: books.google.com books?id zXuTVmpwyMQC&pg PA153 accessdate 23 January 2012 year 2000 publisher Palgrave Macmillan isbn 978-0-312-23634-2 page 153 In 1885, Sirinor moved the capital of his Lue principality of Chiang Khaeng to Muang Sing, several kilometres to the southeast, bringing with him some 1000 Lue people. Because of its important position geographically, the people of the town have historically been on better terms with the Burmese, Thai and Chinese people than the rest of Laos. However, it has continued to attract Lue (Lue people) pilgrims to its reliquary festival from Xishuangbanna since at least World War II due to its past. In 1904, Muang Sing was incorporated in French Laos after France and Great Britain made an agreement. In 1907, the Governor-General of Indochina in Hanoi issued a decree to establish the post of a "delegue du Commissaire du Gouvernement" at Muang Sing.
of citrus. Ficoa is also home to many small restaurants which serve typical Ambateño dishes, such as llapingachos, and fritada. Miraflores Traditionally considered the most influential neighborhood, Miraflores abuts the downtown on the west side. Miraflores used to be the location of the train depot, connecting it with the city of Quito and giving it a very important position in the city. Without a passenger train through Ambato, Miraflores is now a residential neighborhood, so named because of its beautiful flowers. Atocha Perhaps the oldest of Ambato's neighborhoods, Atocha is famous for being the home to the Quinta Juan León Mera and thus, being an important part of Ambateño and Ecuadorian culture. Together with Ficoa, Atocha makes up the north end of the city. Atocha is also famous for the production of colada morada, a purple, spiced drink that is traditionally consumed with bread. Around Carnival, Ambateños flock to Atocha for the drink. Ingahurco Small quiet neighborhood in Ambato, home to the industrial corporation Plasticaucho Industrial S.A. Ambato's bus terminal is located in Ingahurco which sits right next to Ambato's Technical University (Universidad Tecnica de Ambato). Transportation As an important transportation hub, Ambato is connected with other cities through Ecuador's widely used bus system. Although there used to be train service running through Ambato from Quito to Riobamba, this service has long since closed. Ambato has an airport, the Chachoan Airport in the Izamba neighborhood, but it is not used for commercial flights. The city's main bus terminal is located in the Ingahurco neighborhood, which lies on the north side of downtown. This main terminal, or Terminal Terrestre (as it is known in Spanish), serves some of the country numerous bus operators. There are plans to renovate the aging bus terminal, making it the main terminal in a network of terminals around the city. "Municipio adquiere Terminal Terrestre para remodelación" Ilustre Municipidad de Ambato As it stands, travelers can also catch buses traveling to the south from unlabeled yet popular stops along the Pan-American Highway . Education Universidad Técnica de Ambato The main public university in Ambato, "la Técnica" or "la U" was created on April 18, 1969, in accordance with Ecuadorian law. A technical university, la Técnica offers courses in the many fields of the sciences and humanities. There are three campuses located in Ambato: the main campus is located across from the main bus terminal in the Ingahurco neighborhood, another campus lies to the west in the Huachi neighborhood, and finally a third location is further afield in the Querocacha located in the Cevallos Canton. ''http: www.uta.edu.ec v2.0 ''Universidad Técnica de Ambato. 15 July 2009 Pontificia Universidad Catolica del Ecuador (PUCE) - Sede Ambato "La Catolica" is a branch of Quito's Catholic University. The Ambato campus was created on 13 January 1982, by the bishop of Ambato, Monseñor Vicente Cisneros. The university wasn't completed until 1994 when classes first began. Even though, the languages courses were the very first goal of the new campus. The university offers courses in both undergraduate and graduate levels ''http: www.pucesa.edu.ec ''Pontificia Universidad Catolica del Ecuador - Sede Ambato. 15 July 2009 as well as open courses of English and French. http: www.pucesa.edu.ec escuelas lenguas index.html High schools Ambato contains a wide selection of public and private high schools. In Ambato, all high school students must wear uniforms. Formerly, many of the high schools in Ambato were either all-girls or all-boys schools, but most schools have begun to accept members of the opposite sex. Some of the most well-known high schools in Ambato include: thumb The city's main gathering point, Montalvo Park (File:Montalvo Park Ambato Ecuador.JPG) *Instituto Superior Tecnologico Docente Guayaquil *Centro Educativo Diosesano San Pio X *Colegio Instituto Tecnológico Superior Bolivar *Colegio de La ''Inmaculada'' *Colegio Técnico Rumiñahui *Colegio Menor Indoamerica *Colegio Santo Domingo de Guzmán *Colegio Nacional Experimental Ambato *Colegio Técnico Atahualpa *Colegio Universitario Juan Montalvo *Unidad Educativa Bilingüe Atenas *Centro Educativo Bilingue Internacional CEBI * Instituto Técnico Superior Hispano America * Colegio Técnico Superior Tirso de Molina * Liceo Policial Galo Miño * Colegio Natalia Vaca * Institulo Agropecuario Luis A. Martinez Sports Ambateños enjoy a variety of sports, but none so much as soccer. Ambato plays host to two professional teams, playing in Ecuador's highest leagues: Macará (Club Social y Deportivo Macará) and Técnico (Club Deportivo Técnico Universitario) plays in Serie B (Ecuadorian Serie B). Both teams play in the centrally located Estadio Bellavista. Neither team has been wildly successful in Ecuador or beyond, however both maintain a loyal following of spectators. Matches between Macará and Técnico U. are known as ''El Clásico Ambateño'' (English: The Ambato Derby). In 2007 both teams briefly played in Serie A for the first time in over ten years. There are many other sports popular among Ambateños including basketball, tennis, swimming (Human swimming), and Ecuavolley. Ecuavolley is a variation of volleyball, played specifically in Ecuador. It features three players per team on a small court with a high net. Players normally use a soccer ball in place of a volleyball. Ecuavolley is extremely popular in Ambato and the surrounding regions. Basketball is also gaining popularity in Ambato. There is a very fierce rivalry in basketball between two of Ambato's largest high schools, Colegio Nacional Bolívar and Colegio Técnico Guayaquil. These games are usually hosted in the Coliseo Cerrado de Deportes, the large coliseum across the street from Estadio Bellavista. The Coliseo Cerrado is also the venue for the beauty pageant portion of the Festival of Fruits and Flowers. See also '''Estadio Bellavista''' is a multi-use stadium in Ambato (Ambato, Ecuador), Ecuador. It is currently used mostly for football (football (soccer)) matches and is the home stadium of Macará (Club Social y Deportivo Macará) and Técnico Universitario (Club Deportivo Técnico Universitario). The stadium holds 20,000 spectators and is located on Bolivariana Avenue, a main thoroughfare through the city of Ambato. History The stadium was built in 1945 and inaugurated in July of the same year. Four years later however, the stadium was significantly damaged by the earthquake that hit Ambato on August 5, 1949 (1949 Ambato earthquake). The stadium underwent a renovation and was reopened the next year. In 1993, Estadio Bellavista was one of the locations for Copa America (Copa America 1993) games. Ambato (Ambato, Ecuador) played host to Venezuela (Venezuela national football team), United States (United States men's national soccer team), and Uruguay (Uruguay national football team). Though set inland, Quevedo's geographic location makes it an important logistics link between the Pacific coastal area's main population centers like Guayaquil, Santo Domingo and Manta and cities in the Andes highlands such as Ambato (Ambato, Ecuador) and Quito ''http: www.quevedo.gov.ec Site Fijos ciudad.aspx'', "La Cuidad" Gobierno Municipal de Quevedo 10 August 2010 . Because of its location west of the Andes mountains and right next to the Vinces River (a major waterway and tributary to the Pacific Ocean), the city is vulnerable to flooding ''http: www.columbiagazetteer.org main ViewPlace 0 115386'' Columbia Gazetteer of the World, Quevedo 10 August 2010 . Quevedo has a tropical wet climate, which, coupled with rich volcanic soils, produces excellent conditions for agriculture.
Tấn argued that, from the late neolithic or early metal age, Óc Eo gradually emerged as an economic and cultural centre of the Mekong Delta and, with an important position on the Southeast Asian sea routes, became a meeting place for craftsmen and traders, which provided adequate conditions for urbanization, receiving foreign influences, notably from India, which in turn stimulated internal development. Ha Van Tan, "Óc Eo: Endogenous and Exogenous Elements", ''Viet Nam Social Sciences,'' 1-2 (7-8), 1986, pp. 91-101. Funan was part of the region of Southeast Asis referred to in ancient Indian texts as Suvarnabhumi (Suwannaphum), and may have been the part to which the term was first applied. Pang Khat, «Le Bouddhisme au Cambodge», René de Berval, ''Présence du Bouddhisme,'' Paris, Gallimard, 1987, pp.535-551, pp.537, 538; Amarajiva Lochan, ”India and Thailand: Early Trade Routes and Sea Ports”, S.K. Maity, Upendra Thakur, A.K. Narain (eds,), ''Studies in Orientology: Essays in Memory of Prof. A.L. Basham,'' Agra, Y.K. Publishers, 1988, pp.222-235, pp.222, 229-230; Prapod Assavavirulhakarn, ''The Ascendancy of Theravada Buddhism in Southeast Asia,'' Chieng Mai, Silkworm Books, 2010, p.55. Oc Eo as the Kattigara of Ptolemy left 230px thumb The ancient canal linking Óc Eo to Angkor Borei (Image:Oceo.jpg) Óc Eo may have been the port known to the Romans as Kattigara. "Oc-Eo dans le delta du Mékong serait donc une identification plus probable": Germaine Aujac, ''Claude Ptolémée, Astronome, Astrologue, Géographe: Connaissance et Représentation du Monde habité,'' Paris, Editions du CTHS, 1993, p.125, n.10. See also Adhir Chakravarti, “The Economic Foundations of Three Ancient Civilizations of South-east Asia: Borobudur, Dvararavati and Angkor: Preliminary Report of a Study Tour in some countries of South-east Asia in April–May 1985”, in Haraprasad Ray (ed.), ''Studies on India, China, and South East Asia: Posthumous Papers of Prof. Adhir Chakravarti,'' Kolkata, R.N. Bhattacharya, 2007, p.89; and Adhir Chakravarti, “International Trade and Towns of Ancient Siam”, ''Our Heritage: Bulletin of the Department of Post-graduate Training and Research, Sanskrit College, Calcutta,'' vol. XXIX, part I, January–June 1981, pp1-23, nb p.9. An alternative proposed by J. L. Moens was that the name derived from the Sanskrit, ''Koti-nagara'' “Cape City”, referring to its location near Cape Ca Mau, the southern point of Indochina: J. L. Moens, "De Noord-Sumatraanse Rijken der Parfums en specerijen in Voor-Moslimse Tijd," ''Tijdschrift voor Indische Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde,'' LXXXV, 3, 1955, pp.325-336, p.335; also J. L. Moens, "Kotinagara het antieke handescentrum op Yava's. Eindpunt," ''Tijdschrift voor Indische Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde,'' LXXXV, 3, 1955, pp. 437-48, p.448; and also W.J. van der Meulen, "Ptolemy's Geography of Mainland Southeast Asia and Borneo," ''Indonesia,'' no.19, April 1975, pp.1-32, p.17. Kattigara was the name given by the 2nd century AD Alexandrian geographer Claudius Ptolemy to the land on the easternmost shore of the Mare Indicum (Indian Ocean) at (due to a scribal error) eight and a half degrees South of the Equator. Paul Schnabel, „Die Entstehungsgeschichte des kartographischen Erdbildes des Klaudios Ptolemaios“, ''Sitzungsberichte der Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften: Philosophisch-Historische Klasse,'' Verlag der Akademie der Wissenschaften, Bd.XIV, 1930, S.214-250, nb 239-243. Erich Polaschek, ‘Ptolemy's "Geography" in a New Light’, ''Imago Mundi'', Vol. 14, (1959), pp. 17-37, nb pp.25 & 35. Category:Kingdom of Funan Category:Ancient Vietnam Category:Buildings and structures in An Giang Province Category:Archaeology of Vietnam Category:1st millennium Category:1st-century establishments Category:7th-century disestablishments Category:History of Cambodia Category:Communes of An Giang Province thumb left 300px Cam Mountains (File:Núi ở An Giang.jpg) An Giang first became a province in 1832, having been settled by ethnically Vietnamese migrants moving southwards in search of new land. It is believed that An Giang was once an important centre of the vanished Óc Eo culture, presumably owing to its position on the river. Traditionally, An Giang has been known for its silk industry. A maritime route opened up with the Chinese-controlled Jiaozhi (centred in modern Vietnam) and the Khmer (Khmer people) kingdom of Funan (Kingdom of Funan) by the 2nd century CE, if not earlier. Hill (2009), p. 291. At the formerly coastal site of Óc Eo in the Mekong Delta, Roman coins were among the vestiges of long-distance trade discovered by the French archaeologist Louis Malleret in the 1940s. Milton Osborne, ''The Mekong: Turbulent Past, Uncertain Future'' (2001:25). Óc Eo may have been the port known to the geographer Ptolemy and the Romans as Kattigara or Cattigara, though most modern scholars place it at Jiaozhi, near modern Hanoi. Hill 2004 - see: and Appendix F. Zürcher (2002), pp. 30-31. The trade connection extended, via ports on the coasts of India and Sri Lanka , all the way to Roman-controlled ports in Egypt and the Nabataean territories on the northeastern coast of the Red Sea. The trading area of the Pyu states spanned across the present-day Southeast Asia, South Asia and China. Artifacts from the 2nd century northwest India to Java and the Philippines have been found at Beikthano. Likewise, Pyu artifacts have been found along the coasts of Arakan (Rakhine State), Lower Burma, and as far east as Óc Eo (in present-day southern Vietnam). Aung-Thwin (2005), p. 18 The Pyu also conducted trade and diplomatic relations with China. In 800 and 801–802, Sri Ksetra sent a formal embassy, along with 35 musicians to the Tang court. According to the Chinese, the Pyu used gold and silver coinage. But only silver coins have survived. Htin Aung, p. 13
, CdeG (Croix de guerre) , Scots Greys, was killed in action at Beda Littoria (Bayda, Libya), Libya, during the famous commando raid on the Headquarters of the General Officer Commanding the German Forces in North Africa - at the time General Erwin Rommel. In Chad During the civil conflict in Chad (1966–1993), the ''derde'' came to occupy a more important position. In 1965 the Chadian government assumed direct
, and in 1858 he was given the same position for the port of Minotitlán. These offices gave him control of the consular affairs of the United States for the entire Isthmus of Tehuantepec, a commercially important position. The excesses and abuses of his subordinates provoked the revolt of various groups of Indians. The most notable of these occurred in 1661, when the Indians of Tehuantepec, led by the mayor, Juan Arellano, rose in rebellion. They were pacified by the intervention and mediation of the bishop of Oaxaca, Alonso Cuevas Dávalos.
the Moscow principality - Uglich in 1323, the principality of Belozero in 1328-1338, the principality of Galich in 1340. Ivan's greatest success, however, was convincing the Khan in Sarai (Sarai (city)) that his son, Simeon The Proud (Simeon of Russia), should succeed him as the Grand Prince of Vladimir; from then on, the important position almost always belonged to the ruling house of Moscow. The Head of the Russian Church - Metropolitan Peter, whose authority was extremely
Category:Municipalities of Oaxaca Category:Populated places in Oaxaca In pre-Columbian times, the Mixtec were one of the major civilizations of Mesoamerica. Important ancient centres of the Mixtec include the ancient capital of Tilantongo, as well as the sites of Achiutla (San Juan Achiutla), Cuilapan, Huajuapan (Huamelulpan (archaeological site)), Mitla, Tlaxiaco, Tututepec, Juxtlahuaca, and Yucuñudahui. The Mixtec also made major constructions at the ancient city of Monte Albán (which had originated as a Zapotec (Zapotec civilization) city before the Mixtec gained control of it). The work of Mixtec artisans who produced work in stone (Rock (geology)), wood, and metal were well regarded throughout ancient Mesoamerica. - 175 San Juan Achiutla San Juan Achiutla Tlaxiaco (Tlaxiaco District, Oaxaca) - - 175 San Juan Achiutla San Juan Achiutla Tlaxiaco (Tlaxiaco District, Oaxaca) -
an important position in the economic life of Northern Mesopotamia. Pliny, ‘’Naturalis Historia’’, XII. 40 Assyrian period Meetings The Brethren regularly met on a fixed schedule. The meetings apparently took place on three evenings of each month: once near the beginning, in which speeches were given, another towards the middle, apparently concerning astronomy and astrology, and the third between the end of the month and the 25th of that month; during the third one, they recited hymns with philosophical content "The liturgy of the first night consisted of personal oratory; that of the second of a 'cosmic text', read under the starry heavens facing the polar star; and that of the third night of a philosophical hymn (implying a metaphysical or metacosmic theme) which was a 'prayer of Plato', 'supplication of Idris', or 'the secret psalm of Aristotle'." pg 35 of Nasr 1964 . During their meetings and possibly also during the three feasts they held, on the dates of the sun's entry into the Zodiac signs "Ram, Cancer, and Balance"), besides the usual lectures and discussions, they would engage in some manner of liturgy reminiscent of the Harranians "...the liturgy described by the Ikhwan seems to be more closely related to the religion of the heirs of the prophet Idris, that is, the Harranians who were the principal inheritors in the Middle East of what has been called "Oriental Pythagoreanism" and who were the guardians and propagators of Hermeticism in the Islamic world." pg 34 of Nasr 1964
was a district capital in the Syrmia County of the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia. From 1941 to 1945, Vinkovci was part of the Independent State of Croatia. From 17 April 1944 the city was heavily bombed by the Allies due to its important position in transportation.