Places Known For

independent political


Xochistlahuaca

to Protestantism who reject the traditional councils and independent political movements, especially since the 1980s. In the early 2000s, the political situation was particularly volatile with the municipal president Aceadeth Rocha refusing to recognize certain traditional authorities. In 2001, a group of Amuzgos took over the municipal palace to protest. This action spurred the creation of the Frente Cívico Indígena de Xochistlahuaca and the Frente Comunitario de Xochistlahuca, which have had influence


Tubas

were won by independent political lists. Local elections (round one) - the winners according to local authority, gender and No. of votes obtained Higher Commission for Local Elections, pp. 11–13. 2004-12-23. Education In 2004-05, Tubas had twelve schools; four for males, three for females and five co-educational. There were 4,924 students and 191 teachers. In addition, six kindergartens are located


San Andrés Cholula, Puebla

; San Andrés as an entity was recognized as early as 1548, when records shows eight communities governed by it. Organization of what is now the municipal territory would changed over time, but San Andrés would remain an independent political entity from the 18th century on. The Spanish built nearby Puebla to overshadow Cholula and the city never recovered its former status. An epidemic wiped out much of its indigenous population in the 1540s. ref name "


Banjul

the ban on independent political activity, the Ohaneze Ndi Igbo organization was formed, an elite umbrella organization which speaks on behalf of the Igbo people. WikiPedia:Banjul Commons:Category:Banjul


Sulaymaniyah

نیوز publisher Awene.com date accessdate 2014-08-26 and the two independent political magazines ''Lvin'' and ''Shock'', are published and distributed in Sulaymaniyah city. Sulaymaniyah assumes its own style of music which have borrowed from traditions of the city, Muhamad Salih Dilan is widely considered to be the greatest singer from the city and had the greatest role in developing Kurdish maqam (Arabic maqam). The city is also considered to be the birthplace of modern


Lusaka

World Cup Special Reports: South Africa" , ''The Guardian'', 6 October 2003. Krige's parents still live in Zambia. Amy Holmes (born in 1973 in Lusaka) is a news anchor on Glenn Beck's GBTV. She formerly was an independent political contributor for CNN and has appeared on Fox News. Suburbs Suburbs around Lusaka include Makeni Konga, Handsworth Park, Sunningdale, Kabulonga, Meanwood (Ndeke Village), Woodlands, Jesmondine, Acacia, Northmead, Olympia Park, Roma, Kalundu, Chelston, Avondale, Rhodes Park, Prospect Hill, Longacres, Fairview, Chainama Hills, State Lodge, Makeni, Emmasdale, Leopards Hill, New Kasama, Ibex Hill, Kabwata (a working class area, home to the Kabwata Cultural Centre), Madras, Mass Media, Libala, Marshlands, Manda Hill, Chainda, Chudleigh, Kamwala, Kamwala South, Mwembeshi, Barlastone Park, Foxdale, Madras, NIPA, Mapepe, Lilayi, Presidential Housing Initiative(PHI) (originally named as the Bennie Mwiinga Housing Complex), Nyumba Yanga, Olympia Extension, Thorn Park, Twinpalm, Villa Elizabetha and newly created areas such Chalala which comprises Hill View area, Rock field and Bedrock which is also called woodlands chalala with prominent residents such as Kashiwa Bulaya living there. Other residential areas and slums are Misisi, Chawama, Ziwa Zakho, Shang'ombo, Shadreck, Matero, Mtendendere, Chaisa, Chawama, John Laing, Kalingalinga,George compound, Chipata Compound, Ng'ombe, Lilanda, Chunga, Mandevu, Garden Compound, Bauleni, Helen Kaunda, Kaunda Square (stage one and stage two), and Chilanga (Lusaka), Zambia. WikiPedia:Lusaka Dmoz:Regional Africa Zambia Localities Lusaka Commons:Category:Lusaka


Northern Cyprus

regime of Greece took control of Cyprus with the setting up of new government under its control which meant that Turkey had to face a strong Greece from Evros in the North, the Aegean Sea in the middle and Cyprus in the South. For decades the strategic fear of Turkey was not to be surrounded by Greece from the South. Northern Cyprus Northern Cyprus is not recognized as an independent political entity by any member of the Bologna Process except Turkey. It is therefore not a member of any international intergovernmental organisation, and it is not a party to the European Cultural Convention of the Council of Europe. Therefore, ''Northern Cyprus'' is not eligible to join the Bologna Process under the criteria defined in Berlin. The Turkish national ID card (


Duchy of Warsaw

the Partitions of Poland, Poland ceased to exist as an independent political entity at the end of 1795. However, the Napoleonic Wars and Polish participation in the wars against Russia (Russian Empire) and Austria (Austrian Empire) resulted in the creation of a rump Duchy of Warsaw in 1807. The Congress of Vienna brought the existence of that state to an end in 1815, and essentially solidified the long-term division of Poland between Russia, Prussia and the Habsburg Empire. The Austrian Empire annexed some of its territories in the South, Prussia took control over the semi-autonomous Grand Duchy of Poznań in the West, and Russia assumed hegemony over the semi-autonomous so-called Congress Kingdom (Congress Poland). Following Napoleon Bonaparte (Napoleon I of France)'s victory in the War of the Fourth Coalition and the Greater Poland Uprising of 1806 (Greater Poland Uprising (1806)) the Province of New East Prussia was ceded according to the 1807 Treaties of Tilsit: *The Plozk Department (Płock) became part of the Duchy of Warsaw, a French (First French Empire) client state *The Białystok Department which was ceded to the Russian Empire Following Napoleon Bonaparte (Napoleon I of France)'s victory in the War of the Fourth Coalition and a Polish uprising (Greater Poland Uprising (1806)), the territory of South Prussia became part of the Duchy of Warsaw, a French (First French Empire) client state, according to the 1807 Treaties of Tilsit. After the Congress of Vienna in 1815, it was divided between the Prussian Grand Duchy of Posen and Congress Poland, a part of the Russian Empire. Państwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe, 1989 page 9 Following decisions made at the Congress of Vienna, the Kingdom of Prussia was ceded the former territories of the Duchy of Warsaw and established the autonomous Grand Duchy of Posen. In contrast to the other provinces of Prussia, these territories did not possess universities of their own. ) (20 October 1752 – 7 September 1837) was a Baltic-German Field Marshal who led the Russian army against the Duchy of Warsaw and later governed Paris during the city's brief occupation by the anti-French coalition. When Napoleon invaded Russia (Napoleon's Invasion of Russia), Osten-Sacken returned to military service at the head of a reserve corps, based in Volynia. He was given the task of defending the southern borders of the Empire against the possible invasion by Saxon (Kingdom of Saxony) and Austrian (Austrian Empire) armies. In the battle near Volkovysk he defeated a French (France) unit under General Renier. Following Renier's defeat, Osten-Sacken crossed the border and invaded the Duchy of Warsaw and joining his forces with Count Mikhail Miloradovich (Mikhail Andreyevich Miloradovich), took Warsaw. Later he successfully operated against Prince Józef Poniatowski. His brilliant conquest of Poland won him the Order of Alexander Nevsky. A resolution of the Duchy of Warsaw, dated March 12, 1808, allowed the creation of parochial schooling in Jednorożec, and, in 1809, the first school opened in the village in an old building. A newly built school was funded and established in 1817, and the teacher, John Krajewski, received 300 złoty a year, plus contributions. School attendance was low and often interrupted by the children having to remain at home to help with farm chores. In 1814 the Rostopchine family left Imperial Russia for exile, going first to the Duchy of Warsaw, then to the German Confederation and the Italian peninsula and finally in 1817 to France under the Bourbon Restoration (Bourbon Dynasty, Restored). In France, the father established a salon (salon (gathering)), and his wife and daughter converted to Roman Catholicism (Roman Catholic Church). During the Swedish invasion of Poland (see Deluge (Deluge (history))), Zwoleń was devastated and destroyed to such a degree, that the town never recovered. In late 18th century, during Partitions of Poland, Zwoleń was annexed by the Austrian Empire. Later on, it was part of Duchy of Warsaw, which in 1815 was a protectorate of the Russian Empire. After January Uprising, Russian authorities deprived Zwoleń of its town rights, as a punishment for residents' support of the rebels. The village of Zwoleń stagnated for years, and did not regain its town rights until 1925. In 1793, following the Second Partition of Poland, the town and region was annexed into the Kingdom of Prussia as South Prussia. In July 1807, following the Treaty of Tilsit, the town was transferred to the Duchy of Warsaw and after June 1815, became part of the Russian Congress Poland to 1916. In 1466 the town passed to Poland as part of the province of Royal Prussia. It was annexed by the Kingdom of Prussia during the First Partition of Poland (Partitions of Poland) in 1772. Zempelburg became part of the Duchy of Warsaw from 1807-1815 during the Napoleonic Wars, after which it was restored to Prussia. In 1871 the town became part of the Prussian-led German Empire. Zempelburg was a center for the textile and shoemaking industries. After first Partition of Poland on 15 September 1772 Chełmża was taken over by Kingdom of Prussia.At that time it counted only 600 inhabitants. In 1807 till 1815 it became part of Duchy of Warsaw only to be taken over by Prussia again after 1815 and Congress of Vienna. The city population in 1831 counted 1.200 people and in 1871 3.000. It’s economical situation improved as it became an economic center for local villages benefited with good soil. Consequently, between 1784 and 1789 the castle was yet again rebuilt, this time by Stanisław Zawadzki, who converted it into military barracks. The outbuildings were enlarged substantially. Since that time the building housed the Lithuanian Foot Guard Regiment and the 10th Foot Regiment. During the Kościuszko's Uprising the castle was the main centre of conscription for the 20th Foot Regiment. After the Partitions of Poland, during the Prussian occupation of Warsaw, the building was abandoned. After the proclamation of the Duchy of Warsaw it was again restored to the army and was converted into a military hospital. However, the plans of converting it to the Central Military Hospital of the Polish Army were postponed by the Congress of Vienna which awarded the Congress Poland to Russia. On April 1, 1818 the hospital was officially opened. It had place for up to 1000 wounded soldiers. After the outbreak of the November Uprising the hospital was enlarged to 1250 beds and an additional annex with place for 600 was opened in the nearby Łazienki complex. In 1793 the town found itself in Prussia (Kingdom of Prussia) following the Partitions of Poland. In 1807 it passed to the short lived Duchy of Warsaw, and then in 1815 it became a part of the Congress Poland in the Russian Empire. In the course of the 19th century the town declined and in 1871 it lost its city charter. In 1918 it became a part of reconstituted, independent Poland (Second Polish Republic) and was again granted city rights in 1919. In 1931 it had 4,025 inhabitants. History * Around 1430 it was mentioned for the first time. Since then it shared the history of the whole region. After the Partitions of Poland, in 1795, it became part of Austria. In 1809 it became part of the Duchy of Warsaw, only to become part of the Kingdom of Poland (Congress Poland) in 1815. * Until 1831 it was a private village, a possession of Polish nobles (szlachta). Polish Jacobins formed during the Great Sejm as an offshoot of the "Kołłątaj's Forge" (''Kuźnia Kołłątajska'') of Hugo Kołłątaj (hence their alternate name - Hugenots (''Hugoniści'') and later the Patriotic Party (''Stronnictwo Patriotyczne''). Polish Jacobins played a significant part in the preparation of the Warsaw Uprising (Warsaw Uprising (1794)) and Wilno Uprising (Wilno Uprising (1794)) during the Kościuszko Uprising. Under the name of Association of Citizens Offering Help and Assistance to National Magistrate for Good of the Homeland (''Zgromadzenie Obywateli Ofiarujących Pomoc i Posługę Magistraturom Narodowym w Celu Dobra Ojczyzny'') they formed a political club (based on French Jacobin Club) which became part of the provisional government of Poland (Temporary Provisional Council, ''Radza Zastępcza Tymczasowa''). For their support for lynching of supporters of the Targowica Confederation they have been abolished by Tadeusz Kościuszko, but as the Uprising neared its defeat they were reactivated under the name of Association for Supporting the Revolution and the Cracow Act (''Zgromadzenie dla Utrzymania Rewolucji i Aktu Krakowskiego''). After the third partition of Poland, many Jacobins emigrated and joined the Polish Legions in Italy. Many of those who remained in Poland took part in various conspirational organisations (Association of Polish Republicans, ''Towarzystwo Republikanów Polskich''). Eventually some prominent Jacobins (like Józef Zajączek) became part of the government of the Duchy of Warsaw and later Congress Poland). During the November Uprising they were reactivated as Patriotic Society (''Towarzystwo Patriotyczne''), founded by Joachim Lelewel. Polish Jacobins slowly became absorbed into other groups of the Great Emigration, although traces of their ideas were visible not only in the January Uprising but also in the Józef Piłsudski's Polish Socialist Party (''Polska Partia Socjalistyczna''). * 1775 - American Revolutionary War: The Battle of Lexington and Concord – British (Great Britain) General Thomas Gage attempts to confiscate American (United States) colonists' (13 colonies) firearms. Captain John Parker (John Parker (Captain)) orders his band of minutemen to not fire unless fired upon. Random shots rang out among the British soldiers. The minutemen promptly fired back. This was the "shot heard round the world." The British are driven back to Boston, Massachusetts, thus beginning the American Revolutionary War. * 1809 - The army of Austria attacks and is defeated by the forces of the Duchy of Warsaw in the Battle of Raszyn (Battle of Raszyn (1809)), part of the struggles of the Fifth Coalition. * 1943 - World War II: In Poland, German (Germany) troops enter the Warsaw ghetto to round up the remaining Jews, beginning the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising. In 1793, the Second Partition of Poland (Partitions of Poland) took place, whereby the city was taken over by Prussia. With the resurgence of Polish statehood and establishment of the Duchy of Warsaw in 1806, the area was incorporated therein. In 1815, upon defeat of Napoleon town fell to the Russians and became part of the newly formed Congress Poland.


Tirana

police, Alia met with the students and agreed to take further steps toward democratization. The students informed Alia that they wanted to create an independent political organization of students and youth. Alia's response was that such an organization had to be registered with the Ministry of Justice. Commons:Category:Tirana


Oman

(Category:Oman) Category:Member states of the Arab League Category:Arabic-speaking countries and territories Category:Arabian Peninsula Category:Islamic states Category:Member states of the Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf Category:Middle Eastern countries Category:Member states of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation Category:Western Asian countries Category:States and territories established in 751 Category:Sultanates Category:Western Asia Category:Member states of the United Nations Gulf Arabic * Gulf Arabic, spoken by around 3.6 million people, Speaker numbers for Gulf Arabic predominantly in the United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, and Bahrain. Also spoken in Iran's Bushehr (Bushehr Province) and Hormozgan (Hormozgan Province) provinces. Countries where spoken<


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