Places Known For

history writing


Djenné

, and Djenné. Mansa Musa was a devout Muslim who was reported to have built various major mosques throughout the Mali sphere of influence; his gold-laden pilgrimage to Mecca made him a well known figure even in European history writing. It was under Mansa Musa that Timbuktu became one of Africa's and the world's major cultural centers. Capital of the Bambara Empire in the past, Ségou is now the capital of Mali’s fourth largest administrative region of Ségou (Ségou (region)). It is known also as the city of “Balanzan,” named after the local tree Acacia albida. Ségou has faced numerous conquests and changes of administration, but has always benefited from trade with nearby commercial centres such as Djenné and Timbuktu, and been an administrative center and commercial center for cereal and cattle. Increasing desertification and economic incentive thumb Great Mosque of Djenné The Great Mosque of (Image:Great Mosque of Djenné 1.jpg) Djenné, founded in 800, was an important trading base; now a World Heritage Site The Sahara once had a very different environment. In Libya and Algeria, from at least 7000 BC, there was pastoralism, herding of sheep and goats, large settlements and pottery. Cattle were introduced to the Central Sahara (Ahaggar) from 4000 to 3500 BC. Remarkable rock paintings (dated 3500 to 2500 BC), in places which are currently very dry, portray vegetation and animal presence rather different from modern expectations. Shillington, Kevin (1989, 1995). ''History of Africa, Second Edition''. St. Martin's Press, New York. Page 32. thumb 750px center Saharan trade routes circa 1400, with the modern territory of Niger (Image:Niger saharan medieval trade routes.PNG) highlighted Unlike Ghana, Mali was a Muslim kingdom, and under it, the gold - salt trade continued. Other, less important trade goods were slaves, kola nuts from the south and slave beads and cowry shells from the north (for use as currency). It was under Mali that the great cities of the Niger (River Niger) bend —including Gao and Djenné— prospered, with Timbuktu in particular becoming known across Europe for its great wealth. Important trading centers in southern West Africa developed at the transitional zone between the forest and the savanna; examples include Begho and Bono Manso (in present-day Ghana) and Bondoukou (in present-day Côte d'Ivoire). Western trade routes continued to be important, with Ouadane, Oualata and Chinguetti being the major trade centres in what is now Mauritania, while the Tuareg (Tuareg people) towns of Assodé and later Agadez grew around a more easterly route in what is now Niger. '''Koyra Chiini''' ( Wikipedia:Djenné


Gao

-states of Timbuktu, Gao, and Djenné. Mansa Musa was a devout Muslim who was reported to have built various major mosques throughout the Mali sphere of influence; his gold-laden pilgrimage to Mecca made him a well known figure even in European history writing. It was under Mansa Musa that Timbuktu became one of Africa's and the world's major cultural centers.


Kaliningrad

;Bosworth, R. J. B page 84" Bosworth, Richard J. B., ''Explaining Auschwitz And Hiroshima History Writing and the Second World War 1945-1990'', London: Routledge, 1994, p. 84. ISBN 978-0-415-10923-9 In 1945, Hillgruber fled west to escape the Red Army, another experience that was to have much influence on him. After his release he studied at the University of Göttingen, where he received a PhD in 1952. As a student, Hillgruber was a leading protégée of the medievalist Percy Ernst Schramm, an academic who, as Eberhard Jäckel commented, regarded World War II as a normal war that regrettably the Nazis were not as skilled at waging as they should have been. Dijk, Ruun van (1999), p. 533. Much of Hillgruber's early work reflected Schramm's influence. He spent the decade 1954-1964 working as school teacher. In 1960 he married Karin Zieran, with whom he had three children. Hillgruber worked as a professor at the University of Marburg (1965–1968), the University of Freiburg (1968–1972) and the University of Cologne (1972–1989). In the late 1960s he was a target of radical student protesters. Lukacs (1997), p. 35. He died in Cologne of throat cancer. - bgcolor "efefef" Kaliningrad, Russia (Kaliningrad) '''6''' Kiev, Ukraine (Kiev) '''5''' - - Kaliningrad, Russia (Kaliningrad) '''2''' Kiev, Ukraine (Kiev) '''4''' - bgcolor "efefef" thumb 200px right A Gomelavia Ilyushin Il-76 (File:Il-76 at LKTB.jpg) at Brno Airport (Brno-Tuřany Airport) At the time of its closure, Gomelavia served Minsk, Kaliningrad and Moscow from its base at Gomel. WikiPedia:Kaliningrad Dmoz:Regional Europe Russia Administrative Regions Kaliningradskaya Oblast Kaliningrad commons:Калининград


Timbuktu

Muslim who was reported to have built various major mosques throughout the Mali sphere of influence; his gold-laden pilgrimage to Mecca made him a well known figure even in European history writing. It was under Mansa Musa that Timbuktu became one of Africa's and the world's major cultural centers. '''Taoudenni''' (also '''Taoudeni''', '''Taoudénit''', '''Taudeni''') is a remote salt mining center in the desert region of northern Mali, Commons:Category:Timbuktu WikiPedia:Timbuktu


Vojvodina

inscriptions. Later, German and Hungarian language dominated (Hungarian usually on the reverse), scripts in other languages became smaller (see Banknotes of the Austro-Hungarian krone). Although in Slovak (Slovaks), Romanian (Romanians) and Serbian (Serbs) history writing administrative and often repressive Magyarization is usually singled out as the main factor accountable for the dramatic change in the ethnic composition of the Kingdom of Hungary in the 19th century, it should be noted that spontaneous assimilation was also an important factor. In this regard, it must be pointed out that large territories of central and southern Kingdom of Hungary lost their previous, predominantly Magyar population during the numerous wars fought by the Habsburg and Ottoman (Ottoman Empire) empires in the 16th and 17th centuries. These empty lands were repopulated, by administrative measures adopted by the Vienna Court especially during the 18th century, by Hungarians and Slovaks from the northern part of the Kingdom that avoided the devastation (see also Royal Hungary), Swabians, Serbs (Serbs were majority in most southern parts of the Pannonian Plain during Ottoman rule, i.e. before those Habsburg administrative measures), Croats and Romanians. Various ethnic groups lived side by side (this ethnic heterogeneity is preserved until today in certain parts of Vojvodina, Bačka and Banat). After 1867, Hungarian became the lingua franca on this territory in the interaction between ethnic communities, and individuals who were born in mixed marriages between two non-Magyars often grew a full-fledged allegiance to the Hungarian nation. WikiPedia:Vojvodina Dmoz:Regional Europe Serbia Vojvodina


Turku

birth_place Turku, FIN (Finland) draft 70th overall '''Marko Kiprusoff''' (born June 6, 1972 in Turku, Finland) is a Finnish (Finnish people) professional ice hockey defenceman (defenceman (ice hockey)). DATE OF BIRTH 1972-02-06 PLACE OF BIRTH Turku, FIN (Finland) DATE OF DEATH '''Pitkämäki''' (Finnish (Finnish language); ''Långbacka'' in Swedish (Finland-Swedish)) is a district of the city of Turku, in Finland


Kingdom of Hungary

revolt''), of 1437 in Transylvania was the only significant popular revolt (popular revolt in late medieval Europe) in the Kingdom of Hungary prior to the great peasant war of 1514 (György Dózsa). The event is named after the leader of the revolt, Antal Nagy de Buda ''(in Hungarian: Budai Nagy Antal)'', or is simply called the Transylvanian Peasant Revolt. Romanian history writing prefers using "Bobâlna Revolt", by the place where the peasant rebels first gathered

, 34.2% Hungarian-speakers, and 8.71% German-speakers. thumb 250px This is a Austro-Hungarian bill from 1849, before the main period of Magyarization. Note the multilingual inscriptions. Later, German and Hungarian language dominated (Hungarian usually on the reverse), scripts in other languages became smaller (see Banknotes of the Austro-Hungarian krone (File:Hungarian 1849 bank note.jpg)). Although in Slovak (Slovaks), Romanian (Romanians) and Serbian (Serbs) history writing administrative and often repressive Magyarization is usually singled out as the main factor accountable for the dramatic change in the ethnic composition of the Kingdom of Hungary in the 19th century, it should be noted that spontaneous assimilation was also an important factor. In this regard, it must be pointed out that large territories of central and southern Kingdom of Hungary lost their previous, predominantly Magyar population during the numerous wars fought by the Habsburg and Ottoman (Ottoman Empire) empires in the 16th and 17th centuries. These empty lands were repopulated, by administrative measures adopted by the Vienna Court especially during the 18th century, by Hungarians and Slovaks from the northern part of the Kingdom that avoided the devastation (see also Royal Hungary), Swabians, Serbs (Serbs were majority in most southern parts of the Pannonian Plain during Ottoman rule, i.e. before those Habsburg administrative measures), Croats and Romanians. Various ethnic groups lived side by side (this ethnic heterogeneity is preserved until today in certain parts of Vojvodina, Bačka and Banat). After 1867, Hungarian became the lingua franca on this territory in the interaction between ethnic communities, and individuals who were born in mixed marriages between two non-Magyars often grew a full-fledged allegiance to the Hungarian nation. the Kingdom of Serbia and its dynasty became the backbone of the new multinational state, the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (later renamed Yugoslavia). Czechoslovakia, combining the Kingdom of Bohemia with parts of the Kingdom of Hungary, became a new nation. Russia became the Soviet Union and lost Finland, Estonia, Lithuania, and Latvia, which became independent countries. The Ottoman Empire was soon replaced by Turkey and several other countries in the Middle East. thumb right Map of territorial changes in Europe after World War I (File:Map Europe 1923-en.svg) From then onwards, it was a centre of mining and metallurgy until the end of the 20th century, particularly focussed on the iron and copper industries. At the start of the 20th century, the Krompachy Ironworks (Krompašská železiareň) had around 3,500 employees and was the biggest ironworks of its time in the Kingdom of Hungary. The Ironworks closed after World War I. '''János Bottyán''' (1643, Esztergom, Hungary – September 27, 1709), also known as '''Blind Bottyán''', '''Vak Bottyán János''' was a Hungarian (Kingdom of Hungary) kuruc general. Such super-sized bombards had been employed in Western Europe siege warfare since the beginning of the 15th century, Schmidtchen (1977a), pp. 153–157 and were introduced to the Ottoman army in 1453 by the gunfounder Orban (from Brasov, Kingdom of Hungary) on the occasion of the Siege of Constantinople (Fall of Constantinople). Schmidtchen (1977b), p. 226 Ali's piece is assumed to have followed closely the outline of these guns. Bruck was born in Temesvár, Kingdom of Hungary, Austro-Hungarian Empire, since 1920 Timişoara, since 1920 in Romania.


Seville

of the West from Saint Benoit to Saint Bernard ''. Paris: J. Lecoffre, 1860. Indeed, all the later medieval history-writing of Hispania (modern Spain and Portugal) was based on his histories. Isidore was interred in Seville. His tomb represented an important place of veneration for the Mozarabs during the initial centuries following the Arab conquest of Visigothic Hispania. In the middle of the 11th century, with the division of Al Andalus into taifas


Norway

brought Norway into contact with European mediaeval learning, hagiography and history writing. Merged with native oral tradition and Icelandic influence, this influenced the literature written in the late 12th and early 13th centuries. Major works of that period include ''Historia Norwegiæ'', ''Þiðrekssaga'' and ''Konungs skuggsjá''. Little Norwegian literature came out of the period of the Scandinavian Union and the subsequent Dano-Norwegian union (1387–1814), with some notable exceptions such as Petter Dass and Ludvig Holberg. In his play ''Peer Gynt,'' Ibsen characterised this period as "Twice two hundred years of darkness brooded o'er the race of monkeys." The first line of this couplet is frequently quoted. During the union with Denmark, the government imposed using only written Danish, which decreased the writing of Norwegian literature. thumb left upright Henrik Ibsen (File:Ibsen photography.jpg) Two major events precipitated a major resurgence in Norwegian literature: in 1811 a Norwegian university was established in Christiania (Oslo). Secondly, seized by the spirit of revolution following the American (American Revolution) and French (French Revolution) revolutions, the Norwegians created their first Constitution (Constitution of Norway) in 1814. Strong authors were inspired who became recognised first in Scandinavia, and then worldwide; among them were Henrik Wergeland, Peter Christen Asbjørnsen, Jørgen Moe and Camilla Collett. By the late 19th century, in the Golden Age of Norwegian literature, the so-called "Great Four" emerged: Henrik Ibsen, Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson, Alexander Kielland, and Jonas Lie (Jonas Lie (writer)). Bjørnson's "peasant novels", such as ''En glad gutt'' (A Happy Boy) and ''Synnøve Solbakken'', are typical of the Norwegian romantic nationalism of their day. Kielland's novels and short stories are mostly naturalistic. Although an important contributor to early romantic nationalism, (especially ''Peer Gynt''), Henrik Ibsen is better known for his pioneering realistic dramas such as ''The Wild Duck'' and ''A Doll's House.'' They caused an uproar because of his candid portrayals of the middle classes, complete with infidelity, unhappy marriages, and corrupt businessmen. In the 20th century, three Norwegian novelists were awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature: Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson in 1903, Knut Hamsun for the book ''Markens grøde (Growth of the Soil)'' ("Growth of the Soil") in 1920, and Sigrid Undset (known for ''Kristinlavransdatter (Kristin Lavransdatter)'') in 1928. Writers such as the following also made important contributions: Dag Solstad, Jon Fosse, Cora Sandel, Olav Duun, Olav H. Hauge, Gunvor Hofmo, Stein Mehren, Kjell Askildsen, Hans Herbjørnsrud, Aksel Sandemose, Bergljot Hobæk Haff, Jostein Gaarder, Erik Fosnes Hansen, Jens Bjørneboe, Kjartan Fløgstad, Lars Saabye Christensen, Johan Borgen, Herbjørg Wassmo, Jan Erik Vold, Rolf Jacobsen (Rolf Jacobsen (poet)), Olaf Bull, Jan Kjærstad, Georg Johannesen, Tarjei Vesaas, Sigurd Hoel, Arnulf Øverland and Johan Falkberget. Research Internationally recognised Norwegian scientists include the mathematicians Niels Henrik Abel, Sophus Lie and Atle Selberg, physical chemist Lars Onsager, physicist Ivar Giaever, chemists Odd Hassel, Peter Waage, and Cato Maximilian Guldberg. In the 20th century, Norwegian academics have been pioneering in many social sciences, including criminology, sociology and peace and conflict studies. Prominent academics include Arne Næss, a philosopher and founder of deep ecology; Johan Galtung, the founder of peace studies; Nils Christie and Thomas Mathiesen, criminologists; Fredrik Barth, a social anthropologist; Vilhelm Aubert, Harriet Holter and Erik Grønseth, sociologists; Tove Stang Dahl, a pioneer of women's law; Stein Rokkan, a political scientist; and economists Ragnar Frisch, Trygve Haavelmo, and Finn E. Kydland. In 2014, the two Norwegian scientists May-Britt Moser and Edvard Moser won the Nobel Prize of Medicine along with John O'Keefe (John O'Keefe (neuroscientist)). They won the prize for their groundbreaking work identifying the cells that make up a positioning system in the human brain, our "in-built GPS". Commons:Category:Norway Dmoz:Regional Europe Norway Wikipedia:Norway


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