming emperor were created princes and given (typically nominal) military commands, annual stipends, and large estates. The title used was "king" ( , 1521–1556) was a Ming dynasty scholar. A native of Shunde (顺德) in Guangdong province, he completed the Jinshi (进士) level of the Imperial Examination in 1550. He was involved in two well known poetry circles "The Latter Five Poets of the Southern Garden" (南园后五子), and "The Seven Masters" (后七子). His most famous work is Lántīng Cúngǎo (兰汀存稿) (also known as Bǐbùjí 比部集). The short section is featured with historical Tung Chung Battery, a military coastal defence in Ming dynasty. It runs along the a river Ma Wan Chung and ends in Chung Yan Road. thumb Once you have acquired the skills (File:Qi jiguang.JPG), you must test them on an opponent, but in no way should you consider victory or submission to be a cause for shame or pride. '''Qi Jiguang (w:Qi Jiguang)''' (simplified Chinese (w:Simplified Chinese): 戚继光; traditional Chinese (w:Traditional Chinese) 戚繼光; 12 November 1528 – 5 January 1588) was a Ming dynasty (w:Ming dynasty) Chinese military general who defended China against wokou (w:wokou) pirates and reinforced the Great Wall (w:Great Wall of China) against Mongol (w:Mongols) incursions. He authored several military manuals which have been widely read in China, Korea, and Japan.


("guided one") and began a war to unify the tribes in western and central Sudan. His followers took the name “Ansar (Ansar (Sudan))s” ("followers") which they continue to use today, in association with the single largest political grouping, the Umma Party (National Umma Party Sudan) (once led by a descendant of the Mahdi, Sadiq al Mahdi). Taking advantage of conditions resulting from Ottoman-Egyptian exploitation and maladministration, the Mahdi led a nationalist revolt culminating in the fall of Khartoum on 26 January 1885. The interim governor-general of the Sudan, the British Major-General Charles George Gordon, and many of the fifty thousand inhabitants of Khartoum were massacred. The population of metropolitan Khartoum (including Khartoum, Omdurman, and Khartoum North) is growing rapidly and ranges from six to seven million, including around two million displaced persons from the southern war zone as well as western and eastern drought-affected areas. History From 1983 to 1997, the Sudan was divided into five regions in the north and three in the south, each headed by a military governor. After the 1985 coup, regional assemblies were suspended. The RCC was abolished in 1996, and the ruling National Islamic Front changed its name to the National Congress Party. The executives, cabinets, and senior-level state officials are appointed by the president and their limited budgets are determined by and dispensed from Khartoum. The states, as a result, remain economically dependent upon the central government. Khartoum state (Khartoum (state)), comprising the capital and outlying districts, is administered by a governor. Legislative branch The country is currently in an interim (transitional) period following the signing of a Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) on 9 January 2005 that officially ended the civil war (Second Sudanese Civil War) between the Sudanese Government (based in Khartoum) and the southern-based Sudan People's Liberation Movement (SPLM) rebel group. The newly formed National Legislature (National Legislature of Sudan), whose members were chosen in mid-2005, has two chambers. The National Assembly (National Assembly of Sudan) (''Majlis Watani'') consists of 450 appointed members who represent the government, former rebels, and other opposition political parties. The Council of States (Council of States of Sudan) (''Majlis Welayat'') has 50 members who are indirectly elected by state legislatures. All members of the National Legislature serve six-year terms. The country’s transport facilities consist of one WikiPedia:Khartoum Commons:Category:Khartoum Dmoz:Regional Africa Sudan Localities Khartoum

East Pakistan

In accordance, the East-Pakistani diaspora also composed patriotic tributes to Pakistan after the war; songs such as ''Sohni Dharti'' (lit. Beautiful land) and ''"Jeevay, Jeevay Pakistan'' (lit. long-live, long-live Pakistan), were composed by Bengali singer Shahnaz Rahmatullah in the 1970s and 1980s. To Western observers (Western world), the loss of East Pakistan was a blessing — but it was a trauma that was not seen as such; even today it is still not seen that way. In a book, "''Scoop! Inside Stories from the Partition to the Present''", written by Pakistan-born Indian politician Kuldip Nayar, it is noted that "Losing East Pakistan and Bhutto's releasing of Mujib did not mean anything to Pakistan's policy - as if there was no liberation war.

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