Places Known For

independent history


Ivangorod

of Independence , the newly independent Republic of Estonia (History of Estonia#Independence) established control over the whole of Narva, including Ivangorod, in January 1919, a move which was recognized by Soviet Russia (Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic) in the 1920 Treaty of Tartu (Treaty of Tartu (Russian–Estonian)). In January 1945, the Narva River was defined as the border between the Estonian SSR (Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic) and Russian Soviet Federative


Western Yan

Shenyuan, with the temple name Shizu. The Khitan tribe formed part of the Yuwen Xianbei (Yuwen) under Yuwen Mohuai (reigned 260-293). They separated from the Yuwen along with the Kumo Xi in 344 and finally separated from the Kumo Xi in 388 beginning their independent history. The Khitan later established the Dahe Confederation (History of the Khitans) (618-730), the Yaonian Khaganate (List of the Khitan rulers) (730-906), the Liao Dynasty (907-1125) and the Kara-Khitan Khanate


Glywysing

of the word. The kingdoms might grow and shrink based on the transitory fortunes of the leading tribe and royal family, with regional alliances and enmities playing a part in the resulting organisation. This organisation was applicable to southern Wales of the post-Roman (Sub-Roman Britain) era, where the royal inter-relationships of the kingdoms of Glywysing, Gwent (Kingdom of Gwent), and Ergyng are so completely inter-twined that it is not possible to construct an independent history


History of the Khitans

Liwei (219-277) who was the ancestor of the future Northern Wei Dynasty and was thus posthumously honored as Emperor Shenyuan, with the temple name Shizu. The Khitan tribe formed part of the Yuwen Xianbei (Yuwen) under Yuwen Mohuai (reigned 260-293). They separated from the Yuwen along with the Kumo Xi in 344 and finally separated from the Kumo Xi in 388 beginning their independent history. The Khitan later established the Dahe Confederation (History of the Khitans) (618-730


Kingdom of Gwent

might grow and shrink based on the transitory fortunes of the leading tribe and royal family, with regional alliances and enmities playing a part in the resulting organisation. This organisation was applicable to southern Wales of the post-Roman (Sub-Roman Britain) era, where the royal inter-relationships of the kingdoms of Glywysing, Gwent (Kingdom of Gwent), and Ergyng are so completely inter-twined that it is not possible to construct an independent history for any of them. When


Later Yan

, with the temple name Shizu. The Khitan tribe formed part of the Yuwen Xianbei (Yuwen) under Yuwen Mohuai (reigned 260-293). They separated from the Yuwen along with the Kumo Xi in 344 and finally separated from the Kumo Xi in 388 beginning their independent history. The Khitan later established the Dahe Confederation (History of the Khitans) (618-730), the Yaonian Khaganate (List of the Khitan rulers) (730-906), the Liao Dynasty (907-1125) and the Kara-Khitan Khanate (1124–1218


Cao Wei

of the future Northern Wei Dynasty and was thus posthumously honored as Emperor Shenyuan, with the temple name Shizu. The Khitan tribe formed part of the Yuwen Xianbei (Yuwen) under Yuwen Mohuai (reigned 260-293). They separated from the Yuwen along with the Kumo Xi in 344 and finally separated from the Kumo Xi in 388 beginning their independent history. The Khitan later established the Dahe Confederation (History of the Khitans) (618-730), the List of the Khitan rulers Yaonian Khaganate


Salamanca

of an independent history to require separate treatment, so that though it will be necessary to allude to both by way of illustration, this article will be devoted primarily to the rite once used in what is now France. Of the origin of the Gallican Rite there are three principal theories, between two of which the controversy is not yet settled. These may be termed (1) the Ephesine, (2) the Ambrosian, and (3) the Roman theories. birth_place Amiens, France death_place Salamanca, Castile


Kingdom of Gwynedd

and the title "Prince of Wales" was recognised by the King of England. All the native Welsh princes were to be vassals of Llywelyn and it is from this point that the independent history of the kingdom of Gwynedd comes to an end. The principality of Wales was to be a short-lived creation. As is explained in greater detail elsewhere, the relationship between England and Wales broke down following the death of Henry III in 1272. By 1276 Llywelyn had been declared a rebel by the new King Edward I who was determined to be the master of the whole island of Great Britain. Diplomatic pressure followed up by an enormous invasion force broke the unity of Wales and allowed the English army to quickly occupy large areas forcing Llywelyn back into his Gwynedd heartland. With the capture of Môn and the Perfeddwlad, LLywelyn sued for peace and was forced to sign the Treaty of Aberconwy reducing his realm to almost same extent that had existed at the beginning of his reign in 1247; confined to the lands above the Conwy. Dafydd was restored and granted some lands in the Perfeddwlad by Edward, including the cantrefi of Rhôs and Rhufoniog. A confined Llywelyn appears to have put all of his hopes into stabilising the succession through children sired by his new wife Eleanor de Montfort. Tragedy struck when she died during childbirth in 1282, giving birth to a daughter; Gwenllian ferch Llywelyn. This seems to have driven Llywelyn into what some historians have speculated to be a nervous breakdown and incapacitated him. Rebellion over the rule of the English Crown arose and Dafydd was joined by Llywelyn. In November 1282 the Archbishop of Canterbury John Peckham came to North Wales to mediate between Llywelyn ap Gruffudd and Edward Longshanks. Llywelyn ap Gruffudd was offered a bribe: one thousand pounds a year and an estate in England, if he would surrender his control (which extended at least to Gwynedd and Deheubarth) to Edward. Llywelyn wrote rejecting the offer. '''Gruffudd ap Cynan ab Owain Gwynedd''' was the grandson of Owain Gwynedd a famous king of Gwynedd (Kingdom of Gwynedd) and ruler of most of Wales in the 12th century. The longer patronymic form of his name is usually used to distinguish him from the earlier and better-known Gruffudd ap Cynan, king of Gwynedd.


Toledo, Spain

and Salamanca, was so nearly allied to the Gallican Rite that the term Hispano (Hispania)-Gallican is often applied to the two. But the Iberian Mozarabic Rite has, like the allied Celtic Rite, enough of an independent history to require separate treatment, so that though it will be necessary to allude to both by way of illustration, this article will be devoted primarily to the rite once used in what is now France. Of the origin of the Gallican Rite there are three principal theories, between


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