", although many escaped slaves (Fugitive slave) were known to gather, at least to worship, as far south and east as what is today Chatham, Ontario. The Henson homestead (Uncle Tom's Cabin Historic Site) is a historic site located near what is today the town of Dresden, and is owned and operated by the Ontario Heritage Trust. Dresden is located on the Sydenham River. The community is named after Dresden, Germany. The major crops in the area are wheat, soybeans, corn
and tomatoes. thumb Centennial (File:Tischwimpel 100 Jahre Dresden.jpg) table flag (1982) with achievement (Achievement (heraldry)) including the motto: ''Vestigia nulla retrorsum'' Culture Dresden is rich in features of interest to visitors and the local population. As an important terminus of the Underground Railroad via overland and marine routes the town was part of a settlement formerly known as the Dawn Settlement. It is the site of Uncle Tom's Cabin Historic Site, which
as ''The Memoirs of Uncle Tom'' and traveled on lecture tours extensively in the United States and Europe. Stowe's novel lent its name to Henson's home—Uncle Tom's Cabin Historic Site, near Dresden, Ontario—which since the 1940s has been a museum. The cabin where Henson lived while he was enslaved no longer exists, but a cabin erroneously thought to be the Henson Cabin was purchased by the Montgomery County, Maryland, government in 2006. http
'''One Arrow First Nation''' is a Canadian Cree First Nation. Its reserve (Indian reserve) is located just south of Batoche (Batoche, Saskatchewan) near the South Saskatchewan River about 100 km Northeast of Saskatoon. The One Arrow First Nation is in the aspen parkland biome. It is bordered by the Rural Municipalities (rural municipality) of St. Louis No. 431 (St. Louis No. 431, Saskatchewan), Fish Creek No. 402 (Fish Creek No. 402, Saskatchewan), and Duck Lake No. 463 (Duck Lake No. 463, Saskatchewan).
Historic Site Bennington Battlefield , Vermont; Saratoga (Battles of Saratoga), Newburgh (Newburgh (city), New York), and Oriskany (Battle of Oriskany), New York; Cowpens (Battle of Cowpens), South Carolina; Monmouth (Battle of Monmouth), New Jersey; and Groton (Battle of Groton Heights), Connecticut. Of these, Cowpens is now a unit in the National Park System, and Bunker Hill, Bennington, Oriskany, and Monmouth are National Historic Landmarks. April 30, 1864, in the midst
, Missouri, USA. Some of the most important historical additions to the System between 1933 and 1964 are almost lost to sight in this long thematic list. Jefferson National Expansion Memorial was the first National Historic Site established under authority of the Historic Sites Act. More important, its 37 square blocks embraced a key urban area on the historic St. Louis waterfront — the first major effort of the Service, after National Capital Parks, to conserve and develop a large
and important urban historic site. Some architectural monuments, including the Old St. Louis Post Office and the Cathedral, have been carefully preserved, but the main feature of the area is the only major national memorial of modern design in the United States, and one of a small number in the world — Eero Saarinen's stainless steel Arch. In 1948 Congress authorized another major urban project, the Independence National Historical Park in Philadelphia, the most important historical area
. The village is located on Highway 4 (Alberta Highway 4), approximately northwest of the United States-Canada border. The Village of Stirling is also referred to as Stirling Agricultural Village due to its designation as a National Historic Site of Canada (National Historic Sites of Canada). It is one of only three Canadian communities designated as such, Quebec City and Louisbourg, Nova Scotia
is known as ''Stirling Agricultural Village''. Parks Canada Village of Stirling National Historic Site of Canada, Parks Canada, accessed 2008-02-26. Stirling is one of only two communities that owed its existence to a partnership between The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and Charles A. Magrath (Charles Alexander Magrath) of the North Western Coal and Navigation Company, http
: www.prairierails.net nwcnco.htm North Western Coal and Navigation Company Retrieved on 2007-08-02 and it is one of only three communities designated as a National Historic Site of Canada. Parks Canada - Stirling Agricultural Village New Stirling thumb left 100px Poster advertising lots in Maybutt, Alberta "New Stirling" (Image:Plans for Maybutt, Alberta.jpg)
) is a Canadian (Canada) town near the mouth of the Detroit River in Essex County, Ontario. In 1796 Fort Malden was established here, becoming the heart of the settlement. It has been designated as a National Historic Site. The city is approximately south of the U.S. city of Detroit, Michigan, facing Wyandotte (Wyandotte, Michigan), Grosse Ile Township (Grosse Ile Township, Michigan), Brownstown Charter Township, Michigan Brownstown Charter Township
Historic Site. Other festivities include: *Annual Carnival (May) *Beef In the Burg Barbecue (June) *Firefighters "J Wimpy" Volleyball Tournament (June) *Verdi Club Festival (July) *Boblo International Jazz Festival (July) *Canada Day Celebrations (July 1) *Gone Crazy Car Show (July) *Ribfest (July) *Shores of Erie International Wine Festival (September) *Cancer Walk-a-thon (October) *Pumpkinville (October) *Christmas Parade (Late November) *River Lights (November and December
http: library.thinkquest.org 22916 exbrit.html established 1975 location Amherstburg, Ontario, Canada type National Historic Site (National Historic Site of Canada) The '''Nazrey African Methodist Episcopal Church National Historic Site''' and '''North American Black Historical Museum''' are located in Amherstburg, Ontario, Canada. After the Revolution, Elliott established himself on a farm at what became
of Marlborough.jpg Oil painting of the Duke of Marlborough in HBC building File:Oil painting of Henry Hudson.jpg Oil painting of Henry Hudson in HBC building The ''Moose Factory Buildings National Historic Site of Canada'' "consisted of several buildings, of which only the Staff House is at its original location. Built in 1847-50, it is the last surviving fur trade officer’s dwelling in Canada and the oldest building in the James Bay area. The Powder Magazine, built in 1865-66
, is situated some distance away on its original location, in what is now Centennial Park." The 19th century buildings associated with the Hudson's Bay Company post were designated a National Historic Sites of Canada National Historic Site
), son of an English surveyor and Ojibway wife. William McLeod House was the carpenter's house built in 1889-90 by HBC carpenter William McLeod.
. One of Colwood's best known landmark is Hatley Castle (Hatley Park National Historic Site), now home to Royal Roads University. It is a Scottish Baronial mansion and grounds originally built as a residence for James Dunsmuir, Premier (Premier of British Columbia) and later Lieutenant Governor (Lieutenant Governor of British Columbia) of British Columbia. Colwood almost became the seat of the Crown of the Commonwealth realm in 1940, when, after the start
eng lhn-nhs bc fortroddhill index.aspx Fort Rodd Hill , another Canadian National Historic Site. Built by the British in the 1890s, this coast artillery fort was designed to defend Victoria and the Esquimalt Naval Base (CFB Esquimalt). Visitors come to explore the three gun batteries, underground magazines, command posts, guardhouses, barracks and searchlight emplacements that are the vestiges of a bygone era. Set on a wide open waterfront park near the Fisgard Lighthouse, visitors can see the sea and mountain views, go for bird watches and investigate the tide pools along the shoreline. The city has many regional amenities, including the City's waterfront at Esquimalt Lagoon which includes a National Migratory Bird Sanctuary, the Juan de Fuca Recreation Centre, The Q Centre, Royal Colwood Golf Club, Olympic View Golf Club and the library facilities for the Western Communities. As it lies geographically to the south of Victoria, Colwood is western Canada's southernmost city. Neighbourhoods of Colwood * Belmont Park * Colwood Corners * Esquimalt Lagoon * Hatley Park (Hatley Park (Greater Victoria)) * Wishart * Royal Roads * Triangle Mountain * Royal Bay * Latoria Walk Demographics Colwood had a population of 14,687 people in 2006, which was an increase of 6.9% from the 2001 census count. The median household income in 2005 for Colwood was $68,798, which is above the British Columbia provincial average of $52,709. The '''Western Communities''' or '''WestShore''' is a term used to describe the suburban municipalities of Colwood (Colwood, British Columbia), Langford (Langford, British Columbia), Metchosin (Metchosin, British Columbia) and The Highlands (Highlands, British Columbia). Greater Langford and unincorporated districts (unincorporated community) west of Esquimalt Harbour and Portage Inlet, and south of the Malahat (Malahat, British Columbia) in the Capital Regional District (CRD), Greater Victoria of British Columbia, Canada. The Town of View Royal (View Royal, British Columbia), which straddles Esquimalt Harbour, may also be included. It is an area of growing residential subdivisions, although farmland and substantial tracts of wilderness still predominate. established location Royal Roads University (formerly the Royal Roads Military College) in Colwood, British Columbia in Greater Victoria, British Columbia Canada type University Museum - Historic House Museum thumb Hatley Castle (File:Hatley Castle1.jpg) '''Hatley Park National Historic Site''' is located in Colwood, British Columbia in Greater Victoria. It is the site of Hatley Castle, a Classified Federal Heritage Building. Since 1995, the mansion and estate have been used for the public Royal Roads University. From the 1940s-1995, it was used for the Royal Roads Military College, a naval training facility.
) for the invention of the telephone from the Académie française, representing the French government. Among the luminaries who judged were Victor Hugo and Alexandre Dumas (Alexandre Dumas, fils). The Volta Prize was conceived by Napoleon Bonaparte in 1801, and named in honor of Alessandro Volta, with Bell receiving the third grand prize in its history. Crosland, Maurice P. ''"Science Under Control: The French Academy of Sciences, 1795–1914"'', Cambridge University Press, 1992. As cited by James Love in KEI Issues Report on Selected Innovation Prizes and Reward Programs: The Volta Prize For Electricity, March 20, 2008, p. 16. Retrieved ''Knowledge Ecology International website'', January 5, 2010. Davis. John L. Artisans and savants: The Role of the Academy of Sciences in the Process of Electrical Innovation in France, 1850–1880, Annals of Science, Volume 55, Issue 3, July 1998, p. 301. Retrieved" ''InformaWorld.com,'' January 5, 2010. "Honors to Professor Bell.", ''Boston Daily Evening Traveller'', September 1, 1880, Library of Congress, Alexander Graham Bell Family Papers. Retrieved April 5, 2009. "Volta Prize of the French Academy Awarded to Prof. Alexander Graham Bell, September 1, 1880." ''Library of Congress'', Alexander Graham Bell Family Papers. Retrieved April 5, 2009. "Telegram from Grossman to Alexander Graham Bell, August 2, 1880." ''Library of Congress'', Alexander Graham Bell Family Papers. Retrieved April 5, 2009. "Telegram from Alexander Graham Bell to Count du Moncel, 1880." ''Library of Congress'', Alexander Graham Bell Family Papers. Retrieved April 5, 2009. "Letter from Frederick T. Frelinghuysen to Alexander Graham Bell, January 7, 1882." ''Library of Congress'', Alexander Graham Bell Family Papers. Retrieved April 5, 2009. Since Bell was becoming increasingly affluent, he used his prize money to create endowment funds (the 'Volta Fund') and institutions in and around the United States capital of Washington, D.C.. These included the prestigious'' 'Volta Laboratory Association' ''(1880), also known as the'' Volta Laboratory (Volta Laboratory and Bureau) ''and as the'' 'Alexander Graham Bell Laboratory', ''and which eventually led to the Volta Bureau (1887) as a center for studies on deafness which is still in operation in Georgetown, Washington, D.C. The Volta Laboratory became an experimental facility devoted to scientific discovery, and the very next year invented a wax phonograph cylinder that was later used by Thomas Edison; "Letter from Mabel Hubbard Bell, February 27, 1880." ''Library of Congress'', Alexander Graham Bell Family Papers. Retrieved April 5, 2009. N.B.: last line of the typed note refers to the future disposition of award funds:'' "... and thus the matter lay till the paper turned up. He intends putting the full amount into his Laboratory and Library";'' The laboratory was also the site where he and his associate invented his'' 'proudest achievement','' the Photophone, the ''optical telephone'' which presaged fibre optical telecommunications (Fiber-optic communication), while the Volta Bureau would later evolve into the Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing (the AG Bell), a leading center for the research and pedagogy of deafness. Following his successful invention of the telephone and being relatively wealthy, Bell acquired land near Baddeck (Baddeck, Nova Scotia) in 1885, largely due to surroundings reminiscent of his early years in Scotland. He established a summer estate complete with research laboratories, working with deaf people—including Helen Keller—and continued to invent. Baddeck would be the site of his experiments with hydrofoil technologies as well as the Aerial Experiment Association, financed by his wife, which saw the first powered flight in the British Empire when the AEA ''Silver Dart'' (AEA Silver Dart) took off from the ice-covered waters of Bras d'Or Lake. Bell
. On September 9, 1919 the HD-4 set a world marine speed record of 114 km h (70.86 mph), a record which stood for two decades. A full-scale replica of Bell's HD-4 is viewable at the Alexander Graham Bell National Historic Site (Alexander_Graham_Bell#Legacy_and_honors) museum in Baddeck, Nova Scotia. thumb right 250px The "Largest Ceilidh Fiddle in the World". Located at the Sydney waterfront. (Image:Sydney Fiddle.JPG) In recent decades, Cape Breton Island has become home to a significant tourism industry, with Sydney (as the island's largest urban centre) being a prime beneficiary. Until the early 2000s when its economy was tied to the steel industry, Sydney had been overlooked as a tourist destination, with the more centrally located scenic village of Baddeck (Baddeck, Nova Scotia) being a preferred location for tourists transiting the Cabot Trail, however Sydney has recently witnessed a revival as a result of significant government investment in cruise ship facilities and a waterfront revitalization plan which has seen a boardwalk and marinas constructed, and the world's largest fiddle. This funding is part of the post-industrial adjustment package offered by the federal and provincial governments. Sydney's tourism draw is increasingly linked to its cultural asset as being the urban heart of Cape Breton Island. Its population is a diverse mixture of nationalities which contributes to various Scottish, Acadian, African Canadian and eastern European cultural events being held throughout the year. Sydney's accommodation sector is centrally located to attractions in Louisbourg (Louisbourg, Nova Scotia) (home of the Fortress of Louisbourg), Glace Bay (Glace Bay, Nova Scotia) (home of the Glace Bay Miners Museum), Baddeck (Baddeck, Nova Scotia) (home of the Alexander Graham Bell Museum), as well as popular touring destinations such as the Cabot Trail, Cape Breton Highlands National Park, and Bras d'Or Lake. Construction of Highway 105 (Nova Scotia Highway 105) (the Trans-Canada Highway) between North Sydney (North Sydney, Nova Scotia) and the Canso Causeway in the 1960s resulted in the re-routing of most Cabot Trail tourism traffic. The Cabot Trail is now advertised with its start and end-point in Baddeck (Baddeck, Nova Scotia), bypassing the traditional western approach to the Cabot Trail through Judique (Judique, Nova Scotia), Port Hood, Inverness (Inverness, Nova Scotia) and Margaree Harbour (Margaree Harbour, Nova Scotia), and thus decreasing tourism traffic on the Ceilidh Trail. thumb Sunrise Valley, Cape North, Nova Scotia Cape North (File:CabotTrail in 2010.JPG) in 2010 *Baddeck (Baddeck, Nova Scotia), the gateway to the Cabot Trail and the location of the Alexander Graham Bell National Historic Site *St. Ann's (St. Ann's, Nova Scotia), home of the world famous Gaelic College of Celtic Arts and Crafts thumb left Canada's first aircraft, the AEA Silver Dart (Image:AEA Silver Dart.jpg) The aviation age came to Canada on 23 February 1909, when Alexander Graham Bell's (Alexander Graham Bell) ''Silver Dart (AEA Silver Dart)'' took off from the ice of Bras d'Or Lake at Baddeck, Nova Scotia with J.D. McCurdy (John Alexander Douglas McCurdy) at the controls. This 1 2-mile flight was the first "controlled powered flight" (also the first flight of a "heavier than air craft") in Canada and the British Empire. Roberts 1959, p. 3. A longer flight of 20 miles was flown at Bras d'Or Lake on 10 March 1909. Roberts 1959, p. 5. The '''''Silver Dart''''' (or '''''Aerodrome #4''''') was a derivative of an early aircraft built by a Canadian U.S. team, which after many successful flights in Hammondsport, New York, earlier in 1909, was dismantled and shipped to Baddeck, Nova Scotia. It was flown off the ice of Baddeck Bay, a sub-basin of Bras d'Or Lake, on 23 February 1909, making it the first controlled powered flight in Canada. The aircraft was piloted by one of its designers, John McCurdy (John Alexander Douglas McCurdy). The original ''Silver Dart'' was designed and built by the Aerial Experiment Association (AEA), formed under the guidance of Dr. Alexander Graham Bell. From 1891, Bell had begun experiments at Baddeck (Baddeck, Nova Scotia) and Hammondsport (Hammondsport, New York) to develop motor-powered heavier-than-air aircraft. By 1908, the success of the AEA was seen in a series of ground-breaking designs, culminating in the ''Silver Dart''.By the time the ''Silver Dart'' was constructed in late 1908, it was the Aerial Experiment Association's fourth flying machine. One of its precursors, the ''June Bug'' (AEA June Bug), had already broken records. It won the ''Scientific American'' Trophy for making the first official one mile flight in North America. Weymouth (Weymouth, Nova Scotia) group7 Lists
''For the headland, see Cape Canso.'' Category:Communities in Guysborough County, Nova Scotia Category:Towns in Nova Scotia Category:General Service Areas in Nova Scotia Category:Conflicts in Nova Scotia The battles during these wars were primarily fought at Port Royal (Port Royal, Nova Scotia), Saint John (Saint John, New Brunswick), Canso (Canso, Nova Scotia), Chignecto (Isthmus of Chignecto), Dartmouth (Raid on Dartmouth (1751)), Lunenburg (Raid on Lunenburg (1756)) and Grand-Pré (Grand-Pré, Nova Scotia). The American Revolution (1776–1783) had a significant impact on shaping Nova Scotia. Throughout the war, American privateers devastated the maritime economy by raiding many of the coastal communities. Raids happened regularly on Lunenburg (Raid on Lunenburg (1782)), Annapolis Royal (Annapolis Royal, Nova Scotia), Canso (Canso, Nova Scotia) and Liverpool (Liverpool, Nova Scotia). Roger Marsters (2004). ''Bold Privateers: Terror, Plunder and Profit on Canada's Atlantic Coast'', p. 87–89. There were also two naval battles: the Naval battle off Halifax and another off Sydney, Cape Breton (Naval battle off Cape Breton). There was ambivalence in Nova Scotia—the 14th American Colony, as some called it—over whether or not the colony should join the Americans in the rebellion against Britain (See Battle of Fort Cumberland and the Siege of Saint John (1777)). The Stan Rogers Folk Festival is held every year in Canso, Nova Scotia. In 1995, several artists performed two nights of concerts at Halifax's Rebecca Cohn Auditorium, which were released on album that year as ''Remembering Stan Rogers''. The war was fought on two fronts: the southern border of Acadia, which New France defined as the Kennebec River in southern Maine. William Williamson 1832. p. 27 The other front was in Nova Scotia and involved preventing New Englanders from taking the capital of Acadia, Port Royal (See Queen Anne's War), establishing themselves at Canso (Canso, Nova Scotia) (See Father Rale's War) and founding Halifax (see Father Le Loutre's War). Father Rale's War During the excalation that proceeded Father Rale's War (1722–1725), some Acadians, the Wabanaki Confederacy and the French Priests participated again in defending Acadia at its border against New England. Present-day New Brunswick and most of Maine remained contested territory between New England and Acadia. Mi'kmaq raided the new fort at Canso, Nova Scotia (1720). The Confederacy made numerous raids on New England settlements along the border into New England. Towards the end of January 1722, Governor Shute chose to launch a punitive expedition against Father Rale at Norridgewock. http: www.biographi.ca 009004-119.01-e.php?BioId 35180 This breach of the border of Acadia drew all of the tribes of the Wabanaki Confederacy into the conflict. Under potential siege by the Confederacy, in May 1722, Lieutenant Governor John Doucett took 22 Mi'kmaq hostage at Annapolis Royal to prevent the capital from being attacked. Grenier, p. 56 In July 1722 the Abenaki (Abenaki people) and Mi'kmaq (Mi'kmaq people) created a blockade of Annapolis Royal, with the intent of starving the capital. Beamish Murdoch. History of Nova Scotia or Acadia, p. 399 The natives captured 18 fishing vessels and prisoners from present-day Yarmouth (Yarmouth, Nova Scotia) to Canso (Canso, Nova Scotia). They also seized prisoners and vessels from the Bay of Fundy. 300px thumb right Duc d'Anville Expedition (Image:Samuel Scott - Action Between Nottingham And Mars 1746.jpg): ''Action between HMS Nottingham (HMS Nottingham (1703)) and the Mars.'' 300px thumb right Duc d'Anville Expedition (Image:Samuel Scott - Action Between Nottingham And Mars 1746.jpg): ''Action between HMS Nottingham (HMS Nottingham (1703)) and the Mars.'' As a result of the escalating conflict, Massachusetts Governor Samuel Shute officially declared war on July 22, 1722. ''A history of Nova-Scotia, or Acadie'', Volume 1, by Beamish Murdoch, p. 398 The first battle of Father Rale's War happened in the Nova Scotia theatre. The Nova Scotia theatre of the Dummer War is named the "Mi'kmaq-Maliseet War" by John Grenier. ''The Far Reaches of Empire: War in Nova Scotia 1710-1760''. University of Oklahoma Press. 2008. In response to the blockade of Annapolis Royal, at the end of July 1722, New England launched a campaign to end the blockade and retrieve over 86 New England prisoners taken by the natives. One of these operations resulted in the Battle at Jeddore (Battle at Winnepang (Jeddore Harbour)). Beamish Murdoch. A history of Nova-Scotia, or Acadie, Volume 1, p. 399; Geoffery Plank, An Unsettled Conquest, p. 78 The next was a raid on Canso (Canso, Nova Scotia) in 1723. Benjamin Church, p. 289; John Grenier, p. 62 Then in July 1724 when a group of sixty Mikmaq and Maliseets raided Annapolis Royal (Annapolis Royal, Nova Scotia). Faragher, John Mack, A Great and Noble Scheme New York; W. W. Norton & Company, 2005. pp. 164-165; Brenda Dunn, p. 123 Father Le Loutre's War Despite the British Conquest of Acadia (Siege of Port Royal (1710)) in 1710, Nova Scotia remained primarily occupied by Catholic Acadians and Mi'kmaq. Present-day New Brunswick remained contested territory between New England and Acadia. To prevent the establishment of Protestant settlements in the region, Mi'kmaq raided the early British settlements of present-day Shelburne (Shelburne, Nova Scotia) (1715) and Canso (Canso, Nova Scotia) (1720). A generation later, Father Le Loutre's War began when Edward Cornwallis arrived to establish Halifax (Halifax Regional Municipality) with 13 transports on June 21, 1749. The framework Father Le Loutre's War is developed by John Grenier in his books ''The Far Reaches of Empire. War in Nova Scotia, 1710-1760''. (University of Oklahoma Press, 2008) and ''The first way of war: American war making on the frontier, 1607-1814'' (Cambridge University Press, 2005). He outlines his rational for naming these conflicts as Father Le Loutre's War; Thomas Beamish Akins. History of Halifax, Brookhouse Press. 1895. (2002 edition). p 7 By unilaterally establishing Halifax the British were violating earlier treaties with the Mi'kmaq (1726), which were signed after Father Rale's War. Wicken, p. 181; Griffith, p. 390; Also see http: www.northeastarch.com vieux_logis.html The British quickly began to build other settlements. To guard against Mi'kmaq, Acadian and French attacks on the new Protestant settlements, British fortifications were erected in Halifax (Citadel Hill) (Citadel Hill (Fort George)) (1749), Dartmouth (1750), Bedford (Fort Sackville) (1751), Lunenburg (Lunenburg, Nova Scotia) (1753) and Lawrencetown (Lawrencetown, Nova Scotia) (1754). ref name
on the Penobscot River, and building a church in the Maliseet village of Medoctec (Meductic Indian Village Fort Meductic) on the St. John River (Saint John River (Bay of Fundy)). John Grenier, ''The Far Reaches of Empire''. University of Oklahoma Press, 2008
for each subject as well. -- Marconi National Historic Site The Marconi National Historic Site of Canada (Marconi National Historic Sites of Canada) is located at Table Head in Glace Bay. Parks Canada maintains an interpretive centre at the site honouring the role of Guglielmo Marconi in the development of radio communications. In December 1902, Marconi transmitted the first complete
* Marconi Museum (Marconi National Historic Site of Canada) * Miners Village * Renwick Brook Park * Queen Elizabeth Park * Glace Bay Heritage Museum * John Bernard Croak Memorial Park See also * Reserve Mines * Dominion (Dominion, Nova Scotia) * Cape Breton Island * Province of Cape Breton References Notes Bibliography External links *