soldiers. Benguela, a Portuguese fort from 1587 which became a town in 1617, was another important early settlement they founded and ruled. The Portuguese would establish several settlements, forts and trading posts along the coastal strip of current-day Angola, which relied on slave trade (Slavery in Angola), commerce in raw materials, and exchange of goods for survival. The African slave trade provided a large number of black slaves to Europeans and their African agents. For example, in what is now Angola, the Imbangala economy was heavily focused on the slave trade.
, the first settlers arrived, the same year a sawmill was established. On February 1, 1794, Sandy River Plantation was incorporated as Farmington, named for its unusually fertile soil. Beginning with a cluster of log houses at Farmington Falls, the town grew quickly and prospered. Agriculture was an important early occupation, with hay a principal product. Orchards yielded apples and other fruit. Farmington became one of the largest wool producing towns in New England, with many herds of sheep grazing the hills and intervales. '''Staples Pond''' is located in the town of Temple (Temple, Maine), Maine, in the United States. Some locals prefer to call it "Santa Claus Lake", because of its appearance from the air. Water from Staples Pond flows via Temple Stream to the Sandy River (Sandy River (Kennebec River)) in Farmington (Farmington, Maine), and thence to the Kennebec River.
Acolman is derived from a Nahuatl phrase which has been interpreted in various ways. It may mean "man with hand or arm" or "where man is made." Acolman is the modern name but the settlement has been referred to as Oculma, Axuruman and Aculma in colonial era documents. The municipality is home of the "Tepexpan Man," named after the community in which he was found. The Tepexpan Man is a human fossilized skeleton between 12,000 and 14,000 years old, which was found in the mid-20th century. The founding of the settlement of Acolman is attributed to the Acolhuas, a Chichimeca tribe, around the 8th century. The settlement started out independent but was first conquered by the Huexotzincas and remained subject to one dominion or another since. By the time of King Nezahualcoyotl, Acolman was an important town in the Texcoco dominion (Texcoco (altepetl)), after it was conquered by the Aztecs in 1396. The town was important because it was the only place in Mesoamerica that specialized in the breeding and raising of dogs (today known as the breed called xoloitzcuintli). At the time of the Spanish conquest, Acolman was governed by Moctezuma II. After, Acolman became the encomienda of Pedro de Solis de los Monteros and his son Francisco. The Franciscans arrived first, but the Augustinians were in charge of evangelization efforts after 1539, with twenty four friars in residence by 1580. This order built one of the most important early colonial era monasteries in New Spain here. The 17th and 18th century is marked by severe floodings issues, which caused widespread damage and population shifts. These floods eventually caused the disappearance of towns near Acolman such as Tlacuilocan, Tzapotla and Tescazonco. During one of the attempts to control the rivers in the area, a dam was constructed which cause havoc for the area. During one of the floods, the monastery was submerged in over six feet of water, covering the church floor with silt and nearly destroyed the cloisters. In the 17th and 18th centuries, epidemics such as smallpox decimated the native population. After the Mexican War of Independence, Acolman became the seat of the municipality of the same name. In 1876, due to political instability, the seat was temporarily moved to a town called Xometla. In 1877, it returned to Acolman and the appendage "de Nezahualcoyotl" as added. Another flood affected the municipality in 1925 and affected the monastery, but also spurred the beginning of restoration efforts that would last until the end of the 20th century. The monastery was declared a national monument in 1933. The torch of the 1968 Summer Olympics passed through here on its way to Mexico City. The town and its monastery The town The most important feature of the town by far is the former monastery of San Agustin, located next to the main plaza. However, there are some other attractions as well. The Central Library and Casa de la Cultura contain paintings and sculptures by a native of Acolman named Parmeno. At the Traditional fixed markets in Mexico
was the site of the Battle of Chongju, during which the Korean forces re-took the city from the Japanese forces in an important early victory. The government of the province relocated here from Chungju in 1908. The opening of the Chungbuk-line in 1926 sparked regional development. In 1946, Cheongju and Cheongwon-gun were separated, and in 1949, Cheongju was upgraded to Cheongju City. Afterwards, it went through the separation of administrative dong and their transfer to Cheongwon-gun, with 2
commercial interests. He travelled through Tobol'sk (Tobolsk), Tomsk, Yeniseysk, Irkutsk and the region of Lake Baikal, and was one of the most important early Europeans to describe the Gobi Desert. His journey ended in Beijing, where he lived until returning to Russia in 1717. Abalakov was born in Yeniseysk. He is noted for making the first ascent of the highest point of the Soviet Union - Stalin Peak (Ismoil Somoni Peak) (later renamed) (7495 m) on September
. The result was roughly six years of ethnographic fieldwork that formed the basis for Hocart's reputation today as one of the most important early ethnographers of Oceania. **Nausori - Nausori International Airport '''(Base)''' **Rotuma - Rotuma Airport **Savusavu - Savusavu Airport *Nadi - Nadi International Airport '''Main hub''' *Rotuma - Rotuma Airport *Savusavu - Savusavu Airport Ah Koy's first foray into politics was in 1966, when he stood unsuccessfully as an independent candidate. In the early 1980s, he became manager of a family investment company owned by the then-Prime Minister (List of Prime Ministers of Fiji) Ratu Sir Kamisese Mara (Kamisese Mara), and was subsequently selected by Mara's political party (List of political parties in Fiji), the Fijian Alliance, as a candidate for one of eight seats then reserved for General Electors (General Electors (Fiji)) in the House of Representatives (House of Representatives (Fiji)) in the parliamentary election (Fiji election of 1982) of 1982. In 1991–1993, he led a legal challenge to the law requiring all multiracial people to register on the General Electors' (General Electors (Fiji)) roll, which enrolls all Fijian citizens who are neither indigenous (Fijian people) nor of Indian (Indo-Fijian) or Rotuman ancestry. The court ruled that as he was registered in the Native Land Register (Native Land Register (Fiji)) (''Vola ni Kawa Bula'', or VKB, in Fijian (Fijian language)), he was entitled to be registered as a Fijian. He subsequently succeeded getting the law amended to give multiracial people the option of registering on either the General Electors' roll or on an ethnic role (Fijian, Indo-Fijian, or Rotuman) on which any of their ancestors would have been entitled to enroll. This change was later written into the Constitution (Constitution of Fiji), and allowed Ah Koy to stand for election from an ethnic Fijian communal constituency. (All seats in the House of Representatives were communal prior to 1999, and 46 of the 71 seats are still communal, elected from closed ethnic roles of voters registered as Fijians, Indo-Fijians, Rotumans, or General Electors). Origins The party was founded in 1990 as the political vehicle of the Great Council of Chiefs (Great Council of Chiefs (Fiji)), with the declared goal of uniting all indigenous Fijians (Fijian people). A new constitution (Constitution of Fiji) promulgated in 1990, following two military coups (Fiji coups of 1987) in 1987, abolished the "national (National Constituencies (Fiji))" parliamentary seats elected by universal suffrage (which had comprised almost half the House of Representatives); all members henceforth were to be elected by enrolled voters on "communal" electoral roles (Communal Constituencies (Fiji)) that were limited to specific ethnic communities, each of which had an allocated number of seats in the House (37 indigenous Fijians (Fijian people), 27 Indo-Fijians, 1 Rotuman, and 5 General Electors (General Electors (Fiji)) (Europeans, Chinese, Banaban Islanders (Banaba Island), and other minorities). The end to multiracial voting resulted in a trend towards intracommunal politics, and multiracial parties like the old Fijian Alliance of longtime Prime Minister (List of Prime Ministers of Fiji) Ratu Sir Kamisese Mara (Kamisese Mara) were therefore dissolved and replaced by parties representing principally a single ethnic group. *Fiji: **during the October–December 1987 secession agitation on one island, known as the Republic of Rotuma, led by Henry Gibson (remained in New Zealand), his style was ''Gagaj Sau Lagfatmaro'', rendered as Paramount chief or King of the Molmahao Clan. NB: This title was not recognised by the Rotuma Island Council as the titles Gagaja and Sau have never been used together. The closest thing to a paramount chief is the position of Fakpure, currently belonging to the district chief (gagaj 'es itu'u) of Noa'tau. **the British Sovereign (Monarchy of the United Kingdom) remains recognized as "Paramount Chief (Paramount_Chief_of_Fiji#Current_position)", even since the country became a republic on 7 October 1987; however, this is not an office of state Daniel Fatiaki is a Roman Catholic (Roman Catholic Church in Fiji) and a native of Rotuma, a Fijian Dependency (Local government of Fiji) which enjoys a measure of autonomy but is otherwise integrated into Fiji politically and economically despite its cultural divergence (Rotumans are Polynesian, unlike ethnic Fijians (Fijian people), who are predominantly of Melanesian stock). He is the first Rotuman to be appointed to the bench in Fiji, and his appointment as Chief Justice resulted in great public rejoicing on the island. He is married to Martha (Martha Fatiaki) and has 4 sons. He was made a Companion of the Order of Fiji (Order of Fiji), together with Vijay Singh, in 2004. '''Rotuman''', also referred to as ''Rotunan'', ''Rutuman'' or ''Fäeag Rotuma'', is an Austronesian language (Austronesian languages) spoken by the indigenous people of the South Pacific (Oceania) island group of Rotuma, an island with a Polynesian (Polynesian culture)-influenced culture that was incorporated as a dependency into the Colony of Fiji in 1881. Classification of Rotuman is difficult due to the large number of loan words from Samoan (Samoan language) and Tongan (Tongan language), as a result of much cultural exchange over the history of the Pacific. Linguist Andrew Pawley groups the language with the West Fijian languages in a West Fijian – Rotuman branch of the Central Pacific sub-group of Oceanic languages.
through Tobol'sk (Tobolsk), Tomsk, Yeniseysk, Irkutsk and the region of Lake Baikal, and was one of the most important early Europeans to describe the Gobi Desert. His journey ended in Beijing, where he lived until returning to Russia in 1717. Having reached Tobolsk in 1585, it was natural to continue up the Irtysh River to the Kazakh steppes north of Lake Balkhash to Dzungaria and western Mongolia. This was the route used by Fyodor Baykov to reach
1587 which became a town in 1617, was another important early settlement they founded and ruled. The Portuguese would establish several settlements, forts and trading posts along the coastal strip of current-day Angola, which relied on slave trade (Slavery in Angola), commerce in raw materials, and exchange of goods for survival. The African slave trade provided a large number of black slaves to Europeans and their African agents. For example, in what is now Angola, the Imbangala economy was heavily focused on the slave trade. WikiPedia:Luanda Dmoz:Regional Africa Angola Localities Luanda Commons:Category:Luanda
Silesia . His most notable contribution to architecture is the Centennial Hall built between 1911 and 1913 as part of a series of works commemorating the 100th anniversary of the 1813 War of Liberation (Battle of Leipzig) against Napoleon Bonaparte (Napoleon I of France). The Hall is an important early landmark of European reinforced concrete buildings, and it was designated a World Heritage Site in 2006. New Silesia had its capital at Siewierz. However, it was originally to be governed by the Silesian (Province of Silesia) capital Breslau (Wrocław) (Wrocław) and later largely administered by South Prussia. After the defeat of Prussia in the War of the Fourth Coalition in 1806, the province was dissolved and the territory was made part of the Napoleonic Duchy of Warsaw in the Treaties of Tilsit of 1807. Courant was born in Lublinitz (Lubliniec) in the German Empire's Prussian (Kingdom of Prussia) Province of Silesia. During his youth, his parents had to move quite often, to Glatz (Kłodzko), Breslau (Wrocław), and in 1905 to Berlin. He stayed in Breslau and entered the university (University of Wrocław) there. As he found the courses not demanding enough, he continued his studies in Zürich and Göttingen (University of Göttingen). Courant eventually became David Hilbert's assistant in Göttingen and obtained his doctorate there in 1910. He had to fight in World War I, but he was wounded and dismissed from the military service shortly after enlisting. After the war, in 1919, he married Nerina (Nina) Runge, a daughter of the Göttingen professor for Applied Mathematics, Carl Runge. Richard continued his research in Göttingen, with a two-year period as professor in Münster (University of Münster). There he founded the Mathematical Institute, which he headed as director from 1928 until 1933. Life Freytag was born in Kreuzburg (Kluczbork) (Kluczbork) in Silesia (Province of Silesia). After attending the gymnasium at Oels (Oleśnica) (Oleśnica), he studied philology at the universities of Breslau (Wrocław) (University of Wrocław) and Berlin (University of Berlin), and in 1838 received his degree with a dissertation titled ''Über die Anfänge der dramatische Poesie bei den Germanen.'' Harald Bachmann: ''Gustav Freytag (1816–1895)''. In: ''Coburger Geschichtsblätter.'' 3 1995, Historische Gesellschaft Coburg e. V., S. 121–122 In 1839, he settled in Breslau (Wrocław), as ''Privatdozent'' in German language and literature (German literature), but organ of German and Austrian (Austrian Empire) liberalism. Freytag helped to conduct it until 1861, and again from 1867 till 1870, when for a short time he edited a new periodical, ''Im neuen Reich''. In 1863 he developed what is known as Freytag's pyramid; see Dramatic structure. DATE OF BIRTH 3 July 1940 PLACE OF BIRTH Smilovice (Frýdek-Místek District), Province of Silesia, Nazi Germany DATE OF DEATH *Rossitten Bird Station (Rossitten Bird Observatory) of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society, founded 1901 in Rossitten and integrated into the Kaiser Wilhelm Society in 1921. The ornithological station was ceased at the end of the Second World War, but work continues at the ornithological station Radolfzell which is part of the Max Planck Institute for Ornithology. *Silesian (Province of Silesia) Coal Research Institute of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society, in Breslau. In the following years, large groups of French Huguenots settled in Stettin, bringing new developments into the city crafts and factories. The population increased from 6000 in 1720 to 21,000 in 1816, and 58,000 in 1861. The 19th century was an age of large territorial expansion for the city, especially after 1873, when the old fortress was abolished. In 1821, the crafts corporations were abolished, and in steam transport on the Oder began, allowing further development of trade. The port was developing quickly, specialising in exports of agricultural products and coal from the Province of Silesia. Economic development and rapid population growth brought many ethnic Poles from Pomerania and Greater Poland looking for new career opportunities in the Stettin industry. More than 95% of the population consisted of Germans. In 1843, Stettin was connected by the first railway line to the Prussian capital Berlin, and in 1848 by the second railway to Posen (Poznań) (Poznań). New branches of industry were developed, including shipbuilding (at the AG Vulcan Stettin and Oderwerke shipyards) and ironworks using Swedish ores. Before World War I, there were 3,000 Polish inhabitants in the city, Tadeusz Białecki, "Historia Szczecina" Zakład Narodowy im. Ossolińskich, 1992 Wrocław; pgs. 9, 20-55, 92-95, 258-260, 300-306 including some wealthy industralists and merchants. Among them was Kazimierz Pruszak, director of the Gollnow industrial works, who predicted eventual "return of Szczecin to Poland". The population grew to 236,000 in 1910 and 382,000 in 1939. Bavaria Born in Trebnitz (Trzebnica) (Silesia (Province of Silesia)), and brought up in Nördlingen, he became a school teacher by profession. Philip Rees, ''Biographical Dictionary of the Extreme Right Since 1890'', 1990, p. 279 He joined the SPD (Social Democratic Party of Germany) in 1917 and was instrumental in the setting up of a short-lived Bavarian Soviet Republic in 1919. Indeed for a time at the start of the year, following the resignation of Kurt Eisner and immediately before the establishment of the Soviet Republic Niekisch wielded effective power as chairman of the central executive of Bavarian councils, an interim governing body. Chris Harman, ''The Lost Revolution: Germany 1918 to 1923'', Bookmarks, 1982, pp. 129-130 He left the SPD soon after and joined the USPD (Independent Social Democratic Party of Germany) for a time, before returning. History The first German licence plates that had a lettering plan were issued from 1906 onwards. Berlin for example was using I A (I for Prussia), Munich II A (II for Bavaria), Stuttgart III A (III for Württemberg (Free People's State of Württemberg)). Other German states used further Roman numbers such as IV (Baden (Republic of Baden)), V (Hesse (People's State of Hesse)), and VI (Alsace-Lorraine; now France). Many states used prefixes derived from the state names, such as B (Brunswick (Free State of Brunswick)), HB (Bremen), HH (Hamburg), and HL (Lübeck (Free City of Lübeck)), the latter three used again for the same entities since 1956. Other bigger cities: IV B Baden (Heidelberg, Mannheim, Karlsruhe, Freiburg, Lake Constance), II N Cities of Nuremberg and Fürth. The Prussian provinces had the following prefixes: I E Province of Brandenburg (to a minor part now Poland), I C Province of East Prussia (now divided between Lithuania, Poland and Russia), I S Province of Hannover, I T Province of Hesse-Nassau (Today Frankfurt, State of Hessen and neighboring counties), I L Province of Hohenzollern, I Z Rhine Province (Cologne, Düsseldorf and other large cities in the Ruhr Area), I H Province of Pomerania (now prevailingly Poland), I Y Province of Posen (now Poland), I B Province of Posen-West Prussia (now Poland), I M Province of Saxony, I P Province of Schleswig-Holstein, I K Province of Silesia (now mostly Poland), I X Province of Westphalia, and finally I D Province of West Prussia (now Poland). Šturm was born and raised in Görlitz, Prussian Silesia (Province of Silesia), when the Görlitz region was still part of the homeland of the Sorbs. His parents were both ethnic Sorbs (not Serbs). He finished the royal Prussian (Kingdom of Prussia) military academy in Breslau (Wrocław) (Wrocław) and went to Serbia before the Balkan wars to fight the Ottoman Turks, studying in the Serbian military academy (Serbian military) and volunteering in the Serbian Army. Cohn was born in Breslau in the Prussian (Kingdom of Prussia) Province of Silesia. At the age of 10 he suffered hearing impairment. He received a degree in botany in 1847 at the age of nineteen at the University of Berlin. He was a teacher and researcher at University of Breslau for his entire career. In the 1850s he mostly studied algae. In the 1860s he studied plant physiology in several different aspects. From 1870 onward he mostly studied bacteria. He published over 150 research reports during his lifetime. The University of Breslau became an innovative center for plant physiology and microbiology while he was there. Early life Mellenthin was born in Breslau (Wrocław), Silesia (Province of Silesia), into a military family; his father Paul Henning von Mellenthin was a lieutenant-colonel of artillery who was killed in action in 1918. Friedrich's older brother, Horst von Mellenthin, was also a World War II general. In 1924, upon graduation from Breslau's Realgymnasium, Friedrich enlisted as a private in the Seventh Cavalry Regiment of the Reichswehr. He studied for his commission over the next several years, and won a rare promotion to lieutenant in 1928 (the Reichswehr at the time having only 4,000 officers in its entirety). He married Ingeborg von Aulock, granddaughter of a South African emigrant, in 1932. Although he described himself as "perfectly happy" with regimental life, his superior assigned him to prepare operational reports to divisional headquarters, and these were generally approved of. In recognition of his talents, he was assigned to the Kriegsakademie in 1935, where he took its two-year course for General Staff officers. '''Max Karl Wilhelm von Gallwitz''' (2 May 1852 – 18 April 1937) was a German (Germany) general from Breslau (Wrocław) (Wrocław), Silesia (Province of Silesia), who served with distinction during World War I on both the Eastern (Eastern Front (World War I)) and Western Fronts (Western Front (World War I)). Reichsgaue established during the Second World War Of the territories annexed from Poland (Polish areas annexed by Nazi Germany) and the Free City of Danzig in 1939, Reichsgau Wartheland and Reichsgau Danzig-West Prussia were created. Annexed territories of pre-war Poland (Second Polish Republic) not within these two Reichsgaue was incorporated into the neighboring Gaue (Gau (country subdivision)) East Prussia and Silesia (Province of Silesia). The Grand Duchy of Luxembourg as well as Alsace-Lorraine, annexed from pre-war France in 1940, were attached to the bordering Southwestern Gaue of Nazi Germany. Two further Reichsgaue in Belgium were established in 1944, and also annexed ''de jure'' to Germany.
'''Tulum''' is on the Yucatán Peninsula, in Mexico. It is one of the earliest ''resorts'' in Mexico, offering a place of worship and solitude for the Mayan Kings, clergy and Gods in early times. The tropical beach backdrop is the main attraction of this picturesque, much-visited small ruin on the shore of the Caribbean Sea. Shortly after your arrival, you will understand why early Mayans picked this beautiful place to relax. Be prepared for LOTS of people and tour groups at the archaeological site. To avoid the crowds, it is best to stay overnight and visit the ruins early in the morning before the buses arrive, or later in the afternoon. Morning is recommended since you can catch spectacular vistas when the sun is rising over the Caribbean. Get in thumb right 400px Tulum (Image:Mayan ruins at Tulum Mexico.jpg) From Cancun International Airport You can catch an ADO bus to Tulum directly three times a day: 2:10PM, 7:45PM and 8:45PM. Ticket prices are about $15 USD. The ride will take about 2 hours. You can also take the ADO bus to Playa del Carmen with departures nearly every hour for about $12 USD. Once in Playa del Carmen you transfer to a second bus to Tulum for an additional $5 USD. Rental cars are priced reasonably and are the easiest way to get around the Tulum area. Shop around rates upon arrival, and feel free to haggle. Check with your credit card company to see if they automatically insure you, most do so you don't have to pay the additional insurance that the rental agency often tries to insist you purchase. It is a very easy drive to Tulum. To get there you take the only highway south from Cancun Airport straight down past Playa del Carmen, Akumal, etc. About 90 minutes from the airport you will arrive in Tulum. There are several companies offering Private, and shuttle services: *'''Discovery Mundo''' Private transportation to any hotel in Tulum at excellent rates. They also have VIP service. You need to book online. *'''Amstar Airport Transfers''' Deluxe and Private Tulum Transfers from the Airport. More than 20 years of quality service. *'''Tucan Kin''' Direct shuttle starting at 24 USD per person. It is a door to door service with no stops between the airport and the Tulum Area. A reservation is required. * '''Paradise Transfers Tulum Transfers''' Private Tours and Transportation from Cancun Airport. Many of the Hotels in Tulum offer a pick-up service from the Cancun International Airport for an addition $80 to $120 USD depending on the hotel. You can also take a Taxi from the Airport from $145 USD. By bus Buses from Cancun run quite regularly. There is also an ADO bus direct from Cancun Airport. Buses from Playa Del Carmen run hourly or so. Bus station is at southern end of Fifth Avenue near Playacar. ADO Bus stops at Xcaret and Xel-ha en route to Tulum. Mayab bus stops more frequently en route to Tulum from Playa Del Carmen. To visit the ruins, get off the bus at the first Tulum stop at the intersection with the access road to the ruins. It's an easy one mile or so flat walk to the ruins from the intersection. An alternative to the buses is to catch a "collectivo" van. In Playa Del Carmen you can find these on Calle 2 towards Avenida 20. One-way trip costs 40 pesos. By car If you drive yourself to the ruins before opening time, it may be a bit confusing as to where to go and what to do. As soon as you park, a man on a bicycle should find you and charge you for parking (50 pesos). You must go through a sort of half open-air mall (which is empty before 8AM). From there you can either sign up with a tour guide (US$20 per person?), pay for a shuttle ride to the ruins (20 pesos), or walk a mile along a road to the ruins. The guides are reported to be better story tellers than actual experts on Mayan culture. The walk is on level ground and passes quickly as you admire the jungle and abandoned shops along the way. If you can walk it, do it and save a few bucks! As you approach a stone wall, to the left will be a brown wooden building where you can purchase your ticket into the ruins (51 pesos, an additional 35 pesos if they see that you have a video camera). From there, head along a stone path through the jungle and into the ruins... Three Tulums What most folks really need to know, and only manage to figure out once there, is the fact that there are really '''three''' different areas all referred to as TULUM only minutes away from each other, not close enough though to walk to and from. '''Tulum Pueblo''' sits split by highway 307 running South-North. "El Pueblo", as referred to by locals, is home to most workers of the tourist industry and where many of the stores, supermarkets, two bus stations, inns, hostels and small hotels are found. This section of town has a definite feel of existing mostly to cater to the Tulum ruins. Tulum pueblo is indeed a destination for shopping, great restaurants, a modest night life, studying the language at Instituto Chac-Mool Spanish School, booking tours, banking, shopping for food, local vegetables, fruits, cafes, and local flavor. Do not miss it. '''Tulum Playa''' nests along the coastline that leads into the Sian Ka'an Biosphere Ecological Reserve , the Caribbean white sandy beaches to the east, an impressive mangrove & wetland reserve to the south. Tulum Playa embraces many of the fancier, ecological, boutique and spa hotels, and it has a decent to excellent selection of restaurants and night spots. There are also a number of affordable beach front cabana-type lodging locations. Walk the beach and simply step in and inquire about accommodations and rates. You will be surprised and delighted. It should be noted most of these establishments are Eco-friendly and do not provide electricity past midnight. Toilet paper can not be flushed and it is asked that water and other resources be used sparingly. The hotels in Tulum aim to keep Tulum as it is and stop the ecological problems that have already taken hold in Cancun and Playa Del Carmen. If you are staying on the beach and trying to save money, it is wise to stock up on food and drinks in the pueblo. There are not too many restaurant options on the beach, and the ones that are operational are comparatively quite expensive. Taxis have a near monopoly on transport to and from the playa. Buses come from time to time, but hitchhiking can also get you where you need to go. '''Tulum Ruinas''' is the archaeological site where the Maya ruins of Tulum stand. It is conformed by a-mile-long road leading into the ruins from highway 307. The road is flanked by several restaurants, a commercial area geared to one-day visitors, a huge parking lot, a small bus station that operates part-time and a handful of middle range hotels. Archaeology thumb Wall & Fresco Detail - Temple of the Frescoes (File:Wall & Fresco Detail - Temple of the Frescoes (Templo de los Frescos) (8424834224).jpg) Tulum is mostly known for its ruins, which strike an impressive image next to the sea, but were constructed during a time period of Maya culture that was waning. The site is notable for a small cenote (albeit dry during Jan 2009), beautiful beach below the ruin laden cliffs and some well preserved stellae in only one of its structures. After visiting other ruins in the area such as Coba, Chichen Itza and Ek Balam, Tulum's main claim is the sea-side setting. It is best visited on a clear, bright day or at sunrise. Bring your swimming suit. At the time of writing, one of the best sections was closed to visitors and covered with plastic bottles and other refuse. A standard to telephoto zoom lens does well if you must photograph during times of peak tourism. This strategy will keep people out of your shots of the ruins. Tripods are allowed only with a permit that is exclusively available in Mexico City for a $500 fee. A monopod may be a possibility. Get around *Taxis are an inexpensive way to get around but for the most part, Tulum 'Pueblo' is so small that walking is a simple, though often dusty, option. Taxis from 'Pueblo' to the coast is ~70-90 pesos. It is advisable to either take a taxi or rent a bike when traveling between the 'Pueblo' and the beach, as the walk is rather long, dusty and unattractive. * Bikes are available for rent from Iguana Bikes in Tulum 'Pueblo.' 150-250 pesos for 24 hours. Bikes are a convenient way to get around town and to from cenotes and the beach. Please be careful when riding a bike on the highway. Bring a headlamp flashlight if biking at night