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largest cultural


officially began in 1964. It takes place over several days and is one of the largest cultural manifestations of its kind in the region. The festival includes folk, pop and rock concerts, traditional dancing, seminars, presentations and exhibitions. During this time the city centre houses many temporary restaurants, stalls and shops open to allow visitors to experience the smells and tastes of local delicacies. It culminates in a carnival procession through the main streets of the town. Lake Tikveš thumb right Lake Tikveš near Kavadarci (File:Tikveš lake.jpg) Lake Tikveš ( Commons:Category:Kavadarci


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Foz do Iguaçu Foz do Iguaçu ''' is a major city in the state of Paraná, Brazil. It is a gateway to both Paraguay and Argentina, and home of the famous Iguaçu Falls. Together with the cities of Ciudad del Este (Paraguay) and Puerto Iguazu (Argentina), it forms part of one the largest cultural tourism poles in South America. thumb Itaipu dam (Image:Itaipu 182.jpg) Understand Foz do Iguaçu is so named because it sits at the mouth of the Iguaçu river, discharging



Bashkortostan is one of the largest cultural centers of Russia commons:category:Bashkortostan wikipedia:Bashkortostan


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. Retrieved on: August 24, 2011. Economy and infrastructure thumb 300px right Moskovskaya street in Saratov (File:Московская улица в Саратове.jpg) Saratov Oblast is highly industrialized, due in part to the richness in natural and industrial resources of the area. The oblast is also one of the more important and largest cultural and scientific centers in Russia. Saratov possesses six institutes of the Russian Academy of Sciences, twenty-one research institutes

Kaluga Oblast

, and is one of the largest cultural, educational and scientific centers of Russia. Geography wikipedia:Kaluga Oblast Commons:Category:Kaluga Oblast


". The largest cultural center of the Russian North is the Vologda State Museum Reserve. Its structure now includes the following museums, *Vologda Kremlin (Bishop's courtyard) *Peter the Great's house museum (Peter's house) – the first museum of Vologda (opened in 1885) *Expocenter "Vologda at a boundary of centuries" *Museum "World of the forgotten things" *K.N.Batyushkov (Konstantin Batyushkov)'s apartment museum *Museum "Literature. Art. 20th century" *Alexander Mozhaysky's house museum *Museum "Vologda exile" *Museum of Architecture and Ethnography (Semyonkovo) Additionally, Vologda is home to a unique Russian private museum of political history—the Museum of Diplomatic Corps which highlights the short stay of diplomatic corps in Vologda in 1918. Theaters *Drama theater *Theater for children and youth *Puppet theater "Teremok" *Chamber theater *Philharmonic society of Valery Gavrilin *Children's musical theater Annual festivals The following annual theater festivals are held in Vologda: *"Voices of History" (the beginning of July, every year) *Valery Gavrilin international music festival (every year, from October till December) *«Summer in the Kremlin» (every even year, from June till July) *The annual open international festival of multimedia art "Multimatograf" The official festival website Exhibitions Among annual exhibitions which take place in Vologda are the following: *"Russian Flax" Official website of Vologda Oblast Government: International Fair and Exhibition "Russian Flax" (Retrieved August 30, 2010). *"Russian Wood" Official website of Vologda Oblast Government: International Fair and Exhibition "Russian Wood" (Retrieved August 30, 2010). *"Gates of the North" Official website of Vologda Oblast Government: Exhibition "Gates to the North" (Retrieved August 30, 2010). *"Your Home" Literature Many notable Russian writers and poets were born or worked in Vologda. The best known of them were Konstantin Batyushkov, Varlam Shalamov, Nikolay Rubtsov, and Vasily Belov and Vladimir Gilarovsky. Contemporary literature of Vologda is represented by a number of authors which include Nata Suchkova, Maria Markova, Galina Schekina, and Anton Chorny. Institutions of higher education *Vologda State Technical University *Vologda State Pedagogical University *N.V. Vereschagin Vologda State Dairy Academy (Vologda State Dairy Academy) *Vologda Institute of Law and Economy of the Federal Penal Service *Vologda Institute of Business *Branches: **Vologda branch of the Moscow State Law Academy **Vologda branch of the Northwestern Academy of Public Service **Vologda branch of the Saint Petersburg State University of Engineering and Economics **Vologda branch of the International Academy of Business and New Technologies Transportation Vologda is a major transportation hub, located at the intersection of highways, railways, and waterways. The public transport network is well developed in the city: There are both bus and trolleybus lines. The city has four big automobile bridges: two automobile bridges across the Vologda River and two bridges across railways. There is one pedestrian bridge (the Red bridge) in the city center. Railway Vologda is the largest sorting and transit spot of the Northern Railway (Northern Railway (Russia)). It includes the stations Vologda-1, Vologda-2, Rybkino, and Losta. The stretch between Vologda-2 and Losta is the most active one in the railroad network of the Russian Federation, with more than 120–150 pairs of trains running through it daily. Suburban trains and long distance trains originate from the railway station of Vologda-1. Air The Vologda Airport is situated 10 km from the city centre along the Arkhangelsk highway (M8 highway (Russia)). Yak-40 (Yakovlev Yak-40) aircraft carry out regular passenger flights to Moscow, Ukhta, Velikiy Ustyug, Kichmengsky Gorodok, and Vytegra. Helicopters Mi-2 (Mil Mi-2) and Mi-8 (Mil Mi-8) are used by the Vologda aviation company. They are used for the emergency aircraft and for the oil pipeline service . Highways The following highways go through Vologda: *'''Federal highway М8 (M8 highway (Russia))''' (Moscow — Yaroslavl — Vologda — Arkhangelsk — Severodvinsk). The entrance to Vologda from the Moscow side (south) is Okruzhnoe shosse and Koneva street, from the Arkhangelsk side (north) – Chernyshevskaya street. *'''Road А-114''' (Vologda — Cherepovets — Novaya Ladoga). The entrance to Vologda is Leningradskoe shosse and Okruzhnoe shosse. *'''Line Р-5''' (Vologda — Kirillov (Kirillov (town)) — Vytegra — Pudozh — Medvezhyegorsk). The entrance to Vologda is Alexander Klubov street. *Roads of local importance lead to **Mozhaiskоye and Norobovo, **Fetinino (through Semyonkovo) **Gryazovets and Rostilovo (old Moscow highway). The new ring road with modern exits connecting roads A-114, Р-5 and М-8 (the Arkhangelsk destination) is under construction around Vologda. The Arkhangelsk direction is still not connected by the ring road. Urban public transport The municipal transportation of Vologda is carried out by bus and trolleybus routes, and also by lines of fixed-route taxis (Marshrutka). Regular bus service started in Vologda in 1929, the trolleybus service was open in 1976. As of November 2009, in Vologda there were five trolleybus routes, nineteen municipal bus routes, and about forty ''marshrutkas'' (routed taxis). The main transport companies are the open society "VologdaElectroTrans" (trolleybuses), PATP-1 and PATP-32 (municipal bus routes). File:Vologda bus 2.jpg Bus LiAZ-5256 File:Pavlovo Bus «Aurora» 70.jpg PAZ-4230 "Aurora" File:Mersedes bus 5.jpg Mercedes-Benz O345 File:Jkarus Z-80.jpg Ikarus 280 File:Vologda MAZ-206.jpg MAZ (Minsk Automobile Plant)-206 File:VMZ «Olimp» bus 3.jpg VMZ (VMZ (Vologodskiy mechanical plant)) "Olimp" File:Шкода на Левичева.JPG Trolleybus Skoda-VMZ-14Tr (VMZ (Vologodskiy mechanical plant)) File:ВМЗ6215.JPG Trolleybus VMZ-6215 (VMZ (Vologodskiy mechanical plant)) File:Graf&Stift GSGE 150M18.jpg Trolleybus Gräf & Stift 150M18 File:ВМЗ-5298.30АХ.JPG Trolleybus VMZ-5298 File:ВМЗ-375.JPG VMZ-375 Industry Currently, there are more than ten thousand enterprises of various patterns of ownership in Vologda. The most notable ones are: *Closed joint-stock company "Vologda Bearing Factory" — produces bearings of various types *Open joint stock company "Vagron" – alcohol production *Open joint stock company "Vologda Machine-Building Plant" — produces various processing equipment for agriculture *Open joint stock company "Vologda Optical and Mechanical Plant" — produces optical devices *State-owned enterprise "Vologda Railway-Carriage Repair Works", branch of the Open Society of the Russian Railway – produces various trains, makes repair and reconstruction of old carriages *Open joint stock company "Byvalovsky machinery plant" — the leading enterprise of the Northwest of Russia (Northwestern Federal District) that produces cranes *Open joint stock company "ElectroTechMash" — produces electric household and technological products *Limited liability company "Central operating company" — building, designing, management of dwellings, management of the commercial real estate *Open joint stock company "Trans-alpha" (former "Vologda mechanical factory") — produces trolleybuses and buses *Opened joint-stock company "Vologda building designs and road machines factory" — produces mobile buildings for household, public, and industrial use *Closed joint-stock company "SoyuzLesMontazh" — produces a wide range of equipment for wood processing and equipment for the paper industry Traditional national crafts are presented by the closed joint-stock company «Snowflake» (lace), limited liability company "Hope" and other enterprises. Wikipedia:Vologda Commons:Vologda


and processing of grain with elevators in Białystok, Grajewo and Suwałki. WikiPedia:Białystok Commons:Białystok

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