and especially tobacco are grown by traditional methods. Fishing is also an important part of the area's economy. Tourism thumb right 200px Hotel outside Viñales (Image:Swimming pool of the Hotel Horizontes Los Jazmines (Viñales).jpg) Tourism centered on the Viñales Valley is developing, the area being protected by constitution since February 1976, and declared a national monument in October 1978. The Viñales Valley has been listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site since November 1999, UNESCO World Heritage - Vinales Valley for the outstanding karst landscape and traditional agriculture as well as vernacular architecture, crafts and music. Attractions in Viñales include the Museo Municipal, Casa de Caridad Botanical Gardens, Museo Paleontológico, Palenque (a Maroon (Maroon (people)) village) and the nearby caves (Cueva del Indio, Cueva de José Miguel, Cueva de Santo Tomás) in Valle de Viñales National Park, "Valle de Viñales: Monumento Natural de Cuba" which were refuges for runaway slaves. There is also a cave that doubles as a nightclub. Casas particulares (private residences that have been tailored and licensed to operate as bed and breakfasts) offer accommodations to visitors year-round. There are also three hotels located a few kilometers outside of town, rated three stars: La Ermita, Los Jazmines, and Rancho Horizontes San Vicente. The campismo Dos Hermanas comprises 54 cabins (available to tourists), a swimming pool and restaurante.. Demographics In 2004, the municipality of Viñales had a population of 27,129 with a 0.69% year increase. Wikipedia:Viñales
expropriation. People's War (Ukrainian pravda, photos) (Ukrainian) * Free Territory (Nestor Makhno) * Otaman Grigoriev Synthesis anarchism Volin was a prolific writer and anarchist intellectual who played an important part in the organization and leadership of Nabat. The Nabat Confederation of Anarchist Organizations (Nabat), better known simply as Nabat (Набат), was an anarchist organization that came to prominence in Ukraine during the years 1918 to 1920. The area where it held the most influence is sometimes referred to as the Free Territory, though Nabat had branches in all of the major cities in southern Ukraine. To date, the best known examples of an anarchist communist society (ie, established around the ideas as they exist today and achieving worldwide attention and knowledge in the historical canon), are the anarchist territories during the Spanish Revolution "This process of education and class organization, more than any single factor in Spain, produced the collectives. And to the degree that the CNT-FAI (for the two organizations became fatally coupled after July 1936) exercised the major influence in an area, the collectives proved to be generally more durable, communist and resistant to Stalinist counterrevolution than other republican-held areas of Spain." Murray Bookchin . ''To Remember Spain: The Anarchist and Syndicalist Revolution of 1936'' and the Free Territory during the Russian Revolution (Russian Revolution (1917)). Through the efforts and influence of the Spanish Anarchists during the Spanish Revolution within the Spanish Civil War, starting in 1936 anarchist communism existed in most of Aragon, parts of the Levante and Andalusia, as well as in the stronghold of Anarchist Catalonia before being crushed by the combined forces of the regime that won the war (Francoism), Hitler (Adolf Hitler), Mussolini, Spanish Communist Party repression (backed by the USSR) as well as economic and armaments blockades from the capitalist countries and the Spanish Republic itself. Murray Bookchin . ''To Remember Spain: The Anarchist and Syndicalist Revolution of 1936'' During the Russian Revolution, anarchists such as Nestor Makhno worked to create and defend—through the Revolutionary Insurrectionary Army of Ukraine—anarchist communism in the Free Territory of the Ukraine from 1919 before being conquered by the Bolsheviks in 1921. After a failed attempt to dislodge Black Army forces, Denikin shifted his campaign from the north to the south. The White Army's best cavalry troops, commanded by General Konstantin Mamontov and General Shkuro, were transferred from the northern front to the Gulyai-Polye region of Russia. Denikin's new strategy succeeded in driving out Makhno's forces from part of Ukraine, but at the cost of denuding forces opposing the Red Army. During October and November 1919, Denikin's troops were defeated in a series of battles by Red Army forces. His Caucasus regiments suffered the greatest losses, especially the Chechen cavalry and others, who died by the thousands. Toward the end of November, some of these troops mutinied, returning to their homes in the Caucasus. This in turn began a slow disintegration of Denikin's White Army. Some historians note that if the anarchist forces had not won a decisive victory at Peregonovka, blockading Denikin's lines of supply and denying the White Army supplies of food, ammunition, and artillery reinforcements, the White Army would probably have entered Moscow in December 1919. All through February, 1920 the Free Territory - Makhnovist region - was inundated with Red troops, including the 42nd Rifle Division and the Latvian (Latvian Riflemen) & Estonian Red Division (Estonian Red Riflemen) – in total at least 20,000 soldiers. V. N. Litvinov, An Unsolved Mystery - The "Diary of Makhno's Wife". After the souring and dissolution of Nestor Makhno's Revolutionary Insurrectionary Army of Ukraine with Bolsheviks the captured Red commanders and commissars were similarly summarily executed. However, Makhno usually preferred to release the disarmed enlisted men that were captured, as "proletarian brothers", with a choice of joining his army or returning home, after all commanding officers were executed. This happened to an Estonian Red Army unit that surrendered to Makhno in 1920. Nestor Makhno Biography. Viktor Belash noted that even in the worst time for the revolutionary army, namely at the beginning of 1920, "In the majority of cases rank-and-file Red Army soldiers were set free". Of course Belash, as a colleague of Makhno's, was likely to idealize the punishment policies of the Batko. However, the facts bear witness that Makhno really did release "in all four directions" captured Red Army soldiers. This is what happened at the beginning of February 1920, when the insurgents disarmed the 10,000-strong Estonian Division in Huliajpole (Huliaipole). A. Buysky, "The Red Army on the Internal Front", Gosizdat (1927), p. 52. To this it must be added that the Revolutionary Insurrectionary Army of Ukraine included a choir of Estonian musicians. How Is Makhno’s Troop Organised? The problem was further compounded by the alienation of the Estonians by Anton Denikin's inflexible Russian chauvinism and their refusal to fight with Nikolai Yudenich. Why did the Bolsheviks win the Russian Civil War? Peter Anderson (historian) Peter Anderson compares the tactics and resources of the two sides.
location Trelleborg, Sweden area_served Worldwide '''Trelleborg AB''' is a global engineering group focused on polymer technology, with headquarters in Trelleborg, approximately 21,000 employees (2010), and a revenue of 27 billion SEK (Swedish krona) (2009). Its stock has been listed at the Stockholm Stock Exchange since 1964, currently (2010) on the OMX NordicList, large cap. It is active in 40 countries and describes its mission as the development of "high-performance solutions that seal (Seal (mechanical)), damp (Damping) and protect in demanding industrial environments."
. Therefore between the wars agriculture developed as the most important part of the economy. By 1925 the population had risen to 14,634, but it fell by around 2000 the next year through the detachment of the villages and Posio Suolijärvi Kuusamo . At the start of the Winter War Kuusamo was evacuated in December 1939 for fear of a Soviet invasion. In the Moscow Peace Treaty, the Winter War ended on 14 March 1940, Finland lost large parts of Karelia, the eastern areas of Salla and Kuusamo to the Soviet Union. The ceded part of Kuusamo had an area of 1653 square kilometers and included the villages Paanajärvi, Tavajärvi, Vatajärvi, Enojärvi, Pukari and Kenttikylä. Its 2100 residents were relocated to other parts of Kuusamo. During the Continuation War of 1941-1944 Kuusamo was used as a supply depot by German and Finnish troops. When it appeared that Germany might lose the war, Finland secretly negotiated a separate peace with the Soviet Union. After news of the armistice, the civilian population once again abandoned the town for fear of Russian occupation. The Russians did briefly occupy Kuusamo and burned the village to the ground upon their departure. This part is untrue, the town of Kuusamo was actually burned down by retreating German troops after the Continuation War when Finland signed peace treaty with the Soviet Union. One of the requirements on the treaty was the removal of any and all German troops currently on Finnish soil, which escalated into a minor separate war commonly known as the Lapland war between the Finns and the Germans In the years between 1945–1952 Kuusamo was rebuilt. By the late 1960s, the population grew to almost 21,000. As agriculture in the village could not offer enough jobs for the baby boomer generation, the population began to decline rapidly. In 1954, the first ski run on the Rukatunturi was created. Through the expansion of the Ruka ski center, Kuusamo became a tourist center. In 2000, the municipality of Kuusamo was made a town. Geography right thumb 300px (File:View from Iivaara (170375758).jpg) Kuusamo lies in the east of Finland in Oulu Province on the border with Russia. The town of Kuusamo is only a small part of the municipality. The neighboring municipalities of Kuusamo are Suomussalmi in the south, Taivalkoski and Posio in the west, Salla in the north and Russia in the east. The nearest large towns are Rovaniemi, WikiPedia:Kuusamo Commons:Category:Kuusamo
. Notger (Notker of Liège) (972–1008), by securing the feudal authority of Huy, became himself a sovereign prince. This status his successors retained until the French Revolution: and throughout that period of nearly eight centuries the Prince-Bishopric of Liège succeeded in maintaining its autonomy, though theoretically it was part of the Holy Roman Empire. This virtual independence was owed largely to the ability of its bishops, who on several occasions played an important part
) and the former Prince-Bishopric of Liège into a single constitutional monarchy called the United Kingdom of the Netherlands, with the House of Orange-Nassau elevated to royal status and providing the king. A stronger country on France's northern border was considered (especially by the Russian tsar (Alexander I of Russia)) to be an important part of the strategy to keep France's power in check. Shortly after 1200 the city received dual authority (condominium (international law)), with both the bishops of Liège (Prince-Bishopric of Liège) and the dukes of Brabant (Duchy of Brabant) holding joint sovereignty over the city. Maastricht received city rights (City rights in the Netherlands) in 1204. Soon afterwards the first ring of Medieval walls were built. Throughout the Middle Ages, the city remained an important centre for trade and manufacturing (wool, leather), although gradually economic decline set in. After a brief period of economic prosperity in the 15th century, the city's economy suffered during the wars of religion of the 16th and 17th centuries, and recovery did not happen until the industrial revolution in the early 19th century. Biography Urban IV was the son of a cobbler of Troyes, France. He studied theology and common law in Paris and was appointed a canon of Laon and later Archdeacon of Liège (Prince-Bishopric of Liège). At the First Council of Lyon (1245) he attracted the attention of Pope Innocent IV, who sent him on two missions in Germany. One of the missions was to negotiate the Treaty of Christburg between the pagan Prussians (Old Prussians) and the Teutonic Knights. He became Bishop of Verdun (Bishopric of Verdun) in 1253. In 1255, Pope Alexander IV made him Patriarch of Jerusalem (Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem). * The Viking ring castle of Trelleborg (Trelleborg (Slagelse)) is constructed in Denmark. * Foundation by Notger (Notker of Liège) of the Prince-Bishopric of Liège which will remain an independent state inside the Holy Roman Empire for more than 800 years, and where the Walloon language will develop. * Vladimir I of Kiev starts to rule in Russia. The '''United Kingdom of the Netherlands''' (1815–1839) ( ) (died before 923) was the count of the Bidgau (''pagus Bedensis'') and held the rights of a count within the city of Trier. He received also the advocacy of the Abbey of Saint Rumbold (Rumbold of Mechelen) The abbey founded by St. Rumbold in the 6th, 7th or 8th century and a 9th century St. Rumbold's abbey church subordinate to the bishops of Liège (Prince-Bishopric of Liège) are assumed to have been located in the ''Holm'', higher grounds a little outside the later city walls of Mechelen. A 9th century St. Rumbold's Chapel in the city centre stood till 1580, was rebuilt in 1597 en demolished in 1798. After Prince-Bishop Notger (Notker of Liège)'s founding of the St. Rumbold's Chapter (Chapter (religion)) around 1000, an adjacent collegiate church was built and its parish title was handed to the chapter in 1134. Most likely on its spot, already from around the next turn of the century onwards the wellknown Saint Rumbold's Church (St. Rumbold's Cathedral) was built, consecrated (Consecration) in 1312, and functions as metropolitan cathedral (Archbishopric of Mechelen-Brussels) since 1559. This edifice never belonged to the abbey. Source: Sint-Romboutskerk (ID: 74569), VIOE (Retrieved 29 July 2011) at Mechelen from Charles III of France. From 915 or 916 he was the count palatine of Lotharingia (Count Palatine of the Rhine). He was the founder of the House of Ardennes. The title is reminiscent of the Prince-Bishopric of Liège, a noble title of the Holy Roman Empire which ceased to exist in 1795.
government. Cuisine Seafood is the most important part of Khuzestani cuisine, but many other dishes are also featured. The most popular Khuzestani dish is Ghalyeh Mahi, a popular fish dish that is prepared with heavy spices, onions and cilantro. The fish used in the dish is locally known as ''mahi soboor'' (shad fish), a species of fish found in the Persian Gulf. Other provincial specialties include ''Ghalyeh Meygu'' ("shrimp casserole"), ''ashe-mohshala
and the forestry make the highest profits. The commercial horticulture, with over 27,000 hectares of land, is the most profitable sector of the agriculture. In 2012, the sales revenue of the commercial horticulture is 4 billion RMB . http: www.zgmuye.com news show.php?itemid 12406 The forestry is the main supplier of the timber processing industry in Shuyang. Education Education is an exponentially important part of the economy, with the number of private educations institution especially those secondary schools increase rapidly in recent years. However, critics believes the education institutions have overed the demand of the market. Primary and secondary education There are two systems of school education at the level of primary and secondary education. The public system operated by the local government and the private system of independent schools. All of institutions provide education under the local department of education. There are 29 primary schools located in Shuyang. Most of them are operated by the local government. Shuyang Experienced Primary School, with 2294 students, was founded in 1904. It is one of the oldest primary schools in China after the Education Reformation in 1904. The number of high schools is 43, where 30 of them are the junior high school while 13 are the senior. Shuyang High School, with 7000 students, was founded in 1922. Due to the long list of distinguished former students, the high school is considered to the best school even in Jiangsu Province. Tertiary Education There are three community colleges in Shuyang which provide vocational education and training. The Suqian College of Business prepares students for specific trades and crafts at various levels from a professional position in engineering, accounting, nursing, e-commerce and other subjects. Culture Dialect There are over 1.7 million people in Shuyang speak a subdialect of Lower Yangtze Mandarin, called Haisi Dialect. 侍建国，“沭阳音系及其历史演变”，《语言研究》，1992（2）. Like most of Lower Yangtze Mandarin, Haisi dialect has five tones due to the preservation of the entering tone (rù sheng 入声) of Middle Chinese, more than four toned Standard Chinese which lost the entering tone . Category:Cities in Jiangsu Category:Populated places established in the 6th century BC Category:County-level divisions of Jiangsu
) (July 4, 1095 – November 17, 1188 According to Ibn Khallikan he was born on 27 Jumada al-Thani, 488 AH (Hijri year) and died 23 Ramadan (Ramadan (calendar month)) 584 AH. ''Ibn Khallikan's Biographical Dictionary'', trans. William MacGuckin, Baron de Slane, vol. 1 (Paris: 1842), p. 179. The Gregorian calendar dates are from Cobb, ''Usama ibn Munqidh'', p. 4. ) was a medieval Muslim (Islamic Golden Age) poet, author, faris (furusiyya) (professional warrior), and diplomat from the Banu Munqidh dynasty of Shaizar in northern Syria. His life coincided with the rise of several medieval Muslim dynasties, as well as the arrival of the First Crusade and the establishment of the crusader states. The question of the status of Antioch and the adjacent Cilician cities troubled the Empire for many years afterwards. Although the Treaty of Devol never came into effect, it provided the legal basis for Byzantine negotiations with the crusaders for the next thirty years, and for imperial claims to Antioch during the reigns of John II (John II Komnenos) and Manuel I (Manuel I Komnenos). J.W. Birkenmeier, ''The Development of the Komnenian Army'', 46 * R.-J. Lilie, ''The Crusades and Byzantium'', 34 Therefore, John II attempted to impose his authority, traveling to Antioch himself in 1137 with his army and besieging the city. J. Norwich, ''Byzantium:The Decline and Fall'', 77 The citizens of Antioch tried to negotiate, but John demanded the unconditional surrender of the city. J. Norwich, ''Byzantium:The Decline and Fall'', 78 After asking the permission of the King of Jerusalem, Fulk (King Fulk), which he received, Raymond (Raymond of Antioch), the Prince of Antioch, agreed to surrender the city to John. The agreement, by which Raymond swore homage to John, was explicitly based on the Treaty of Devol, but went beyond it: Raymond, who was recognized as an imperial vassal for Antioch, promised the Emperor free entry to Antioch, and undertook to hand over the city in return for investiture with Aleppo, Shaizar, Homs and Hama as soon as these were conquered from the Muslims. Then, Raymond would rule the new conquests and Antioch would revert to direct imperial rule. A. Jotischky, ''Crusading and the Crusader States'', 77 * P. Magdalino, ''The Empire of Manuel I Komnenos'', 41 The campaign finally failed, however, partly because Raymond and Joscelin II, Count of Edessa, who had been obliged to join John as his vassals, did not pull their weight. When, on their return to Antioch, John insisted on taking possession of the city, the two princes organized a riot. The inhabitants of Antioch were hostile to the prospect of passing under Byzantine rule, which seemed to them the inevitable consequence (J. Richard, ''The Crusades, c.1071 - c.1291'', 151). John found himself besieged in the city, and was forced to leave in 1138, recalled to Constantinople. J. Richard, ''The Crusades, c.1071 - c.1291'', 151 He diplomatically accepted Raymond's and Joscelin's insistence that they had nothing to do with the rebellion. J.W. Birkenmeier, ''The Development of the Komnenian Army'', 48 * P. Magdalino, ''The Empire of Manuel I Komnenos'', 41 * A. Stone, John II Comnenus (A.D. 1118-1143) John repeated his operation in 1142, but he unexpectedly died, and the Byzantine army retired. thumb Antioch under Byzantine protection (during 1159–1180) (File:Principality of Antioch under byzantine protection.png) Radwan attacked Yaghi-Siyan, and when Duqaq and Ilghazi came to assist him, Radwan besieged Damascus as well. However, Radwan soon quarrelled with Janah ad-Dawla, who captured Homs from him, and with his atabeg out of the alliance, Yaghi-Siyan was much more willing to assist him. This new alliance was sealed with a marriage between Radwan and Yaghi-Siyan's daughter. The two were about to attack Shaizar when they heard of the arrival of the First Crusade; all the various alliances were disbanded and everyone returned to their own cities, though if any of the alliances had remained intact, or they had all worked together, they would likely have been able to prevent the success of the crusade. Radwan attacked Yaghi-Siyan, and when Duqaq and Ilghazi came to assist him, Radwan besieged Damascus as well. However, Radwan soon quarreled with Janah ad-Dawla, who captured Homs from him, and with his atabeg out of the alliance, Yaghi-Siyan was much more willing to assist him. This new alliance was sealed with a marriage between Radwan and Yaghi-Siyan's daughter. The two were about to attack Shaizar when they heard of the arrival of the First Crusade; all the various alliances were disbanded and everyone returned to their own cities, though if any of the alliances had remained intact, or they had all worked together, they would likely have been able to prevent the success of the crusade. After fighting between Antioch and Shaizar in 1108, the Frankish and Muslim overlords exchanged gifts, according to Usamah ibn Munqidh. Tancred received the gift of a horse from the ruling family of Shaizar. The Christian leader admired the handsome youth who delivered the animal, a Kurd named Hasanun. Tancred promised him that, if he ever captured the young man, he would free him. Unfortunately, the regent of Antioch had a cruel streak. When the lad fell into his hands a year later, Tancred broke his promise, imprisoning and torturing him, and putting out his right eye. Smail, p. 45 Biography Ioveta was the only one of Baldwin's daughters born after he became king in 1118. When Baldwin was taken captive by the Ortoqids near Edessa (County of Edessa) in 1123, Ioveta was one of the hostages given for his release. She was held at Shaizar until being ransomed to Baldwin in 1125 for eighty thousand dinars. Her ransom was gathered from the spoils taken after Baldwin's victory at the Battle of Azaz that year. *Rahbeh Castle near Mayadin, Deir ez-Zor *Shaizar Castle in Mahardeh, Hama *Shmemis Castle south-east of Hama *Larissa, Turkey, an ancient city in Turkey, in the immediate vicinity of Menemen district of İzmir * ''Larissa'', Hellenistic name of Shaizar, Syria (at the time settled by colonists from the Greek city) *Larissa, Texas, a community in eastern Texas, in northwestern Cherokee County (Cherokee County, Texas). While probably only a minor presence during the crusade itself, he participated in the Battle of Ramlah (Battle of Ramla (1105)) in 1105, and in 1109 he assisted in the siege of Tripoli (Tripoli, Lebanon). There he was one of the envoys sent by Baldwin I of Jerusalem to negotiate between William-Jordan and Bertrand of Toulouse, both sons of Raymond IV of Toulouse who disputed the claim to Tripoli. On December 19, 1111 he was granted the city of Sidon, after it was captured by Baldwin I with the help of Sigurd I of Norway. He was already lord of Caesarea (Caesarea Palaestina), which had been captured in 1101 and given to him at an unknown date. Soon after this he married Emelota or Emma, the niece of Patriarch (Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem) Arnulf of Chocques, and was also granted Jericho and its revenue, which was formerly church property. He also took part in the sieges of Shaizar, which was not captured, and Tyre (Lebanon), which was. At the siege of Tyre he supervised the construction of the siege engines. In 1120 he was present at the Council of Nablus, convened by Baldwin II (Baldwin II of Jerusalem), where the laws of the kingdom were first written down. When Baldwin II was captured in 1123 by the Ortoqids, Eustace was elected constable of Jerusalem (Officers of the Kingdom of Jerusalem) and regent of the kingdom. As regent Eustace defeated an Egyptian invasion at the Battle of Yibneh on May 29, 1123. Eustace died soon after on June 15, 1123, and was replaced as Constable and Regent by William I of Bures. He was buried in Jerusalem at the Abbey of St. Maria Latina. Background After the capture of Antioch (Siege of Antioch) (June 1098) and the destruction of Ma'arrat al-Numan (January 13, 1099), the Syrian emirs were terrified of the advancing crusaders and quickly handed over their cities to the Franks. On January 14, Sultan ibn Munqidh, emir of Shaizar, dispatched an embassy to Raymond IV of Toulouse, one of the leaders of the crusade, to offer provisions and food for men and horses, as well as guides to Jerusalem. In February, the emir of Homs, Janah ad-Dawla, who had fought bravely at the siege of Antioch, offered horses to Raymond. The ''qadi'' of Tripoli (Tripoli, Lebanon), Jalal al-Mulk, from the Banu Ammar, sent rich gifts and invited the Franks to send an embassy to his city. The ambassadors marvelled at the splendors of the city, and an alliance was concluded. The crusades moved on to Arqa, which they besieged from February 14 to May 13, before continuing south to Jerusalem; they did not attack Tripoli or any other possessions of the Banu Ammar.
'''Fort Saint Pierre''' was the first fort built west of Fort Kaministiquia by Pierre La Vérendrye (Pierre Gaultier de Varennes, sieur de La Vérendrye) in northwestern Ontario. La Vérendrye, the first western commander, built it in 1731 (1731 in Canada) at the beginning of his explorations. As military officer, La Vérendrye had multiple responsibilities, and he created forts as outposts to support France's fur trade with the indigenous peoples. In addition, he was searching for a western inland sea which he believed connected to the Pacific Ocean. The fort was located at the west end of Rainy Lake near the mouth of Rainy River (Rainy River (Minnesota-Ontario)). (The British (United Kingdom) built Fort Frances there in 1817.) The La Vérendrye expedition included his four sons and nephew, as well as other troops.