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international community

Economic Community of West African States

the victor of the 2010 Ivorian presidential election (Ivorian presidential election, 2010) by the country's Independent Electoral Commission (CEI), the President of the Constitutional Council – an ally of Gbagbo – declared the results to be invalid and that Gbagbo was the winner. Both Gbagbo and Ouattara claimed victory and took the presidential oath of office. The international community, including the United Nations, the African Union, the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), the European Union, the United States, and former colonial power France have affirmed their support for Ouattara and called for Gbagbo to step down.However, negotiations to resolve the dispute failed to achieve any satisfactory outcome. Hundreds of people were killed in escalating violence between pro-Gbagbo and pro-Ouattara partisans and at least a million people have fled, mostly from Abidjan. The city was the scene of fierce fighting in the late 1990s. It was captured by ECOWAS (Economic Community of West African States) troops seeking to restore President Ahmad Tejan Kabbah in 1998, and later it was unsuccessfully attacked by rebels of the Revolutionary United Front. Côte d'Ivoire became independent on 7 August 1960. From 1960 to 1993, the country was led by *St. Tammany Parish Schools reopen in Louisiana just over a month after Hurricane Katrina closed them. * West African leaders (Economic Community of West African States) call for the strengthening of United Nations peacekeeping force to ensure efforts to end the three year civil war in Côte d'Ivoire (Ivorian Civil War) pay off. A total 6,640 peacekeepers are currently serving in the UN force, which is under Senegalese command, monitoring the buffer zone between the north and south with the help of 4,000 French (France) troops. (allAfrica) * South Africa announces a ZAR (Rand (currency)) 140 million (USD $22 million) donation to the United Nations World Food Programme (WFP) and the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) to alleviate food shortages in Southern Africa. (allAfrica)

Alon Shvut

of Neve Daniel, Elazar (Elazar, Gush Etzion) and Efrat. In 2010, Alon Shvut had a population of 700 families. The international community considers Israeli settlements in the West Bank illegal under international law (International law and Israeli settlements), but the Israeli government disputes this.

What they didn't tell you about Dahlia ," ''Times of Israel'' (Nov. 11, 2014). Legal status The international community considers Israeli settlements a violation of the Fourth Geneva Convention's prohibition on the transfer of an occupying power's civilian population into occupied territory and are as such illegal under international humanitarian law.


title The city of Efrat publisher Efrat Municipality Website accessdate August 24, 2011 The international community considers Israeli settlements in the West Bank illegal under international law, but the Israeli government disputes this. ref name bbc20140110>

;Efrata" (and still do, not having been updated in light of the recent change). Status under international law Like all Israeli settlements in the Israeli-occupied territories, Efrat is considered illegal under international law, though Israel disputes this. Most of the international community considers Israeli settlements to violate the Fourth Geneva Convention's prohibition on the transfer of an occupying power's civilian population into occupied

Afghan Transitional Administration

Transitional Administration and the support of the international community which tried to marginalize Dostum for his dubious record, Atta Noor expanded his influence in Northern Afghanistan. He managed to seize Mazar-i-Sharif using little force, only the Khulmi District was taken by force. Atta subsequently attempted to buy the loyalty of local leaders in Faryab, Jowzjan and Balkh provinces. Giustozzi, p.150 In October 2003, Dostum launched an offensive, and managed

publisher The Jamestown Foundation Both Dostum and Atta were, however, coming under increasing pressure from the international community and the central government in Kabul to stop the fighting. Atta and Dostum worked out a power-sharing agreement in which Dostum conceded Mazar and most of Balkh province to Atta, who in turn renounced his intention of contesting Dostum's influence elsewhere in Northern Afghanistan. Giustozzi, p.156 Afghan transitional administration The Afghan Transitional Administration was the name of a temporary administration of Afghanistan put in place by the Bonn Conference of 2001. * Cleanup needed (updated by bot) ** 20 - Abaidullah, Afghan Transitional Administration, Afghanistan, Apak Khoja, Aryob, Asii, Central Asia Shepherd Dog, Gholam Serwar Nasher, Invasion of India by Scythian Tribes, Lake Sayram, Ma Hun-shan, Muhammad Amin Bughra, Paghman Gardens, Pashtunistan, Sayed Azam, Shahi, Syed Abdul Jabbar Shah, UNHCR Afghan repatriation programs, Xinjiang coins, Zeyno Baran * Expansion needed (updated by bot)

San Diego–Tijuana

) Californias , with a GDP of $136.3 billion in 2002. Renowned

;SD-TJ" In 2002 San Diego and Tijuana had a gross regional product of $136.3 Billion; and in 2007 this figure increased to $176 Billion.

% are destined to other American states. The metropolitan economy has become increasingly integrated as the NAFTA process has reduced trade and investment barriers which facilitates


WikiPedia:Somaliland Dmoz:Regional Africa Somalia Somaliland Commons:Somaliland

Golan Heights

The Maccabean revolt saw much action in the regions around the Golan and it is possible that the Jewish communities of the Golan were among those rescued by Judas Maccabeus during his campaign in the Galilee and Gilead (Transjordan (Transjordan (Bible))) mentioned in Chapter 5 of 1 Maccabees. The Golan, however, remained in Seleucid hands until the campaign of Alexander Jannaeus from 83–80 BC. Jannaeus established the city of Gamla in 81 BC as the Hasmonean capital for the region. During the Roman (Ancient Rome) and Byzantine periods the area was administered as part of Phoenicia Prima (Phoenicia) and Syria Palaestina, and finally Golan Gaulanitis was included together with Peraea (Perea (Holy Land)) in Palaestina Secunda, after 218 AD (Anno Domini). Ancient kingdom Bashan was incorporated into the province of Batanea. Edinburgh New Philosophical Journal Following the death of Herod the Great in 4 BC, Augustus Caesar adjudicated that the Golan fell within the Tetrarchy of Herod's son, Herod Philip I. After Philip's death in 34 AD, the Romans (Roman Empire) absorbed the Golan into the province of Syria (Syria (Roman province)), but Caligula restored the territory to Herod's grandson Agrippa (Agrippa I) in 37. Following Agrippa's death in 44, the Romans again annexed the Golan to Syria, promptly to return it again when Claudius traded the Golan to Agrippa II, the son of Agrippa I, in 51 as part of a land swap. Although nominally under Agrippa's control and not part of the province of Judea, the Jewish communities of the Golan joined their coreligionists in the First Jewish-Roman War, only to fall to the Roman armies in its early stages. Gamla was captured in 67; according to Josephus, its inhabitants committed mass suicide, preferring it to crucifixion and slavery (Roman slavery). Agrippa II contributed soldiers to the Roman war effort and attempted to negotiate an end to the revolt. In return for his loyalty, Rome allowed him to retain his kingdom, but finally absorbed the Golan for good after his death in 100. In about 250, the Ghassanids, Arab Christians from Yemen, established a kingdom which encompassed southern Syria and the Transjordan, building their capital at Jabiyah on the Golan. Like the later Herodians, the Ghassanids ruled as clients of Byzantine Rome; unlike the Herodians, the Ghassanids were able to hold on to the Golan until the Sassanid invasion of 614. Following a brief restoration under the Emperor Heraclius, the Golan again fell, this time to the invading Arabs after the Battle of Yarmouk in 636. Middle Ages thumb 250px Nimrod Fortress (File:Nimrod-S-332.jpg) After Yarmouk, Muawiyah I, a member of Muhammad's tribe, the Quraish (Quraysh (tribe)), was appointed governor of Syria, including the Golan. Following the assassination of his cousin, the Caliph Uthman, Muawiya claimed the Caliphate for himself, initiating the Umayyad dynasty. Over the next few centuries, while remaining in Muslim hands, the Golan passed through many dynastic changes, falling first to the Abbasids, then to the Shi'ite Fatimids, then to the Seljuk Turks, then to the Kurdish (Kurdish people) Ayyubids. During the Crusades, the Heights represented a formidable obstacle the Crusader armies were not able to conquer, and the area was a part of the Emirate of Damascus during this time. The Mongols swept through in 1259, but were driven off by the Mamluk sultan Qutuz at the Battle of Ain Jalut in 1260. Ain Jalut ensured Mamluk dominance of the region for the next 250 years. For many centuries nomadic tribes lived together with the sedentary population in the region. At times, the central government attempted to settle the nomads which would result in the establishment of permanent communities. When the power of the governing regime declined, as happened during the early Muslim period (Abbasid Caliphate), nomadic trends increased and many of the rural and agricultural villages were abandoned due to harassment from the Bedouins. They were not resettled until the second half of the 19th century. Ronnie Ellenblum, Ronnie. Frankish Rural Settlement in the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem, Cambridge University Press, 2003. pg. 219-20. ISBN 0-521-52187-4 Ottoman era thumb Natural spring in Golan Heights (File:Iris waterfall3289.JPG) In the 16th century, the Ottoman (Ottoman Empire) Turks conquered Syria. During this time, the Golan formed part of the southern district of their empire. Some Druze communities were established in the Golan during the 17th and 18th centuries. Shoup, John A. Culture and customs of Jordan, Volume 2006, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2007. pg. 31. ISBN 0-313-33671-7. In 1868, the region was described as "almost entirely desolate." According to a travel handbook of the time, only 11 of 127 ancient towns and villages in the Golan were inhabited. Porter, Josias Leslie (Josias Leslie Porter). A handbook for travellers in Syria and Palestine, J. Murray, 1868. pg. 439. Harvard University, 4 Jan 2007 As a result of the Russo-Turkish War (Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878)) of 1877–78, there was a huge influx of refugees from the Caucasus into the empire. The Ottomans encouraged them to settle in southern Syria, particularly the Golan Heights, by granting them land with a 12-year tax exemption. The Caspian Region: The Caucasus, M. Gammer, pg. 64. Gudrun Krämer. A history of Palestine: from the Ottoman conquest to the founding of the state of Israel, Princeton University Press, 2008. pg.137. ISBN 0-691-11897-3 David Dean Commins. Historical dictionary of Syria, pg. 77. Bat Yeʼor. The decline of Eastern Christianity under Islam: from Jihad to Dhimmitude, Fairleigh Dickinson Univ. Press, 1996. pg. 206. Early Jewish settlement In 1884 there were still open stretches of uncultivated land between villages in the lower Golan, but by the mid-1890s most was owned and cultivated. Martha Mundy, Basim Musallam. The transformation of nomadic society in the Arab East, Cambridge University Press, 2000. pg. 40. ISBN 0-521-77057-2, Some land had been purchased in the Golan and Hawran by Zionist associations based in Romania, Bulgaria, the USA and England, in the late 19th century and early 20th century. In 1880, Laurence Oliphant (Laurence Oliphant (author)) published ''Eretz ha-Gilad'' (The Land of Gilead), which described a plan for large-scale Jewish settlement in the Golan. A hundred years of settlement, Keter, 1985. pg. 200. In the winter of 1885, members of the Old Yishuv in Safed formed the Beit Yehuda Society and purchased 15,000 dunams of land from the village of Ramthaniye in the central Golan. Separation of Trans-Jordan from Palestine, Yitzhak Gil-Har, The Jerusalem Cathedra, ed. Lee Levine, Yad Yitzhak Ben Zvi and Wayne State University, Jerusalem, 1981, p.306 Due to financial hardships and the long wait for a ''kushan'' (Ottoman land deed) the village, Golan be-Bashan, was abandoned after a year. Soon afterwards, the society regrouped and purchased 2,000 dunams of land from the village of Bir e-Shagum on the western slopes of the Golan.

for "safe and recognised boundaries free from threats or acts of force". The continued Israeli control of the Golan Heights remains highly contested and is still regarded as belligerent occupation by most countries. However, the international community rejects the validity of the Golan Heights Law as an attempted annexation by force, illegal under the UN Charter and the Geneva Conventions. "United Nations Security Council Resolution 497" Israeli settlements and human rights policy in the occupied territory have also drawn criticism from the UN. of the United Nations 2005, Volume 59" pg.524 "Report of the Special Committee to Investigate Israeli Practices Affecting the Human Rights of the Palestinian People and Other Arabs of the Occupied Territories" September 2002 The Israeli-occupied territory is administered by the Golan Regional Council, based in Katzrin, which has a population of 6,400. There another 19 moshavim and 10 kibbutzim. In 1989, the settler population was 10,000. Report of the Director-General, Volume 2, International Labour Conference, 34. ISBN 92-2-107533-8. In 2010 the Jewish settlers had expanded to 20,000 Regions and territories: The Golan Heights ''BBC'' living in 32 settlements. Oudat, Basel.Shouting in the hills, ''Al-Ahram Weekly'', 12–18 June 2008. Issue No. 901. WikiPedia:Golan Heights Commons:Golan Heights DMOZ:Regional Middle East Israel Metro Areas and Regions Golan Heights

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