by Mustafa Barzani were engaged in heavy fighting against successive Iraqi regimes from 1960 to 1975. In March 1970, Iraq announced a peace plan providing for Kurdish autonomy. The plan was to be implemented in four years. G.S. Harris, ''Ethnic Conflict and the Kurds'' in the Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, pp. 118–120, 1977 However, at the same time, the Iraqi regime started an Arabization program in the oil-rich regions of Kirkuk
Adherents.com: By Location Kurds led by Mustafa Barzani were engaged in heavy fighting against successive Iraqi regimes from 1960 to 1975. In March 1970, Iraq announced a peace plan providing for Kurdish autonomy. The plan was to be implemented in four years. G.S. Harris, ''Ethnic Conflict and the Kurds'' in the Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, pp.118–120, 1977 However, at the same time, the Iraqi regime started an Arabization
. The Leningrad Naval Base is an administrative entity that is not a discrete geographic location but comprises all of the naval institutions and facilities in the St. Petersburg area. Operational forces include: In late 1944, the division was equipped with a Panzer Regiment and redesignated '''Panzergrenadier-Division ''Brandenburg''''' and returned to the front. The Brandenburgers were involved in heavy fighting near Memel (Battle of Memel), until their withdrawal, along
with the ''Großdeutschland'', via ferry to Pillau (Baltiysk). The division was all but annihilated during the heavy fighting near Pillau, and while some survivors surrendered to the British in Schleswig-Holstein in May, many Brandenburgers, highly skilled in evading detection, simply disappeared. '''Notes:''' #The westernmost point at which UTC+03 with no DST is applied is the Russian town of Baltiysk, in the Kaliningrad Oblast, at 19°55′E. Before 27 March 2011, it was the westernmost point
-backed Army of Liberation, led to heavy fighting, but eventually the Spanish forces regained control - again with French aid. However, unrest simmered, and in 1967 the Harakat Tahrir arose to challenge Spanish rule peacefully. After the events of the Zemla Intifada in 1970, when Spanish police destroyed the organization and "disappeared (forced disappearance)" its founder, Muhammad Bassiri, anti-Spanish feeling or Sahrawi nationalism again took a militant turn
- 1958 , initiated by the Moroccan Army of Liberation, led to heavy fighting, but eventually the Spanish forces regained control, again with French aid. However, unrest simmered, and in 1967 the Harakat Tahrir arose to challenge Spanish rule peacefully. After the events of the Zemla Intifada in 1970, when Spanish police destroyed the organization and "disappeared (forced disappearance)" its founder, Muhammad Bassiri, Sahrawi nationalism again took a militant turn.
1953 Aksu Prefecture Aksu (Aksu, Xinjiang), '''Aral (Aral, Xinjiang)''' - - Aksu (Aksu, Xinjiang) Xinjiang His forces were defeated within one month, decisive battle occurred on the shore of Tuman river north of Kashgar where Jahangir was defeated. Jahangir troops on this battle were more numerous than Qing troops, but the latter was much better organized being a regular state Army, while Jahangir didn't create a regular Army and disbanded his voluntary Army after gaining control of power in Western Kashgaria and taking Gulbagh Qing Fortress in Kashgar in the beginning of 1827 and slaughtering of all its defenders ( about 12,000 Manchu and Chinese troops and members of their families). After receiving messages of approaching of Qing Army to Kashgar he again collected voluntary troops, but they didn't have any artillery units, even 6 big cannons standing on Gulbagh fortress, previously captured from Qings, were not brought and used in the battle , contrary Qing troops applied well-organized intense cannon fire across Tuman River on positions of Jahangir troops, bringing them into confusion. Mercenaries from Badakhshan, Kokand, Kunduz fled first, then Kashgarians lost ground, Qing troops rushed to Kashgar and upon entering the city performed the whole-scale massacre of local population, about 20,000 civilians had been slaughtered. Jahangir himself managed to escape and hide in mountainous Alai valley among Kyrgyz, it happened on January 29, 1828. Qing Emperor was dissatisfied with such outcome and wrote to Chang Ling: ''I sent Army to eliminate the Evil, you were at the lair of the beast, but let him to escape, now all previous victories have no any values, because he is still alive, the germ of the future rebellions''. Jahangir's capture was affair of the former Hakim (Hakim (title)) of Kashgar Ishak Khoja, who sent false Letter to Jahangir, notifying him of departure of main body of Qing troops and inviting him to Kashgar to regain power. When Jahangir heard this good message, he hurried back to Kashgar, but was attacked by Qing troops from ambush, captured and delivered to Beijing. There he was exposed to the attention of China's capital's population, being carried for several weeks in a mobile iron cage through the main streets of Beijing. Finally he was brought to the Daoguang Emperor for interrogation, but, having gone mad due to bad treatment, he couldn't answer any questions. Immediately after the interrogation was completed he was executed. Jahangir Khoja's body was cut into numerous pieces and his bones were thrown to dogs. His portrait was buried in the hill near Beijing. He was forty years old at the time of his death. * Liqian (Liqian (village)). An ancient, possibly Roman (Ancient Rome) settlement. * Aksu (Aksu, Xinjiang), China * Kuqa or Kucha, China The National Army enlisted 25,000-30,000 troops, but in accordance with the peace agreement with Chiang Kai-Shek signed on June 6, 1946, it was reduced to 11,000-12,000 troops and restricted in stationing in only three districts (Ili, Tarbaghatai and Altai) of Northern Xinjiang. The detachments of National Army were also withdrawn from Southern Xinjiang, leaving strategic Old City of Aksu (Aksu, Xinjiang) and opening road from Urumchi to Kashgar Region, that gave opportunity to Kuomintang to send 70,000 troops there 1946–47 and quell Rebellion in Pamir Mountains. The most powerful family in the eastern part of the khanate during this time was a Mongol one, that of the Dughlat amirs. The Dughlats held several important towns as vassals to the khans, including Kashgar, Aksu (Aksu, Xinjiang), Yarkand (Yarkant County), and Khotan. In around 1347, the Dughlat amir Bulaji, after seeing the situation in Transoxiana, decided to raise a khan of his own choosing. His choice fell on Tughlugh Timur, who was at that time little more than an adventurer. In the early 16th century, Ahmad and Mahmud decided to counter the growing power of the Uzbeks under Muhammad Shaybani. The two brothers united the forces and launched a campaign against the Uzbeks, but Muhammad Shaybani proved victorious in battle and took them both prisoner (Babur also was among his uncles' army and participated in this battle in Ferghana Valley, that had turned into disaster, but managed to flee south and hide in mountains with his mother, Kutluk Nigar Khanim, daughter of Yunus Khan, and few followers). They were soon released, but Ahmad died shortly afterwards, in 1503. He was succeeded in Uyghurstan by his eldest son Mansur Khan (Mansur Khan (Moghul Khan)). According to Mirza Muhammad Haidar, Dughlat he had 19 sons total, most prominent of whom were: *Mansur Khan (Mansur Khan (Moghul Khan))- ruler of eastern Moghulistan or Uyghurstan in 1503-1543 (it included cities Aksu (Aksu, Xinjiang), Uch Turpan (Uqturpan County), Bai (Baicheng County), Kucha, Chalish or Karashahr, Turpan and Kumul (Kumul (city))). *Sultan Said Khan- seized power from Dughlat Amirs' Dynasty of Yarkand state in 1514 (known at the time as ''Mamlakati Yarkand'' or ''Kashgar Emirate'', it included cities Kashgar, Yarkand (Yarkant County), Yangihissar (Yengisar County), Hotan and at short times also Aksu (Aksu, Xinjiang) and Uch Turpan (Uqturpan County)) in West Kashgaria and united in 1516 western and eastern parts of Kashgaria in one centralized state- Kashgar and Uyghurstan. Died in 1533 of asthma during military expedition in ''Ursang'' ( Great Tibet ). *Mansur Khan (Mansur Khan (Moghul Khan))- ruler of eastern Moghulistan or Uyghurstan in 1503-1543 (it included cities Aksu (Aksu, Xinjiang), Uch Turpan (Uqturpan County), Bai (Baicheng County), Kucha, Chalish or Karashahr, Turpan and Kumul (Kumul (city))). *Sultan Said Khan- seized power from Dughlat Amirs' Dynasty of Yarkand state in 1514 (known at the time as ''Mamlakati Yarkand'' or ''Kashgar Emirate'', it included cities Kashgar, Yarkand (Yarkant County), Yangihissar (Yengisar County), Hotan and at short times also Aksu (Aksu, Xinjiang) and Uch Turpan (Uqturpan County)) in West Kashgaria and united in 1516 western and eastern parts of Kashgaria in one centralized state- Kashgar and Uyghurstan. Died in 1533 of asthma during military expedition in ''Ursang'' ( Great Tibet ). *Sultan Khalil Sultan- ruler of western Moghulistan in 1503-1508 (present Kyrgyzstan). Was drowned in river near ''Akhsi'' in Fergana Valley after he was captured there by Uzbek sultans. Administrative divisions Aksu Prefecture is divided into 1 county-level city: Aksu (Aksu, Xinjiang) (阿克苏市), and 8 counties (County (People's Republic of China)): thumb Position of Aksu in China. Aksu was the former capital of Mangalai (Image:Aksu in China.png) '''Mangalai''' was a Central Asian kingdom, mentioned by Marco Polo. From 1200 onwards, Mangalai's capital was Aksu (Aksu, Xinjiang). It was subservant to Genghis Khan from 1224 to his death in 1227. On the edge of the Yuan Dynasty of China, Mangalai was controlled by the Chagatai Khanate. It's latter history sees periods of independence or inclusion of one of many larger kingdoms including: Mogulistan, Kashgar, and Kingdom of Kashgaria. In 1877 the area came under the control of the Qing Dynasty of China and remains part of the Chinese province of Xinjiang. ZW * '''ZWAK''' (AKU) – Aksu Airport – Aksu (Aksu, Xinjiang), Xinjiang * '''ZWAT''' (AAT) – Altay Airport – Altay (Altay, Xinjiang), Xinjiang Aftermath In Yiwulu (Kumul), Dou Gu set up an agricultural garrison, and appointed a commander to make sure that the army stationed in the Western Regions had a lasting supply of provisions. In the same year, Dou Gu sent Ban Chao and Guo Xun along with 36 men to go south. Ban Chao successfully organised the three states of Shanshan, Yutian (Khotan) and Shule (Kashgar) against the Xiongnu, restoring peace and order in the Western Regions. Subsequently, in 74, the Han (Han Dynasty) government reestablished the Protectorate of the Western Regions, in the city of Jinman at the state of North Jushi. In 75, on the death of the short-reigned Emperor Ming of Han, the Xiongnu with its allies seized their opportunity and captured Jushi and Liuzhong, and killed the Protector General Chen Mu. In 76, the Han government abrogated the Protectorate of the Western Regions. As the Western Region's situation was getting precarious, Ban Chao, who was left to defend Shule and Yutian, won the support of the local officials and people and drove the Xiongnu troops from the capital of Gumo (Aksu, Xinjiang) in Shicheng. In 80, he wrote to the imperial court, proposing that they send more troops to the Western Regions. The new emperor agreed to his proposal and ordered Xu Gan to lead an army to help Ban Chao.
''Văcăroiu, un funcţionar de la Comitetul Planificării comuniste, schimbă destinul României'' (Văcăroiu, A Clerk of the Communist Committee of State Planning, Changes the Destiny of Romania, in Evenimentul Zilei, 20 April 2007 DATE OF BIRTH 5 December 1943 PLACE OF BIRTH Cetatea Albă (Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi), Soviet Union (now Ukraine) DATE OF DEATH '''Kosivka''' (Ukrainian: '''Косівка''', Russian: '''Косовка''') — a village in Ukraine of Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi Raion (sub-region) of Odessa Oblast (region). Population of the village is 258 people. Kosivka is connected to Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi, Shabo (Shabo (Odessa Oblast)), Serhiivka and other towns and villages by the bus
" strategy, the British became engaged in heavy fighting with Taliban insurgents and allied opium traffickers deep inside the green zone. A number of British and Canadian troops were killed during fighting in the town, including Corporal Bryan Budd (Bryan Budd) (3 PARA) who was posthumously awarded the Victoria Cross. In 2008 without the support of a Marine Air-Ground Task Force, members of Echo Company, 2nd Battalion 7th Marines, were sent to Sangin to assist Ranger Company
military operations in Lebanon. * '''1996 shelling of Qana''': On 18 April 1996, amid heavy fighting between the Israel Defense Forces and Hezbollah fighters during Operation Grapes of Wrath, a Fijian UNIFIL (United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon) compound in the village was shelled (Shell (projectile)) by Israeli artillery, killing 106 civilians and injuring around 116 others who had taken refuge there to escape the fighting. Four UNIFIL soldiers were also seriously injured. In the deadliest single incident in the ongoing Israel-Hezbollah conflict (w:2006 Israel-Hezbollah conflict), an Israeli air strike apparently demolished a three-story building in the village of Qana (w:Qana) in southern Lebanon, and according to the Red Cross (w:The Red Cross), killed at least 28 displaced civilians, including 19 children, most of whom handicapped or mentally ill, who were sheltering there. The Lebanese police reported at least 56 fatalities, including 37 children.
contributed-news 9695160-brega-is-liberated However, Reuters later reported ten rebels were killed and 172 wounded and confirmed that the battle was still ongoing. An operation to contact the Libyan rebel and opposition Leaders of Colonel Gaddafi (Muammar Gaddafi). The mission was a failure after the team was captured and held prisoner for 72 hours by Libyan rebels. http: www.telegraph.co.uk news worldnews africaandindianocean libya 8365069 Libya-SAS-mission-that-began-and-ended-in-error.html new information has appeared which say that the mission and the prisoners were SBS (Special Boat Service) & not SAS (Special Air Service) members. http: www.independent.co.uk news world africa british-special-forces-team-released-after-botched-mission-2234233.html http: www.thisislondon.co.uk standard article-23929902-william-hague-may-not-have-stomach-for-his-gruelling-job-says-ming-campbell.do However, a BBC news night broadcast on Jan 19th 2012 revealed that the SAS had, in fact, returned to Libya later on in the conflict in a joint operation with French and Qatari special forces. The programme explains that SAS 22nd regiment were in the East of Libya, operating in small groups in places like Misrata and Brega by August. Assisting in training, coordinating their command on and off the front line, and NATO airstrikes http: www.bbc.co.uk news world-africa-16624401 . It is also alleged that the SAS 22nd were leading the hunt for Gaddafi after the Battle of Tripoli http: www.telegraph.co.uk news worldnews africaandindianocean libya 8721291 Libya-SAS-leads-hunt-for-Gaddafi.html .
, the Waffen SS held out against the Soviet attacks, the ''Nordland'' seeing very heavy fighting. On 6 March, Soviet aircraft managed to destroy the Narva bridge in the Battle for Narva Bridgehead, cutting off the troops on the far side of the river in Ivangorod. The men of ''Nordland's'' Pioneer Battalion quickly rebuilt the bridge while under heavy fire. The launching of Operation Bagration in June 1944 inspired the Narva Offensive (Narva Offensive (July 1944)). The highway
being transferred to Finnish (Finland) Lapland (Lapland (Finland)) in 1941. The division was part of the German XXXVI Corps (XXXVI Corps (Germany)) which also included SS Division Nord and the Finnish 6th Division. On July 1 the corps began its attack which was aimed at Kandalaksha on the White Sea coast. The division crossed the Finnish-Soviet Border just north of Salla. During the heavy fighting against the Soviet 122nd Division the SS Division Nord broke and fled. On July 8 the 169th occupied Salla. With the help of the Finnish 6th Division the Soviets were pushed back beyond the pre-Winter War borders. The Moscow Peace Treaty was signed on March 12, 1940, and at noon the following day the fighting ended. Finland ceded the Karelian Isthmus and Ladoga Karelia, part of Salla and Kalastajasaarento, and leased the Hanko naval base to the USSR, but remained a neutral state, albeit increasingly leaning toward Germany (see Interim Peace). In the Winter War Wallenius commanded the Finnish troops in Lapland. When the Winter War began, the Commander-in-Chief of Finnish troops Mannerheim (Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim) appointed Wallenius as the commander of the Lapland Group. The troops under his command, though outnumbered, repulsed Soviet (Soviet Union) troops at Salla and Petsamo (Pechengsky District). Once the front in Lapland had stabilized, Wallenius handed the command over to Swedish volunteers under Lieutenant General Ernst Linder in February 1940. Wallenius and most of his troops were sent to the southermost point of the front to western shore of the Bay of Viipuri (Bay of Vyborg), where the Red Army had crossed the frozen gulf. Wallenius protested this new assignment, thinking he was being punished for his past sins. The situation was critical and terrain totally different from what Wallenius and his men were used to. Wallenius failed to prevent the Red Army from gaining a foothold from the western shore of the bay, and there were reports that he was drinking heavily. Wallenius was dishonorably discharged in early March 1940, only after three days in command, and replaced by Lieutenant General Karl Lennart Oesch. Wallenius was removed from the Defence Forces officer lists. The '''Karelian question''' or '''Karelian issue''' ( , in Salla) - flows to the Kovda River in Russia Cooperation with Germany A group of staff officers led by General Heinrichs left Finland on May 24 and participated in discussions with OKW in Salzburg on May 25 where the Germans informed them about the northern part of Operation Barbarossa. The Germans also presented their interest in using Finnish territory to attack from Petsamo to Murmansk and from Salla to Kandalaksha. Heinrichs presented Finnish interest in Eastern Karelia, but Germany recommended a passive stance. The negotiations continued the next day in Berlin with OKH, and contrary to the negotiations of the previous day, Germany wanted Finland to form a strong attack formation ready to strike on the eastern or western side of Lake Ladoga. The Finns promised to examine the proposal, but notified the Germans that they were only able to arrange supply to the Olonets-Petrozavodsk-line. The issue of mobilization was also discussed. It was decided that the Germans would send signal officers to enable confidential messaging to Mannerheim's headquarters in Mikkeli. Naval issues were discussed, mainly for securing sea lines over the Baltic Sea, but also possible usage of the Finnish navy in the upcoming war. During these negotiations the Finns presented a number of material requests ranging from grain and fuel to airplanes and radio equipment. Finland did not allow direct German attacks from its soil to the Soviet Union, so German forces in Petsamo and Salla had to hold their fire. Air attacks were also prohibited, and very bad weather in northern Finland helped to keep the Germans from flying. Only one attack from Southern Finland against the White Sea Canal was approved, but even that had to be cancelled due to bad weather. There were occasional individual and group level small arms shooting between Soviet and Finnish border guards, but otherwise the front was quiet.