Brasileira de Letras Brazilian Academy of Letters . *June 17 – Henry Tresham, Irish (Irish people)-born painter of large-scale history paintings (b. 1751 (1751 in art)) *November 18 – Aleijadinho, Colonial Brazil-born sculptor (sculpture) and architect (b. 1730 1738 (1730 in art)) *November 30 – Jean-Michel Moreau, illustrator and engraver (b. 1741 (1741 in art)) The establishment of a dual, racialized civil society was formally recognized in ''Estatuto
'': Albert and his brothers receive the Duchy of Prussia as a fief from Polish King Sigismund I the Old, 1525. Painting (History painting) by Matejko (Jan Matejko), 1882. After some delay Sigismund assented to the offer, with the provision that Prussia should be treated as a Polish fiefdom; and after this arrangement had been confirmed by a treaty concluded at Kraków (Treaty of Kraków), Albert pledged a personal oath (Prussian Homage) to Sigismund I and was invested with the duchy for himself and his heirs on 10 February 1525. '''Albert Frederick''' ( The '''Treaty of Labiau''' was a treaty signed between Frederick William I, Elector of Brandenburg and Charles X Gustav of Sweden on 10 November (O.S. (Old Style and New Style dates)) Quaritsch (1986), p. 85 20 November (N.S. (Old Style and New Style dates)) 1656 in Labiau (Polessk) (now Polessk). With several concessions, the most important being the elevation of Frederick William I from a Swedish vassal to a full sovereign in the Duchy of Prussia and in Ermland (Ermeland, Warmia), Charles X Gustav strove to "buy Frederick William's support" in the ongoing Second Northern War. Sturdy (2002), p. 215 When the Second Northern War broke out in 1654, Charles X Gustav of Sweden offered an alliance to Frederick William I (Frederick William I, Elector of Brandenburg), the "Great Elector" of Brandenburg (Electorate of Brandenburg) and duke of Prussia (Duchy of Prussia). Shennan (1995), pp. 19-20 As the price for this alliance would have been the surrender of the Prussian ports of Pillau (now Baltiysk) and Memel (Klaipėda) (now Klaipėda) to Sweden, Frederick William I refused and instead signed a defensive alliance with the Dutch Republic in 1655. Charles X Gustav granted Frederick William I full souvereignity in the Duchy of Prussia Shennan (1995), p. 21 and Ermland (Ermeland, Warmia). For his Prussian possessions, Frederick William I was elevated from the status of a duke to a ''princeps summus & Suverenus''. Quaritsch (1986), pp. 85, 86 Article III specifies that this applies also to Frederick William I's successors, who likewise would have the status of ''principes summi & absoluti Suverenii''. Quaritsch (1986), p. 86 Consequences thumb 360px left The Duchy of Prussia (File:Prussia during the Second Northern War.png) as a Polish fief before the Second Northern War and as a Swedish fief after the Treaty of Königsberg (Treaty of Königsberg (1656)). Sweden granted sovereignty in Labiau and Poland-Lithuania in the Treaty of Wehlau-Bromberg. The treaty gave Grand Master Albert of Hohenzollern (Albert, Duke of Prussia) enough autonomy to secede from the Order to become Duke of the new Duchy of Prussia created by secularization of the Monastic state of the Teutonic Knights. This was sealed by the Prussian Homage of 10 April. Grand Master Albert of Brandenburg-Ansbach converted to Lutheranism and turned the Ordenstaat into the secular, Lutheran Duchy of Prussia in 1525. The Teutonic Order retained its holdings in Germany and autonomous Livonia, however. Due to being limited to their possessions in other parts of Germany, which were led by the ''Deutschmeister'', the titles ''Hochmeister'' and ''Deutschmeister'' were combined during the reign of Walter von Cronberg, who was appointed by Emperor Charles V (Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor). This dual-title lasted until 1923. For centuries the "Jägerregiment Wien" of the Military of Austria was known as the "Hoch- und Deutschmeister Regiment". date October 8, 1656 place Prostken (Prostki), Duchy of Prussia (today Prostki, Ełk County, Poland) result Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth decisive victory Bogusław Radziwiłł taken captive The '''Battle of Prostken''' was fought near Prostken (Prostki), Duchy of Prussia (today Prostki in Ełk County, Poland) on October 8, 1656 between forces of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and allied Crimean Tatars (Crimean Khanate) (2,000 man) commanded by hetman (Hetmans of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth) Wincenty Gosiewski (Wincenty Korwin Gosiewski) on one side, and on the other allied Swedish (Sweden) and Brandenburg (Brandenburg-Prussia) forces commanded by Prince Georg Friedrich of Waldeck, reinforced by cavalry of Prince Bogusław Radziwiłł. The Commonwealth forces won the battle, annihilating enemy forces and taking Radziwiłł captive. Pre-1945 For centuries a provincial estate, Palmnicken was founded in 1234 atop an older Old Prussian settlement by the crusading (Northern Crusades) Teutonic Knights, who named the new settlement Palmnicken. After the secularization of the Order's Prussian (Prussia (region)) lands in 1525, Palmnicken became part of the Duchy of Prussia. In the Thirty Years' War Palmnicken was occupied by Sweden (Swedish Empire) for six years. Every Protestant sovereign hereafter claimed and exercised the so-called ''jus reformandi religionem'', and decided the church question according to his own faith and that of the majority of his subjects. Saxony, Hesse, Prussia (Duchy of Prussia), Anhalt, Lüneburg, East Friesland, Schleswig-Holstein, Silesia, and the cities of Nuremberg, Augsburg, Frankfurt, Ulm, Strasburg (Strasbourg), Bremen, Hamburg, and Lübeck (Free City of Lübeck), adopted Protestantism. The princes of the territories and the magistrates of the cities consulted the theologians and preachers. The powerful house of Austria, with the Emperor, and the Dukes of Bavaria, adhered to the old faith, and hotly contested the principle of independent state action on the church question, as being contrary to all the traditions of the Empire and of the Roman Church. * East Pakistan (1955–1971), now Bangladesh, was an exclave from Islamic Republic of Pakistan, if one considers West Pakistan, site of the capital Islamabad, mainland. There were 1600 kilometers of foreign territory separating the east and west wings of Pakistan. East Pakistan accounted for 70% of the exports of the country and was more populous than West Pakistan. * East Prussia, a German (Germany) exclave during the Weimar Republic: it was separated from Germany after World War I, when Poland regained access to the Baltic Sea (Polish corridor). East Prussia (essentially the old Duchy of Prussia) is now divided into Kaliningrad Oblast in Russia (see above), the Warmian-Masurian Voivodship in Poland, and Klaipėda County in Lithuania. * Forbidden City - The last emperor of the Qing Dynasty of China, Emperor Henry Puyi (Henry Pu Yi), succeeded the throne in 1909. In 1911, revolution broke out and the Qing army was defeated. According to the treaty signed between the Qing court and the government of the newly formed Republic of China (ROC), Puyi preserved the emperor title and alongside other rights, maintained certain government organs in the Forbidden City mainly for management of the Forbidden City and other palaces, management of imperial families, etc. Inside the Forbidden City it still flew the Dragon Flag of the Qing Dynasty. In 1924, the treaty signed in 1911 was revised unilaterally by the ROC government, abolishing the Puyi's title of Emperor, his right to live in the Forbidden City and other related arrangements.
thumb 500px Juliusz Kossak, ''The Relief of Smolensk'' by Polish forces during the Polish-Muscovite War (1605-1618). The painting reflects a historic period when Poles could face Russians on equal terms, unlike their subservient position in the painter's lifetime. Watercolor. '''Juliusz Fortunat Kossak''' (Nowy Wiśnicz, 15 December 1824 – 3 February 1899, Kraków) was a Polish (Poland) historical painter (History painting) and master illustrator who specialized in battle
as plays or dialectics of ideas, a fertile ground for important allegory, using themes from these subjects was considered the most serious form of painting. A hierarchy of genres, originally created in the 17th century, was valued, where history painting—classical, religious, mythological, literary, and allegorical subjects—was placed at the top, next genre painting (Genre works), then portraiture, still-life, and landscape (Landscape art). History painting was also
known as the "grande genre". Paintings of Hans Makart are often larger than life historical dramas, and he combined this with a historicism (historicism (art)) in decoration to dominate the style of 19th century Vienna culture. Paul Delaroche is a typifying example of French history painting. Franz von Suppé died in Vienna on May 21, 1895, and is buried in the Zentralfriedhof. Concert Hall The Concert Hall, located on the south side
by Schalcken. His history paintings are less-well known. Samuel Dirksz van Hoogstraten was born and died in Dordrecht. He was first a pupil of his father Dirk van Hoogstraten, living at Dordrecht until about 1640. On the death of his father, he changed his residence to Amsterdam and entered the school of Rembrandt. A short time later, he started as a master and painter of portraits. He then set out on a round of travels which took him (1651) to Vienna, Rome and London, finally retiring to Dort. There he married in 1656, and held an appointment as provost of the mint. The '''Imago Publishing Company''' was a separate and much more substantial venture, set up after Sigmund Freud arrived in 1938 in London. The stocks of Freud's works left when he fled Vienna and the Nazis (Nazism) had been destroyed; Rodker with Anna Freud worked to publish a complete edition. This was done over a dozen years, being finished in 1952. Imago was wound up in 1961. During Napoleon's failed campaign in Russia, 1812, Schefer was appointed manager of the big estates of his newly-won friend, Prince Hermann von Pückler-Muskau (Hermann von Pückler-Muskau), doing well under hard circumstances until 1816. The prince, recognizing the literary abilities of his friend, encouraged his early poetical efforts. Having visited England together with Pückler for studying landscape gardens (and being deeply impressed by Eliza O'Neill on the stage), Schefer studied composition under Antonio Salieri in Vienna 1816-17, and travelled to Italy, Greece, Egypt, Palestine, and Turkey. Schefer returned in 1819 to Muskau, where he remained for all his life, married, fathering one son and four daughters, due to his literary success in easy - after the lost German revolution 1848 49 (Revolutions of 1848 in Germany) in poor - circumstances, following his literary pursuits until his death, 1862. See Bettina and Lars Clausen: ''Zu allem fähig'', 2 vols., Bangert & Metzler, Frankfurt on Main 1985. In 1929 he became a member of the revolutionary group, the Ustaše. He went from Rijeka to Italy where Ante Pavelić named him his adjutant and commander of all Ustaše in Italy. Artuković led a small uprising in Lika called the Velebit uprising, after which he returned to Italy. His Ustaše codename was ''Hadžija''. Artuković was in conflict with a small group of M. Babić (codenamed Giovanni) supporters, and at the end of 1933 he left Italy. After that he lived in Budapest then Vienna for a short time where he was arrested in 1934 and held in prison for a time. He was expelled from Vienna, after which he returned to Budapest. At the beginning of September 1934 he met Pavelić in Milano, and in the middle of September 1934 he went to London. He was arrested there in October 1934 after the assassination of Yugoslav King Alexander I (Alexander I of Yugoslavia) in Marseilles. After his arrest he was transferred to France, where he spent three months in prison in Paris. In January 1935 he was extradited to Yugoslavia and after 16 months spent in prison in Belgrade he was acquitted and released on 16 April 1936. He lived in Gospić for a while, but in May 1936 he left the country again and went to Austria and later to Germany. At the beginning of 1937 he was under Gestapo investigation in Berlin. Under threat of arrest he left Berlin and visited France, after which he moved to Budapest and then returned to Berlin. Wikipedia:Vienna Commons:Category:Vienna
, Normandy, Kingdom of France (Early modern France) (now France) DATE OF DEATH November 19, 1665 Artistic career Upon his return to France in 1859, Degas moved into a Paris studio large enough to permit him to begin painting ''The Bellelli Family''—an imposing canvas he intended for exhibition in the Salon (Paris Salon), although it remained unfinished until 1867. He also began work on several history paintings: ''Alexander and Bucephalus'' and ''The Daughter of Jephthah
''. * Nanterre, France After two years he traveled further via Florence to Rome where he continued his studies between 1813-1816. He worked on improving his skills as a history painter (history painting), and enjoyed painting smaller studies of the local life and area. He lived there three years among a store group of artists, with Bertel
Commons:Category:Bristol Dmoz:Regional Europe United Kingdom England Bristol Wikipedia:Bristol
Henry, probably shortly after their marriage. More significantly, Henry encouraged West to paint "The Death of Socrates" (1756), perhaps the first history painting produced in the colonies Scott Paul Gordon, “Martial Art: Benjamin West’s ''Death of Socrates'', Colonial Politics, and the Puzzles of Patronage.” ''William and Mary Quarterly'' 65, 1 (2008): 65-100. ; West always credited Henry with having initiated the painter's interest in history painting, the genre for which the painter became so famous. Legacy Henry's sons carried on his gun business, in Lancaster, in Philadelphia, in Nazareth, Pennsylvania, and then in Boulton, PA. One of his sons, John Joseph Henry, served as a sixteen year old rifleman on Benedict Arnold's march on Quebec in the fall and winter of 1775 (he was captured and imprisoned for much of 1776), and later served as president judge of the second District in Pennsylvania from 1795-1811. The first technical meeting of the AIEE was held during the International Electrical Exhibition of 1884, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (October 7–8, at the Franklin Institute). After several years of operating primarily in New York, the AIEE authorized local sections in 1902. These were formed first in the United States (Chicago and Ithaca (Ithaca, New York), 1902) and then in other countries (the first section outside the US being Toronto, Canada, established in 1903). The AIEE's regional structure was soon complemented by a technical structure –the first technical committee of AIEE (the High Voltage Transmission Committee) being formed in 1903. Standardization work started in 1891 with the formation of a committee on units and standards, followed by a committee on standard wiring. The '''Constitution of the United States (United States Constitution)''' is the supreme law of the United States of America (United States) and is the oldest written national constitution still in force. It was completed on September 17, 1787, with its adoption by the Constitutional Convention (History_of_the_United_States_Constitution#Constitutional_Convention) in Philadelphia, and was later ratified by special conventions called for that purpose in each of the then-existing thirteen American states (U.S. state). It took effect in 1788, and has served as a model for a number of other nations' constitutions. It created a more unified government in place of what was then a group of independent states operating under the Articles of Confederation. ('''more... (United States Constitution)''') As of July 1, 2010, the Alumni Association counts 496,969 members within the United States, with an additional 16,180 in countries around the globe.
accession to the throne in 1740, the king became increasingly interested in history paintings, which were highly regarded at his time. Especially, he collected works of renaissance, mannerism and Baroque art, mostly from Italian and Flemish artists. Due to the opening of the Altes Museum in Berlin in 1829, about fifty paintings were transferred there. Among these were the ''Leda'' by Correggio (Antonio da Correggio), three paintings by Rembrandt, some by Peter Paul
at the Akademie der Künste in Berlin in 1907. He was a student of Prof. Julius Ehrentraut (b. 1841), Lovis Corinth (1858–1925), and History painter (History painting) Arthur Kampf. In 1918, he joined the November Group (November Group (german)). Mataré first dedicated himself to sculpture after finishing his painting studies A great part of his sculpted work are of animal figures. * Ali Baba Giritli: May refer to two different persons who are also called under other names. One
) was a Dutch (Netherlands) painter (Painting) and printmaker in etching and engraving. He was one of the "Haarlem Mannerists (Northern Mannerism)" from about 1585, but in the new century altered his style to fit new Baroque trends. He mostly painted history subjects (history painting) and some landscapes. Blaauw was born in Amsterdam, and studied at Leiden University and the University of Groningen, obtaining his doctorate at the latter in 1946. In 1948
for the duration of the war. His parents died in the Holocaust. Art studies Training at the Academy He started his training at the Academy in 1831. He did not think much of this training or of that under private lessons starting in 1836 with J. L. Lund, romantic (romanticism) history painter (history painting). More advantageous to him, he felt, were the time he spent learning craft painting; the time he spent visiting the Danish Royal Painting Collection, now the Statens
) was a Dutch (Netherlands) painter (Painting) of history paintings, genre works and portraits. '''Wilhelmus "Wim" Maria Jonk''' (born 12 October 1966 in Volendam) is a retired Dutch (Netherlands) football (Association football)er. At the height of his career, he also played for the Netherlands national team (Netherlands national football team). McDonald made his competitive debut for Celtic (Celtic F.C.) in the first leg of the 2007–08 UEFA Champions League