without any doubt. However, it is not clear again how Gelemso was elevated to a place of high social status with the establishment of Oda Bultum, pertaining that the place called so is 25 km away from the town. Some people say Gelemso was an administrative capital and the seat of the ''Mana Bokkuu'' (the President's Office) of the Eastern Oromo, with Oda Bultum serving as the place where Caffee Gadaa assembled only once in eight years. And others say that it was a place where the Oda Bultum itself was located prior to its move to the current place. Latter on, oral history says, Gelemso evolved to an important village of commerce when one of its counties called ''Qabri Lukku'' (now found in the south eastern tip of the town) was organized as a market center to accommodate traders who were coming from different regions. It is said that at that place, a local chief called ''Lukkuu'' had mastered over the caravan traders who used to sell the goods they brought from remote areas. Few elders, however, dispute this story and say rather ''Lukku'' was a man who in ancient times, left the traditional Oromo religion and accepted Islam so that when he was diseased, the Ittu Oromo sanctioned his dead body not to be buried with the mass, a reason why we see his grave on isolated ground. (''Qabrii Lukku'' mean ''grave of Lukku'') To conclude, when we consider oral histories which assert the town had ''Karra Torba'' (The Seven Gates) in ancient times, non existent in the case of other towns of West Harerghe save Gelemso, when we consider its presence closer to places of significant traditions like ''Halayya Buchuro'' and ''Laga Bera'' (retold as a place where once ruthless and contestant dictatorial queen called Akkoo Manoyye had built her palace), when we analyze its tie to Oda Bultum and the presence of the shrines of Aw-Seid both at Gelemso and Oda Bultum, we can deduce that ''Gelemso'' must had been a place of higher social and spiritual importance in the tradition of the Oromo people since ancient times. And to the least, we can say it existed on the ''line of history'' long before the appearance of many of the current towns of the Hararghe region. After the conquests of Menelik II In 1887, while campaigning to occupy the city state of Harar and the whole of Eastern Ethiopia, which he accomplished after his victory at the Battle of Chelenqo, Bahru Zewde, ''A History of Modern Ethiopia: 1855-1991'', 3rd edition, Addis Ababa University Press, Addis Ababa, 2001, p. 72 Emperor Menelik II had arrived at the bottom of the current Gelemso town. The Ethiopian writer ''Tekletsadik Mekuria'' tells that Menelik arrived at Gelemso on December 18, 1886. Tekletsadik Mekuria , '' Emperor Yohannes and the Ethiopian Unity'', (written in Amharic), Kuraz Publishers, Addis Ababa, 1990, p. 291 Menelik was attracted by the landscape around Gelemso and ordered a garrison to be founded there, which his warlords had executed immediately. The garrison was established at the western part of the current town, and had been called ''Gorgo'' (an ''Amharic'' name for a kind of tree). That was a second turn in the long history of Gelemso, by which it had leaped from a small village of cultural importance to a truly urbanized community. However, elderly people assert that the formation of the garrison had also some bad objectives behind. It is said that Menelik II had an aim of erasing the centrality and symbolism of early places like Gelemso from the mind and the heart of his Oromo subjects. Truly speaking, it was Emperor Menelik II who officially closed down all of the traditional Oromo institutions like Chaffe assembly and prohibited many other cultural feasts, a fact that Ethiopian writers of the early 20th century like Aleqa Tayye had recorded. Getachew Haile, '' The Works of Abba Bahrey with Other Records Concerning the Oromo '', Avon, Minnesota, p. 222 But the true urban feature of the town dates from Menelik's period. This will be agreeable when we know that in 1908, Gelemso was one of the few centers that the imperial government formally recognized as true towns. ''Mayor Berhanu Bekam's Speech on the inauguration of Gelemso public bus station'', 1990, and new data obtained from Gelemso Municipality, December 2009, Gelemso, West Harerghe. The Municipality recounts this year 1908 as the birth date of a town. But the elders do not agree with that, neither the writer of this article (Alladin Alevi) too. This may be justified by the fact that the Menilik's landing at Gelemso was in 1887, and it is assumed that the Emperor did not had rest at a village which cannot fulfill the subsistence needs of his huge army; and where marketing was inaccessible. That means Gelemso had at least certain appearance of a small town or it had been a market place prior to the Menelik's period. During the Italian occupation Gelemso stayed under a period of dwarfism and stagnancy in the reign of ''Ras Teferi Mekonnen'' (latter Emperor Haile Selassie I ) who had special sympathy for another town established in the Chercher highlands and named for his honor Asebe Teferi(which mean ''Teferi wished it'' in Amharic). Bahru Zewde narrates that in 1933, immediately after his ascension to the throne, Emperor Haile Selesie made Chercher Awraja the model of his future administration system. Bahru Zewde, ''A History of Modern Ethiopia: 1855-1991'', 3rd edition, Addis Ababa University Press, Addis Ababa, 2007, p. 156 However, when Italy conquered Ethiopia and formed the Italian East Africa in 1935, Bahru Zewde, ''A History of Modern Ethiopia: 1855-1991'', 3rd edition, Addis Ababa University Press, Addis Ababa, 2007, p. 169 Gelemso began to expand in every direction. During their five years administration, the Italians returned the seat of the Chercher province to Gelemso (which was moved first to ''Kunni'', then to Asebe Teferi or Chiro by the Haile Selassie officials) and made valuable change on its urban customs. They established new settlements in the northern and eastern parts of the town, starting from a hill called now ''Kambo'' (from Italian (Italian language) ''campo'' which mean a military camp). The Italian occupiers also constructed the first graveled road of the town, and connected it with Addis Ababa and Dire Dawa through all weather roads which run in the west to Awash (Awash, Ethiopia) (via small towns of Hardim and Bordode ), and in the east to Dire Dawa through Wachu and Bedessa. (the remnant of the western old road still exists with its decorated Italian style bridge built on the northern section of Aw Seid river ). The first modern buildings of the town were also attributed to the Italians, the most eloquent of them being ''St. Michael Catholic Church'' mentioned above. Scholars tell us that the Italians had focused on Gelemso because of its presence in the vicinity of Wachu (10 km east of Gelemso), a place where they intended to build Secondo Roma (Second Rome), a future city to be evolved from the agrarian community that would be brought from southern Italy under the resettlement program. On the other hand, one of the most important features of Gelemso town, the Sheikh Omar mosque, was built in that period while Sheikh Omar was Qadi of the Chercher province. After the Italian occupation In 1951, the Christian missionary group of ''American Adventist Church'' constructed the first school of the town at a place called ''Lode'' ( now separated from the main town by gorge created by gully erosion and called ''Tirso'' ). Although the group closed its missionary activities in the 1960s, the school they built has continued to function to this day, and the elderly people still call it ''Amerikaanii'' (The American). Gelemso was made a municipal town in 1952. And in the year 1958, while it remained still under the Chercher awraja administration, it was designated an electoral district (in Amharic called ''የምርጫ አውራጃ'') and had got 2 seats in the imperial parliamentary assembly of the Haile Seliasie regime, which was won in that very year by ''Haji Abdullahi Sheikh Ahmed'' and ''Mukhtar Mohammed''. ደጃዝማች፡ደምስ፡ወልደ፡ዐማኑኤል፣ ሕገ፡መንግሥትና፡ምክር፡ቤት ፣ሁለተኛ፡መጽሐፍ፣ ዐዲስ፡አበባ፣ ጥቅምት፡1951፡ዓ.ም.፣ገጽ፡163-185 However, the governmental projects were rarely planned and executed in the town then. But when it became the capital of Habro ''Awraja'' up on the splitting up of the former Chercher Awraja to Habro and Chercher-Adal-Gara Guracha Awrajas (Chiro or Asebe Teferi remained the latter's capital) in the year 1968 and afterwards, some improvements were made. For example, the town was equipped with electric light service for 6 hours a night, and its tap water supply system (built by Italians) was expanded. However, it was the efforts of Arabian, European and Asian traders that greatly helped Gelemso continue its long standing role as market center and ''social panorama''. The list of those foreign traders includes ''Nasir Sana'ani'', ''Abdallah Ubadi'', ''Ali Ahmed'', ''Ali Sa'ad'', ''Salah Muhsin'' who were all Yemen (Demographics of Yemen)is, the Greeks (Greece) ''Kostar Gragor'' and his brother ''Stafrol'', the Italians (Italy) ''Antonio Viccini'' and ''Francesco Berto'', the Sudanese ''Haji Abdullah'' and ''Sheikh Bashir Babikir'', and the Indian ''Usma'il Hindii''. Latter on, natives of the town like ''Mohammad Abdo (Lungo)'', ''Ahmed Yusuf'', ''Mohammed Beker'', ''Muteki Sheikh Mohammed'' and his brother Ahmad Taqi, ''Haji Ahmed Nure'', ''Haji Sani Abdulqadir'', ''Ahmed Alhadi'', ''Usmail Ahmayyu'', ''Nejash Usmail'', ''Belew Haile'', ''Mekonnen Metaferia'', ''Jemaneh Yimamu'', ''Tiruneh Gebremichael'', ''Omar Ghazali'' and his brother ''Mumme Ghazali'' etc....and well known Ethiopian entrepreneurs like Mohammed Abdullahi Ogsade also entered to the business and they altogether marked the town's classic commercial era. That was why the Commercial Bank of Ethiopia moved against its working rule of the time and opened a branch at Gelemso (according to its working rule of that time, the bank do not open its branch in a town found far away from the High Way). Commercial Bank of Ethiopia, ''Gelemso Branch Inauguration Ceremony'', December 1969, p. 17 In the late 1960s and early 1970s, General Taddese Birru, a well known Oromo nationalist and co-founder of ''Mecha-Tulama Self Help Association'', Bahru Zewde, ''A History of Modern Ethiopia: 1855-1991'', 3rd edition, Addis Ababa University Press, Addis Ababa, 2007, p. 273 Geda Melba, ''Oromia: An Introduction to the History of Oromo People'', Khartoum, 1988, p. 183-184 had been in the town for his supposed ''ግዞት'' (Amharic for ''house arrest'') . Fortunately, the incident favored '' Tadesse'' to meet other early Oromo nationalists like ''Elemo Kiltu'', ''Ahmad Taqi'' and ''Mohammed Zakir Meyra'', with whom he could demonstrate his devotion for Oromo freedom, an act that became one of the main reasons for which Gelemso is heard so loudly. From the 1974 Revolution up to 1992 When the Dergue came to power in 1974, Bahru Zewde, ''A History of Modern Ethiopia: 1855-1991'', 3rd edition, Addis Ababa University Press, Addis Ababa, 2007, p. 241 more attention was given to Gelemso. Viewers and most of the residents say that the Dergue era was a prosperous time in the town's history where many governmental buildings were erected, and subsequent improvements were made in the town. This includes the health centre, two primary schools, the current Gelemso High school, the multi purpose city assembly hall (a unique at the time in all of Eastern Ethiopia), the public slaughter house, a stadium, youth recreation center, farmers training center and most notably, the Gelemso-Mechara high way. On the other hand, NGOs like CARE (CARE (relief agency)) international highly participated in the development activities of the Habro Awraja starting from the late 1980s. The 1984 Harerghe Province All Games Championship it hosted was the major sport festival in history of the town where all of the 13 awrajas in Hararghe participated in the contest. Gelemso was also the first town of Eastern Ethiopia where the Development Bank of Ethiopia had opened its branch (now this branch had moved to Chiro or Asbeteferi ). One of the main urban zones of the town, called in its Amharic name ''Addis Ketema'' (the New City), totally emerged during the Dergue time as well. It is worth having also to mention the former President Mengistu Haile-Mariam had visited Gelemso and its surrounding villages in 1985 which makes ''Mengistu'' the only Ethiopian ruler that came across the town for official visit while in office. However, the prosperous situation prevailing during the Dergue time must never be considered as an expression of sympathic view of the Dergue towards Gelemso. The motives behind the ''Dergue's'' considerable attention, as many people believe, were the economic importance of the Habro Awraja for whom Gelemso was a capital (among the 13 awrajas of the former Hararghe province), and to an equal importance, Gelemso's central location in the ''Chercher'' highlands, a region highly known for Oromo rebellion. Geda Melba, ''Oromia: An Introduction to History of the Oromo People'', Khartoum, 1988, p. 194 Indeed the ''Dergue'' era was also a period where brutal campaigns like the Red Terror Geda Melba, ''Oromia: An Introduction to History of the Oromo People'', Khartoum, 1988, p. 152 were undertaken in Gelemso and elsewhere in the country. For instance, the residents of Gelemso still have fresh memories of the Kara Qurqura Massacre where 70 people (half of them in the pretext of ''Amhara land lords who resist the land reform'', and half of them labeled ''Oromo secessionists who conspire against the state with Somali Expansionists'' ) Babile Tola, ''To Kill a Generation: The Red Terror in Ethiopia'', Amharic Translation by Awgichew Terefe, Addis Ababa, 1992, p. 96, - However, Babile did 2 mistakes in his book. a). He underestimated the number of the dead. b). He alleged the cause of the dead to EPRP, which had no strong support in Gelemso were taken away from town, executed, and then bulldozed to one grave in April 1970 at a place called ''Karra Qurqura''. (20 km east of Gelemso) On May 30, 1991, the town came under the control of the Oromo Liberation Front (OLF) and was made the administrative center of the OLF-held areas in the former provinces of West Hararghe, Arsi (Arsi Province) and Bale (Bale Province, Ethiopia). The most memorable event of that time was the Oda Bultum festival, where about 800,000 ''Oromos'' came together at Gelemso and Oda Bultum to celebrate the resurrection of the ancient Chaffe Gadaa assembly tradition. Nonetheless, this time has also served as a period of atrocious detentions and executions of Amhara people in Gelemso and the surrounding regions by OLF. On June 21, 1992, when OLF quitted the transitional government, Gelemso was passed to the current Ethiopian government led by the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front along with the other towns of the West Harerghe Zone. References Category:Populated places in the Oromia Region
, a great many yangban were local gentry of high social status, but not always of high income. Haboush JHK (1988), A Heritage of Kings: One Man's Monarchy in the Confucian World. Columbia University Press, pp. 88–9. Another 40-50% of the population were slaves (''nobi''), "low borns" (''cheonmin'') or untouchable (untouchability) outcastes (''baekjeong''). Slavery was hereditary, as well as a form of legal punishment. There was a slave class with both government- and privately owned slaves, and the government occasionally gave slaves to citizens of higher rank. Privately owned slaves could be inherited as personal property. During poor harvests, many sangmin people would voluntarily become slaves in order to survive. ) (1549–1598) was a Chinese general of Ming empire who is from the town of Tieling (Chinese:鐵嶺衛), LiaoDong (Chinese:遼東） province,he was the Commander-in-chief of the Ming Empire (Ming Dynasty)'s army in the first half of the "Sino-Japanese War"(1592–1598) took place in Korea peninsula. The war was ordered by Emperor titled ShenZong (Wanli Emperor) (Chinese:明神宗) http: www.tianyabook.com lishi2005 mingshi 020.htm 冬十月壬寅，李如松提督蓟、辽、保定、山东军务，充防海御倭总兵官，救朝鲜。-《明史》 to protect Korea (Joseon) from the Japanese invasion (Japanese invasions of Korea (1592–1598)) masterminded by Toyotomi Hideyoshi, upon the request of the King of Korea- Li Yan (Seonjo of Joseon) (Chinese:李昖), http: www.tianyabook.com lishi2005 mingshi 020.htm 五月，倭犯朝鲜，陷王京，朝鲜王李昖公奔义州求救。-《明史》 as well as following Ming empire's obligation to protect its vassal state(In Ming dynasty,Korea was considered part of China,unlike the present concept of "vassal state".) http: www.tianyabook.com lishi2005 mingshi 320.htm 朝鲜在明虽称属国，而无异域内。-《明史》 His father was Li Chengliang (Chinese:李成梁）,was also a famed army commander of Ming empire,was known for his accomplishment of defending LiaoDong province from Manchus. http: www.read126.cn 194c6894-51d5-4df3-a4bc-fa1282139f82!39f5412a-ad19-49c8-bffc-bceba1682122.html 成梁英毅骁健，有大将才。家贫，不能袭职，年四十犹为诸生。巡按御史器之，资入京，乃得袭。积功为辽东险山参将。隆庆元年，士蛮大入永平。成梁赴援有功，进副总兵，仍守险山。寻协守辽阳。三年四月，张摆失等屯塞下，成梁迎击斩之，歼其卒百六十有奇。-《明史》 Based on historical document Li Rusong's 6th generation ancestor Li Ying(Chinese:李英) is originally from the Korean town of Chosan in present-day North Korea (Hangul: 초산군, Hanja: 楚山郡,Chinese:楚山郡). But there is also historical document states that the further ancestor of family Li was from central China,who moved to Korea during war time. http: baike.baidu.com view 70277.htm 有考证说李如松祖籍为陇西，唐朝末年为避乱迁入朝鲜，祖上旅居朝鲜的先祖可以追查四代，名为：李哲根穗、李哈山、李厦霸努、李把图理。李把图理的儿子“李膺尼，洪武渡江 李如松 李如松 归附”明朝，归附后“授总旗”，高祖李英，授世铁岭指挥佥事，从此李氏便在铁岭安家落户。到了李如松的父亲李成梁这一代，李氏一门世袭官爵，族亲旺盛，成了明清以来铁岭著名的大户。 Expulsion Jang's extraordinary accomplishments earned him much trust of the king. Some government officials were very jealous of Jang, especially when he had achieved so much regardless of his common origin. Furthermore, as Joseon's society was rooted in Korean Confucianism, scientists and engineers were held in low esteem in parallel with craftsmen. *Chosen Army of Japan, the occupation army under Japanese rule (Korea under Japanese rule). *Chosŏn, see under Joseon or Joseon Dynasty. *''Chosun Ilbo'', a South Korean newspaper. According to Annals of Joseon Dynasty, Nam Gon now set out to slander Jo and wrote a phrase "Ju cho will become the king" (주초위왕, 走肖爲王)" with honey or sugary water on mulberry leaves so that caterpillars left behind such phrase on leaves in the palace. Annals, September 21, 1568 When two Hanja (Chinese) characters "ju"(走) and "cho"(肖) are put together, they form a new Hanja character "jo"(趙), which happen to be Jo Gwang-jo's family name. Consort Hong or Consort Park showed the leaf to Jungjong and claimed that this was the heaven's warning that Jo would take the throne himself after eliminating Hungu faction. Jungjong, who himself rose to the throne through a coup d'état, began to distrust Jo Gwang-jo. It should be noted that when Goryeo dynasty fell and was replaced by Joseon dynasty, there was popular saying "Son of wood will gain the country" (목자득국 木子得國). When two Hanja characters meaning wood(木) and son(子) are combined, they form a new character "yi"(李), which happens to be the family name of Yi Seoung-gye (Taejo of Joseon), who deposed the last king of Goryeo and founded Joseon dynasty. These phrases helped Yi Seoung-gye win popular support for the new dynasty as heaven's will.
divided into three groups, one of which was known as the 'Taichung Clique'. These were men who had enjoyed relatively high social standing during the Japanese era, such as Lin Hsien-tang, Yang Chao-chia, Yeh Jung-chung, and others. They attempted to take what they believed to be their rightful place as the new political leaders of the island. However, the ROC administrator of the island, Chen Yi (Chen Yi (Kuomintang)), opposed this group as it contained many people, especially merchants
Nationalist Party, relocated the government of the Republic of China to Taiwan upon losing the Chinese Civil War to the Communists. The early post-war era was one of transition and turmoil for Taiwan. Taiwanese nationalists had divided into three prominent groups, one of which was known as the Taichung Clique. These were men with relatively high social standing during the Japanese era, such as Lin Hsien-t’ang, Yang Chao-chia, Yeh Jung-chung, and others. These men attempted to take what
of Upper Egypt is suggested both "by the fact that the descendants of Osorkon III, Takelot III and Rudamun continued to enjoy a high social status in Thebes in the second half of the 8th and in the first half of the 7th century" BCE as is shown by their burials in this city as well as the joint activity between the Divine Adoratrice Shepenupet I and the God's Wife of Amun Elect Amenirdis I, Kashta's daughter. Török, p.149 A stela from Kashta's reign has been found in Elephantine (modern day Aswan)--at the local temple dedicated to the God Khnum—which attests to his control of this region. Grimal, p.335 It bears his royal name or prenomen: '''Nimaatre'''. Egyptologists today believe that either he or more likely Piye was the Year 12 Nubian king mentioned in a well-known inscription at Wadi Gasus which associates the Adopted God's Adoratice of Amun, Amenirdis, Kashta's daughter together with Year 19 of the serving God's Wife of Amun, Shepenupet. Boardman, John ''The Cambridge Ancient History Volume 3, Part 1: The Prehistory of the Balkans, the Middle East and the Aegean World, Tenth to Eighth Centuries BC'' Cambridge University Press, 2nd edition 1982 ISBN 978-0521224963 p.570 Kashta's reign length is unknown. Some sources credit Kashta as the founder of the 25th dynasty since he was the first Kushite king known to have expanded his kingdom's influence into Upper Egypt. The New Encyclopædia Britannica: Micropædia, Vol.8, 15th edition, 2003. p.817 Under Kashta's reign, the native Kushite population of his kingdom, situated between the third and fourth Cataracts of the Nile, became rapidly 'Egyptianized' and adopted Egyptian traditions, religion and culture. Britannica, p.817 Kashta's successor was Piye. Kashta was the 25th dynasty of Egypt. thumb 250px right Rock temples of Ramses II (Image:Silsileh.jpg) and Merenptah cuted directly in the rocks at the Silsileh quarring site, near Aswan '''Gebel el-Silsila''' or '''Gebel Silsileh''' (Egyptian (Ancient Egyptian language): '''Kheny''' or '''Khenu''') is 65 km north of Aswan, where the cliffs on both sides of the Nile narrow. The name ''Kheny'' (or sometimes ''Khenu'') means "The Place of Rowing". It was used as a quarry site (Stone quarries of ancient Egypt) from at least the 18th Dynasty (Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt) to Greco-Roman times. thumb 250px Sehel enscriptions, in island's granite (Image:Sehel enscriptions.jpg) boulders. '''Sehel Island''' is located in the Nile, about WikiPedia:Aswan Dmoz:Regional Africa Egypt Localities Aswan commons:أسوان
WikiPedia:Luxor Dmoz:Regional Africa Egypt Localities Luxor commons:الأقصر
Later additions were made, the last being during the late Safavid era (Safavid dynasty). The double layered main dome of the mosque is from the Seljuk era (Great Seljuk Empire), and is locked to the public. It houses some precious examples of relief calligraphy from medieval times. Renovations have also been carried out on many sections of the mosque.
''' is a peninsula to the northeast of the city center. It is home to many of the expatriates from the United Kingdom and other western countries that live in Dar es Salaam. Msasani contains a mixture of traditional shops and western-oriented resorts and stores. * '''Mbezi Beach''' is the beachfront suburb located along the northern Dar es Salaam Beach. It is noted for its beautiful beaches with several tourist hotels, and also as the place of residence of many people of high social status and some politicians. * '''Sinza, Kijitonyama, Magomeni, Kinondoni and Mwenge (Mwenge, Dar es Salaam)''' are more ethnically mixed than the areas mentioned above. These were perhaps the earliest African suburbs to be occupied. The wards also have the most prosperous business climate outside of the central business district, with many shops, bars, restaurants and inexpensive hotels located here. * '''Kimara and Mbezi Louis''' are hilly, mostly upper class, suburbs far from the city. Due to the distance from the city center, it is quieter, with cooler weather. * '''Manzese, Tandale, Mwananyamala-Kisiwani and Kigogo''' are considered low-income neighborhoods characterized by poor settlement planning, low quality housing and social services. Ilala thumb right The Askari Monument marks the exact center of Dar es Salaam, in the Ilala district (File:Askari monument dar es salaam.jpg) Ilala is the administrative district of Dar es Salaam where almost all government offices and ministries are housed. The Central Business District (locally called "Posta") is also located in this district. Furthermore, it is the transportation hub of the city, as the Julius Nyerere International Airport, Central Railway Station and Tazara Railway Station are all within the district boundaries. The residential areas are mainly middle to high-income, and some of these are: * '''Upanga & Kisutu''' had the highest concentration of Asian communities within Dar es Salaam, with many residents of Indian and Arabian descent. These areas are also famous for the many colonial houses and mansions built in Indian, Arabic and European styles. * '''Kariakoo''' is the shopping district of the city, perhaps the busiest and largest in East Africa. Many shops, bazaars and merchants dot the streets, selling a variety of products, from foodstuffs to hardware materials. The Kariakoo Market, which is the largest, contains the only underground section of the city. It is the major supply point of the food consumed by all the residents of Dar es Salaam. * '''Tabata, Segerea and Ukonga''' are located a bit farther from the city center. These suburbs are growing to become among the busiest in terms of business and entertainment. This has caused serious traffic congestion, which is said to be the worst in all of Dar es Salaam. * '''Ilala''' is also among the middle income suburbs very near to the city center, and is marked by the Askari Monument. It contains some rival gang groups, whose activities include drug trafficking, money laundering, extortion and racketeering. Most famous gang groups are recognized by the color of their scarf (bandanna). These are the black gang, red gang and blue gang, fighting for control and to maintain their territories and interests. Temeke Temeke is the industrial district of the city, where the main manufacturing centers (with both heavy and light industries) are located. The Port of Dar es Salaam, which is the largest in the country, is also found here. Temeke is believed to have the largest concentration of low-income residents due to industry. Also, many port officials, military and police officers live here. *'''Kurasini''' located right on the Dar es Salaam Harbour, is the home of the Dar es Salaam Port, The Police College, Mgulani Police Barracks and the Dar es Salaam International Trade Fair Grounds. Thus, the main residents are police officers and port officials. *'''Chang'ombe''' is one of the only higher income areas in Temeke. It has maintained this status due to occupation by African high colonial officers and some industry owners from the colonial era. Chang'ombe is also the home of the Dar es Salaam University College of Education, The National Stadium and Uhuru Stadium. *'''Temeke, Mtoni and Tandika''' are middle to low-income suburbs. * '''Mbagala and Kijichi''' also are middle to low-income suburbs. Mbagala is the largest suburb in the whole district, and is also considered a slum. * '''Kigamboni (South Beach)''' is a beach front suburb on a peninsula with very beautiful, sandy beaches. It is home to a mixed population of lower and higher incomes. There is demand from higher-income people to live in Kigamboni due to its low population density and proximity to the sea, but this demand is constrained by the area being mainly accessible by ferry involving long waiting times for those wishing to cross in a private vehicle, although crossing the ferry on foot or bicycle is quite quick. There are several popular beach resorts in Kigamboni. Sports thumb right 200px Dar es Salaam National Stadium (File:Dar es salaam National Stadium.jpg) Dar es Salaam is the sports center of Tanzania. Dar es Salaam hosts the second largest stadium in East (East Africa) and Central Africa (National Stadium (Benjamin Mkapa National Stadium)), which can accommodate up to 60,000 people. The city is home of the most famous and rival soccer clubs, The Simba Sports Club (Simba (Simba S.C.)) and Young Africans Sports Club (Yanga (Young Africans S.C.)). Apart from the National Stadium, Dar es salaam is home to the Uhuru Stadium (used mainly for local tournaments and political gatherings), Karume Memorial Stadium (the home of Tanzania Football Federation (TFF)), the Gymkhana Golf Courses (between the city center and the shores of the Indian Ocean), and also has tennis courts, squash courts, and a Fitness club. Outside the metropolitan districts, there is the Lugalo Military Golf Course (located in the Lugalo Military Barracks). Notable people WikiPedia:Dar es Salaam Dmoz:Regional Africa Tanzania Localities Dar es Salaam Commons:Category:Dar es Salaam
1950s). Kalankatuatsi describes the form of levirate marriage practised by the Huns. As women had a high social status, the widow had a choice whether to remarry or not. Her new husband might be a brother or a son (by another woman) of her first husband, so she could end up marrying her brother-in-law or stepson; the difference in age did not matter. Gmyrya L. ''Hun Country At The Caspian Gate'', Dagestan, Makhachkala 1995, p.212 (no ISBN, but the book is available in US libraries, Russian title ''Strana Gunnov u Kaspiyskix vorot'', Dagestan, Makhachkala, 1995) Following the incorporation of neighbouring Dagestan into the empire in 1803–1813, Imperial Russian (Russian Empire) forces under Aleksey Yermolov (Aleksey Petrovich Yermolov) began moving into highland (highland (geography)) Chechnya in 1830 to secure Russia's borders with the Ottoman Empire. In the course of the prolonged Caucasian War, the Chechens, along with many peoples of the Eastern Caucasus, united into the Caucasian Imamate and resisted fiercely, led by the Dagestani commanders Ghazi Mohammed, Gamzat-bek and Imam Shamil. While their program of united resistance to Russian conquest was popular, uniting Ichkeria Mishketia with Dagestan was not necessarily (see Shamil's page), especially as some Chechens still practiced the indigenous religion, most Chechen Muslims belonged to heterodox Sufi Muslim teachings (divided between Qadiri and Naqshbandiya, with a strong Qadiri majority), rather than the more orthodox Sunni Islam of Dagestan; and finally, the rule of Ichkeria by a foreign ruler not only spurred distrust, but also threatened the existence of Ichkeria's indigenous "taip-conference" government structure. Thus, Shamil was regarded by many Chechens as simply being the lesser evil. Wood, Tony. ''Chechnya: The Case for Independence''. Described in First Chapter Shamil was an Avar who practiced a form of Islam that was largely foreign to Chechnya, and in the end, he ended up happy in Russian custody, demonstrating furthermore his lack of compatibility with the leadership of the cause. Worse still, WikiPedia:Dagestan commons:Дагестан
it difficult to stop her because of her very high social position thumb (File:Oregon Area Codes 541 & 458.PNG) North American '''area code 541''' covers all of Oregon, except the northwest part of the state. Its service area includes the cities of Eugene (Eugene, Oregon), Springfield (Springfield, Oregon), Corvallis (Corvallis, Oregon), Albany (Albany, Oregon), Medford (Medford, Oregon), Bend (Bend, Oregon), Ashland, Oregon Ashland
men of high social position. Due to his knowledge in medicine, he was appointed to the military health division. According to some historians, he fell prisoner on December 30, 1868 and according to historian Juan B. Gill Aguinaga, he served in blood hospitals and was captured three days earlier in the battle of Ita Ybaté. In mid-January 1869, Gill was among those who returned to Asunción, where the allies liberated him and others under the condition that they would not join the national army