about Kara-shahr and live a hard life with their herds ... :Just as these Mongols wander about here at the present day, so the nomadic tribes of an earlier period must have used this district as their entrance and exit gate. The Tochari (Yue-chi) Pinyin: Yuezhi , on their way from China, undoubtedly at that time passed through this gate to get into the Ili valley ..." ''Buried Treasures of Chinese Turkestan: An Account of the Activities and Adventures of the Second and Third German Turfan Expeditions''. Albert von Le Coq. Translated by Anna Barwell. London George Allen & Unwin Ltd. 1928. Reprint: Oxford University Press, 1985. Pages 145-146. Descriptions in historical accounts thumb 300px Tarim Basin in the 3rd century (Image:Tarimbecken 3. Jahrhundert.png) According to the ''Book of the Later Han'': thumb The chain of cities along the northern route along the Taklamakan, probably based on Bento de Góis (File:CEM-36-NW-corner.jpg)'s itinerary, from Hiarcan (Yarkant County) (Yarkand) to Cialis (Karasahr) (Karasahr or Korla) to Sucieu (Suzhou District) (Suzhou, Gansu) Since 73 AD, General Ban Chao had led several Han military campaigns into the Tarim Basin. It resulted in the retreat of the Northern Xiongnu to Dzungaria, while Ban Chao threatened and brought the city-states at the Tarim Basin to submission under the Han empire once again. Millward (2006), 23–24. General Dou Gu defeated the Northern Xiongnu at the Battle of Yiwulu in 73 AD, chasing them as far as Lake Barkol (Barkol Kazakh Autonomous County) before establishing a garrison at Hami (Hami Prefecture). Yü (1986), 414–415. In 74 AD, the king of Jushi (Gushi culture) submitted to the Han forces under General Dou Gu as the Xiongnu were unable to engage the Han forces. Whiting (2002), 195. Meanwhile (74 AD), General Ban Chao captured King Douti of Kashgar (Shule 疏勒), who was a puppet of Kucha (Qiuci 龜玆) and a resolute ally of the Xiongnu. Whiting (2002), 195. Later that year (74 AD), the kingdoms of Karasahr (Yanqi 焉耆) and Kucha were forced to surrender to the Han empire. Although Dou Gu was able to evict the Xiongnu from Turpan in 74 AD, the Northern Xiongnu soon invaded the Bogda Mountains (Bogda Shan) while their allies from Karasahr and Kucha killed the Protector General (Protectorate of the Western Regions) Chen Mu and his men. Crespigny (2007), 73. As a result, the Han garrison at Hami was forced to withdraw in 77 AD, which was not reestablished until 91 AD. Yü (1986), 415 & 420; Crespigny (2007), 73. From 78 AD onwards, General Ban Chao used the troops of the surrendered western states and launched several expeditions against the Xiongnu. Since 73 AD, General Ban Chao had led several Han military campaigns into the Tarim Basin. It resulted in the retreat of the Northern Xiongnu to Dzungaria, while Ban Chao threatened and brought the city-states at the Tarim Basin to submission under the Han empire once again. Millward (2006), 23–24. General Dou Gu defeated the Northern Xiongnu at the Battle of Yiwulu in 73 AD, chasing them as far as Lake Barkol (Barkol Kazakh Autonomous County) before establishing a garrison at Hami (Hami Prefecture). Yü (1986), 414–415. In 74 AD, the king of Jushi (Gushi culture) submitted to the Han forces under General Dou Gu as the Xiongnu were unable to engage the Han forces. Whiting (2002), 195. Meanwhile (74 AD), General Ban Chao captured King Douti of Kashgar (Shule 疏勒), who was a puppet of Kucha (Qiuci 龜玆) and a resolute ally of the Xiongnu. Whiting (2002), 195. Later that year (74 AD), the kingdoms of Karasahr (Yanqi 焉耆) and Kucha were forced to surrender to the Han empire. Although Dou Gu was able to evict the Xiongnu from Turpan in 74 AD, the Northern Xiongnu soon invaded the Bogda Mountains (Bogda Shan) while their allies from Karasahr and Kucha killed the Protector General (Protectorate of the Western Regions) Chen Mu and his men. Crespigny (2007), 73. As a result, the Han garrison at Hami was forced to withdraw in 77 AD, which was not reestablished until 91 AD. Yü (1986), 415 & 420; Crespigny (2007), 73. From 78 AD onwards, General Ban Chao used the troops of the surrendered western states and launched several expeditions against the Xiongnu.
for growing sugar. Sugar growing is a labour-intensive undertaking and Portuguese settlers were difficult to attract due to the heat, lack of infrastructure, and hard life. To cultivate the sugar the Portuguese turned to large numbers of enslaved Africans. Elmina Castle on the Gold Coast (Gold Coast (British colony)), originally built by African labor for the Portuguese in 1482 to control the gold trade, became an important depot for slaves that were to be transported to the New
Most of the other castes of Gaddis are thought to be descended from people who fled to the hills to escape the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb's persecutions in the 17th century CE. right 300px thumb Dhauladhar from Dharamsala, Himachal Pradesh Dharamsala (File:Montaro Dhauladhar (foto de Dharamsala).jpg) The '''Dhauladhar''' range (lit. The White Range) Singh (2000), p. 2. is a southern branch of the main Outer Himalayan chain of mountains. It rises spectacularly from the Indian plains to the north of Kangra (Kangra, Himachal Pradesh) and Mandi (Mandi, Himachal Pradesh, India). Dharamsala (Dharamsala, Himachal Pradesh), the headquarters of Kangra district, lies on its southern spur (Spur (mountain)) in above the Kangra Valley, which divides it from Chamba (Chamba, Himachal Pradesh). Dhaula Dhar ''The Imperial Gazetteer of India'', v. 11, ''p. 287.'' Synopsis Manav (Akshaye Khanna) comes to visit India with his wealthy father Jagmohan Mehta (Amrish Puri), his aunt and uncle, and his father's employees. In Chamba (Chamba, Himachal Pradesh) he meets Mansi (Aishwarya Rai), the beautiful daughter of a spiritual singer named Tara Babu (Alok Nath); their families meet, and Jagmohan and Tara Babu become acquainted and friendly toward each other. Manav and Mansi fall in love, but when Jagmohan learns of this he packs the family up and moves them to their house in Mumbai, with the excuse that Mansi and her father are of low social status. However, he is nice to Tara Babu's face and invites him to come and stay with him and Mumbai if he, Tara Babu, ever happens to be travelling there. Mansi is distressed by Manav's departure but he assures her that he will not abandon her and that everything will be fine. She gives Manav his scarf which she modified, making it say "Manavsi", a mixture of their names. Dalhousie is a gateway to the ancient Chamba Hill State, now Chamba District of the state of Himachal Pradesh of India. This hill region is a repository of ancient Hindu culture, art, temples, and handicrafts preserved under the longest-running single dynasty since the mid-6th century. Chamba (Chamba, Himachal Pradesh) is the hub of this culture. Bharmour, the ancient capital of this kingdom, is home to the Gaddi and Gujjar tribes and has 84 ancient temples dating from the 7th–10th century AD. 200px thumb Nala (Image:Nala Damayanti.jpg)- Damayanti theme, from the Mahabharat in Pahari style '''Pahari painting''' (literal meaning a painting from the mountainous regions, ''pahar'' means a mountain in Hindi) is an umbrella term used for a form of Indian painting, originating from Himalayan Hill kingdoms of North India, during 17th-19th century. Notably Basohli, Mankot, Nurpur, Chamba (Chamba, Himachal Pradesh), Kangra (Kangra, Himachal Pradesh), Guler (Haripur Guler), Mandi (Mandi, Himachal Pradesh, India), and Garhwal (Garhwal Kingdom), and was done mostly in miniature forms. Hindu Hill Kingdoms ''V&A Museum''. Pahari ''Kamat''. During the Second Anglo-Maratha War of 1803-1805, some of the states in the region gave their allegiance to General Gerard Lake. At the conclusion of the war, the frontier of British India was extended to the Yamuna, and an 1809 agreement with Ranjit Singh, ruler of the Sikh Empire west of the Sutlej, brought the states under formal British protection. The Cis-Sutlej states included Kaithal, Patiala, Jind, Thanesar, Maler Kotla, and Faridkot (Faridkot State). Before 1846 the greater part of this territory was independent, the chiefs being subject to supervision from a political officer stationed at Umballa, and styled the agent of the Governor-General of India for the Cis-Sutlej states. A number of states were confiscated, or acquired by Britain under the Doctrine of Lapse. After the First Anglo-Sikh War the full administration of the territory became vested in this officer. In 1849 the Punjab was annexed to British India, when the Cis-Sutlej states commissionership, comprising the districts of Umballa, Ferozepore (Ferozepore District), Ludhiana (Ludhiana District), Thanesar (Thanesar District) and Simla (Simla District), was incorporated with the new Punjab Province (Punjab (British India)). The name continued to be applied to this division until 1862, when, owing to Ferozepore having been transferred to Lahore Division, and a part of Thanesar to Delhi Division, it ceased to be appropriate. The remaining tract became known as the Umballa Division. The princely states of Patiala, Jind, and Nabha were appointed a separate political agency in 1901. Excluding Bahawalpur, for which there was no political agent, and Chamba (Chamba, Himachal Pradesh), the other states were grouped under the commissioners of Jullunder and Delhi, and the superintendent of the Simla Hill States. '''Pathankot''' (Punjabi (Punjabi language): ਪਠਾਨਕੋਟ) became 22nd district on 27 July 2011 and a municipal corporation in the Indian state (States and territories of India) of Punjab (Punjab (India)). It was a part of the Nurpur princely state ruled by the Rajputs prior to 1849 AD. It is a meeting point of the three northern states (North India) of Punjab, Himachal Pradesh and Jammu and Kashmir. Due to its ideal location, Pathankot serves as a travel hub for the three northerly states. Pathankot is the fifth largest city in the state of Punjab in terms of population. It is the last city in Punjab on the national highway that connects Jammu and Kashmir with the rest of India. Situated in the foothills of Kangra and Dalhousie, with the river Chakki flowing close by, the city is often used as a rest-stop before heading into the mountains of Jammu and Kashmir, Dalhousie, Chamba (Chamba, Himachal Pradesh), and Kangra (Kangra Valley), deep into the Himalayas.
Azerbaijani (Azerbaijani people) family. After graduating from the Transcaucasian Teachers Seminary, he received the position of teacher in a village of Gizel-Adjal, Tiflis Province, where he became closely acquainted with the hard life of the local peasantry. Later, Narimanov became a teacher in a private pro-gimnasia in Baku, where he founded the first public free-access library and reading hall. This became a cultural center of the entire Transcaucasia. In 1902, at the age of 32, Narimanov entered the Medical Department of Novorossiysk University. During the revolution of 1905-1907 (Russian Revolution of 1905), Narimanov took an active part and led the student movement in Odessa. In 1905 he joined the Russian Social-Democratic Workers' Party. Upon his return to Baku, Narimanov guided the Congress of Transcaucasian Turkic Teachers; under his influence, the Congress adopted a resolution on national self-determination of Transcaucasia. A little later, Nariman Narimanov became one of the organizers of the Persian socialist democratic party Isheyun-Asheyun. Soon, Narimanov was exiled to Astrakhan for five years for his activities. After the October Revolution of 1917, Nariman Narimanov became the chairman of Azerbaijani social democratic organization Hummet (Endeavor). His offer to open a university in Taganrog was not successful, but later it proved to be an important foundation for opening the Novorossiysk University in 1865. Kukolnik also proved necessity of a newspaper in Taganrog. It was one of the reasons to open newspaper-publishing houses not only in Taganrog, but also in Odessa and Rostov-on-Don. #Odessa, Ukraine #Novorossiysk, Russia #Odessa, Ukraine #Novorossiysk, Russia Career HMS ''Pegasus'' was laid down in 1914 Gardiner, p. 67 by the John Brown & Company of Clydebank, Scotland as SS ''Stockholm'' for the Great Eastern Railway Company, but her construction was suspended by the beginning of the First World War. The ship was purchased by the Royal Navy on 27 February 1917 and was launched on 9 June 1917. She was commissioned on 14 August 1917 Friedman, p. 362 and completed on 28 August 1917. She joined the Grand Fleet on completion and was assigned to support the Battle Cruiser Force. She participated in a few uneventful operations in the North Sea, but was mostly occupied with pilot training and ferrying aircraft to ships equipped with flying-off platforms. ''Pegasus'' supported the British intervention in the Russian Civil War (North Russia Campaign) between May to September 1919 and was based at Archangel (Arkhangelsk). Layman, p. 56 The ship returned to Rosyth and was briefly decommissioned. She recommissioned on 2 December 1919 and was transferred to the Mediterranean Fleet in March 1920.'' Pegasus'' ran aground on 9 March off Kerch, but was pulled off without suffering any significant damage. She supported the evacuation of Novorossiysk by the Whites (White movement) later that month Snook, p. 50 and remained with the fleet until 1924. In 1923 the forward flying-off deck was removed and the ship was re-rated as an aircraft tender. She was stationed at Singapore in 1924–25. On 5 July 1925 she was placed in reserve at Devonport (HMNB Devonport), but was briefly recommissioned in 1929. On 22 August 1931 the ship was sold for scrap at Morecambe. *'''June 4''': In a unanimous vote, the United Nations Security Council renews for another 180-day period its "oil for food" (Oil for food) initiative with Iraq. Under the resolution, Iraq may sell $2 billion worth of oil to buy food, medicine and other necessities to alleviate civilian suffering under the sanctions imposed when it invaded Kuwait in 1990. (WP) *'''July 22''': The first shipments of oil produced from Kazakhstan's Tengiz field (Tengiz Field) arrive at terminals on the Black Sea in Novorossiysk (Russia) and Batumi (Georgia) for subsequent export through the Bosphoros Strait. Volumes total between 100,000 and wikipedia:Novorossiysk
of Gizel-Adjal, Tiflis Province, where he became closely acquainted with the hard life of the local peasantry. Later, Narimanov became a teacher in a private pro-gimnasia in Baku, where he founded the first public free-access library and reading hall. This became a cultural center of the entire Transcaucasia. In 1902, at the age of 32, Narimanov entered the Medical Department of Novorossiysk University. During the revolution of 1905-1907 (Russian Revolution of 1905), Narimanov took an active part and led the student movement in Odessa. In 1905 he joined the Russian Social-Democratic Workers' Party. Upon his return to Baku, Narimanov guided the Congress of Transcaucasian Turkic Teachers; under his influence, the Congress adopted a resolution on national self-determination of Transcaucasia. A little later, Nariman Narimanov became one of the organizers of the Persian socialist democratic party Isheyun-Asheyun. Soon, Narimanov was exiled to Astrakhan for five years for his activities. After the October Revolution of 1917, Nariman Narimanov became the chairman of Azerbaijani social democratic organization Hummet (Endeavor). * '''URSS''' (AER) – Adler-Sochi International Airport – Sochi, Russia * '''URWA''' (ASF) – Astrakhan Airport – Astrakhan, Russia * '''URWI''' (ESL) – Elista Airport – Elista, Russia It was first established in November 1920. Its administrative center was Astrakhan. In June 1928, it was included into Lower Volga Krai. In January 1934, Lower Volga Krai was split into Saratov Krai and Stalingrad Krai, and Kalmyk AO was included as a part of the latter. In October 1935, Kalmyk AO was raised in status and became the Kalmyk ASSR (abolished in 1943). Like several previous Georgian rulers, he hoped that the expanding Russian empire would be the only protector for the Christians of Caucasus against the Ottoman and Persian aggressions. He sent an embassy to St Petersburg in 1752, but nothing came of this mission. In 1760, he visited the Russian court himself to gain a support for his project of a Georgian expedition to Persia to put a Russian candidate on the shah’s throne. The Russians were too preoccupied with the Seven Years' War to seriously consider Teimuraz’s idea. He died suddenly in the Russian capital on January 8, 1762, and was buried next to his father-in-law Vakhtang VI in the Cathedral of the Assumption (Assumption of Mary), Astrakhan. On his death, Erekle succeeded as king of Kartli, bringing both eastern Georgian kingdoms into a single state (Kingdom of Kartli and Kakheti) Wikipedia:Astrakhan Commons:Category:Astrakhan
: www.geocities.com SunsetStrip 3674 gdmg.html&date 2009-10-25+10:08:14 She Never Got Off the Bus : The hard life and high times of Carolyn Garcia." The family had a house in San Rafael, California as well as a beach house in Stinson Beach, California, but separated after Garcia began a relationship with Deborah Koons. Jerry and Carolyn Garcia divorced in 1984, but remained friends until his death the following decade. After the divorce, he
. Her feat (she voluntarily renounced all wealth and privileges and subjected herself to hard life in katorga) was subject of famous poem by Nekrasov (Nikolai Alekseevich Nekrasov). In 1839 he was allowed to live in exile in Irkutsk guberniya. In 1854 his wife died . In 1856 he along with other survived Decembrists was granted amnesty, given back his title and was able to return to Moscow. He wrote memoires which were published for the first time in 1863 by Alexander Herzen
with the walls of Cosa. The position of Cosa is distinct, rising some 113 metres above sea level and is sited 140 km northwest of Rome on the Tyrrhenian Sea coast, on a hill near the small town of Ansedonia. The town experienced a hard life and was never truly a prosperous Roman city, although it has assumed a position of prominence in Roman archaeology owing to the circumstances of its excavation (cf. Dyson 2005, below). After the foundation, wars of the 3rd century BC affected the town (Livy 22.11.6; 27.10.8-9; 32.2.7; 33.24.8-9). Cosa seems to have prospered until it was sacked in the 60s BC, perhaps by pirates. This led to a re-foundation under Augustus and then life continued until the 3rd century. One of the last textual references to Cosa comes from the work of Rutilius Claudius Namatianus in his ''De reditu suo''. In the passage 1.285-90, Rutilius remarks that by 416 the site of Cosa was deserted and could be seen to be in ruins. He further suggests that a plague of mice had driven the people of Cosa away. Lying within the northern part of the province of Viterbo that is called ''Alto Lazio'' ("Upper Latium") or ''Tuscia'', the lake has a long historic tradition. The Romans called it ''Lacus Volsinii'', adapting the Etruscan (Etruscan civilization) name, Velzna, of the last Etruscan city to hold out against Rome, which was translocated after 264 BC, and its original location today has not been securely identified. The lake is bordered on one side by updated forms of the Roman consular road ''Via Cassia''. In addition to the historic sites of all periods, Lake Bolsena is currently surrounded by numerous tourist establishments, largely for camping, agrotourism and bed and breakfasts. Elevations on the north of the lake are the highest, with a maximum of History The location of the city was already occupied in the 8th century BC, and neighbouring Pizzo in the Bronze Age. Nepet then became Roman (Ancient Rome) before 386 BC, when Livy speaks of it and Sutrium as the keys of Etruria. In that year it was surrendered to the Etruscan (Etruscan civilization)s and recovered by the Romans, who beheaded the authors of its surrender. It became a colony in 383 BC. It was among the twelve Latin colonies that refused further help to Rome in 209 BC. After the Social War (Social War (91–88 BC)) it became a municipium. It is hardly mentioned in imperial times, except as a station on the road (Via Amerina) which diverged from the Via Cassia near the modern Settevene and ran to Amelia and Todi. Ancient Grecian (Pottery of ancient Greece) and Etruscan (Etruscan civilization) ceramics are renowned for their figurative painting, especially in the black-figure (Black-figure pottery) and red-figure (Red-figure pottery) styles. Moulded Greek terracotta figurines, especially those from Tanagra (Tanagra figurine), were small figures, often religious but later including many of everyday genre figures, apparently used purely for decoration. History Records in Italian courts of an investigation indicate that the krater was looted (Looted art) from an Etruscan (Etruscan civilization) tomb in the Greppe Sant'Angelo near Cerveteri in December 1971. The krater was sold to the Metropolitan Museum of Art by Robert Hecht Jr., an American antiquities dealer living in Rome, for US$ (United States dollar)1.2 million on November 10, 1972. Hecht, who is currently on trial for allegations of trafficking in illicit antiquities, claimed to have acquired the krater from Dikran Sarrafian, a Lebanese (Lebanon) dealer, whose family had been in possession of the piece since 1920. Evidence suggests that Hecht may have purchased the krater in 1972 from Giacomo Medici (Giacomo Medici (art dealer)), an Italian dealer who was convicted of selling stolen art in 2005. Hecht denies the charges. Euphronios Krater Returned - Art - New York Times History Orbetello was an ancient Etruscan (Etruscan civilization) settlement, which in 280 BC passed under the control of the Romans (ancient Rome), who had founded their colony of Cosa (near the modern Ansedonia). It is thought that there was already a Villanovan (Villanova culture) settlement at the confluence of the Mugnone with the River Arno between the 10th and the 8th century BC. Between the 7th and 6th centuries BC Etruscans (Etruscan civilization) had discovered and used the ford of the Arno near this confluence, closer to the hills of the North and South. A bridge or a ferry was probably constructed here, about ten metres away from the current Ponte Vecchio, but closer to the ford itself. The Etruscans, however, preferred not to build cities on the plain for reasons of defence and instead settled about six kilometres away on a hill. This settlement was a precursor of the fortified centre of Vipsul (today's Fiesole), which was later connected by road to all the major Etruscan centres of Emilia (Emilia (region of Italy)) to the North and Lazio to the South. Luca Mandelli, a historian of the 17th century, ascribes its foundation to settlers from the Greek city of Tegea, in the Peloponnese. In the late 19th century Giacomo Racioppi attributed its foundation to Oscan-Sabellian tribes driven out from their lands as a result of the expansion of the Etruscan civilization. Lately they say '''Tegianum''' was built by Lucanians early in the 4th century BC, and later was a municipal town of Lucania, made into a colony by Emperor Nero. The '''Battle of the Cremera''' was fought between the Roman Republic and the Etruscan (Etruscan civilization) city of Veii, in 477 BC (276 AUC). Archaeological excavations have brought to light Gaulish, Gallo-Roman and Etruscan (Etruscan civilization) remains. In the outskirts of the village there are ruins of a fortification, probably of Lombard (Lombards) origin. The '''Tampa Museum of Art''' is located in downtown (Downtown Tampa) Tampa (Tampa, Florida), Florida. It exhibits 20th-century fine art, as well as Greek (Art in Ancient Greece), Roman (Ancient Rome), and Etruscan (Etruscan civilization) antiquities. The museum was founded in 1979 and debuted an innovative new building in 2010 on the banks of Hillsborough River (Hillsborough River (Florida)) just north of its original site. The current location is part of Tampa's Riverwalk (Tampa Riverwalk) and the Waterfront Arts District along with the Glazer Children's Museum and the Florida Museum of Photographic Arts and includes a gift shop and SONO Cafe, a restaurant operated by Mise En Place. However, the main focus of the galleries is on arts, craft and wares, including exhibits on: Irish coins and currency, silverware, furniture, folklife and costumes, ceramics, glassware, etc. Included are artifacts such as Etruscan (Etruscan civilization) vases, gauntlets worn by King William (William III of England) at Battle of the Boyne, a life belt and oar salvaged from the wreck of the RMS Lusitania and a pocket book carried by Wolfe Tone whilst imprisoned in the Barracks. (''See above''). Claudius had particular affinities with Lugdunum (Lyon). He was born there, and it housed the Imperial cult centre: as both Emperor and a "native" of the city, he was probably seen as its patron. He made the inscribed speech before the Roman Senate in 48 AD. It was a proposal to allow monied, landed citizens from further Gaul to enter the Senatorial class, and thus the Senate itself (Roman Senate), once they had reached the necessary level of wealth. His argument evoked the Etruscan (Etruscan civilization) origins of his own family, the Claudius (gens) (gens Claudia), and the recent promotion to senatorial rank of men from Gallia Narbonensis. Europe In Europe, bronze mirrors from the Bronze Age have been discovered from various places, including Britain (Great Britain) and Italy. A notable example includes the Birdlip mirror. Etruscan (Etruscan civilization) mirrors were produced from between the 6th and 2nd centuries BCE. Celtic mirrors in Britain (Prehistoric Britain) were produced up until the Roman (Roman Empire) conquest. Origin The trumpet is found in many early civilizations and therefore makes it difficult to discern when and where the long, straight trumpet design found in the salpinx originated. References to the salpinx are found frequently in Greek literature and art. Early descriptions of the sound of the salpinx can be found in Homer’s ''Iliad'' (9th or 8th century BC), however, this Archaic (Ancient_Greece#Archaic_period) reference is more unique and frequent references are not found until the Classical period (Classical Greece). Homer, ''Iliad,'' 18. 219. McKinnon Similar instruments can be found in Anatolia, Mesopotamia, and Egypt, though the salpinx is most closely related to the Egyptian version. References to the salpinx in classical literature include mention of the instrument as ''tyrrhene'' Aeschylus, ''Eumenides'', 458 BC. ''O herald, make proclaim, bid all men come. Then let the shrill blast of the Tyrrhene trump, Fulfilled with mortal breath, thro' the wide air Peal a loud summons, bidding all men heed.'' a derivative of ''Tyrrhenoi'', an exonym often employed by the Greeks as an allusion to the Etruscan (Etruscan civilization) people. Bronze instruments were important among the Etruscans and as a people they were held in high regard by the Greeks for their musical contributions. The salpinx as an Etruscan invention is thus supported by the Greeks and various descriptions can be found among the authors Aeschylus, Pollux (Julius Pollux), and Sophocles. It is likely that the salpinx was introduced to the Greeks in some way through the Etruscans, however, scattered references to the salpinx prior to Greek contact with the Etruscans, as well as the myriad salpinx type instruments described by Eustathius of Thessalonia Nikos Xanthoulis, "The Salpinx in Greek Antiquity," ''International Trumpet Guild Journal', October 2006, 41 , suggests some small level of uncertainty in regard to whether or not the instrument came to the Greeks directly from the Etruscans or through some intermediary source.
. From here it runs due north back to Macon (Macon, Georgia). Lum was born on November 16, 1918 as William Herbert York in the tiny hamlet of Elmore, just about 15 miles north of Montgomery, Alabama. Farming is a hard life at best. This was one of the worst times. Poverty gripped the rural south with an iron fist. To eke out a meager living, crops demanded grueling service. Lum was a schoolboy before they moved to a house with electricity. But life was more than just the backbreaking work