Declaration of Independence independence was declared unilaterally by the National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad (MNLA) in 2012 after a Tuareg rebellion (Tuareg rebellion (2012)) drove the Malian Army (military of Mali) from the territory. Initially their effort was supported by various Islamist groups. Azawad, as claimed by the MNLA, comprises the Malian regions (Regions of Mali) of Timbuktu (Tombouctou Region), Kidal (Kidal Region), Gao (Gao Region), as well

articles 2012 04 06 205763.html publisher Al Arabiya title Tuareg rebels declare the independence of Azawad, north of Mali date 6 April 2012 accessdate 6 April 2012 and the MNLA's claim to have ''de facto'' control of the Azawad region was disputed by both the Malian government and Islamist insurgent groups in the Sahara. At this time, a rift was developing with the Islamists.

2012 accessdate 28 July 2012 Following the collapse of the short-lived accord, the MNLA and Ansar Dine continued to clash, culminating in the Battle of Gao on 27 June, in which the Islamist groups Movement for Oneness and Jihad in West Africa and Ansar Dine took control of the city, driving out the MNLA


Category:Arrondissements of Benin Category:Populated places in the Zou Department Category:Dahomey Category:World Heritage Sites in Benin Category:French West Africa Category:Capitals of former nations The Kingdom of Dahomey formed from a mixture of ethnic groups on the Abomey plain. Historians theorize that the insecurity caused by slave trading may have contributed to mass migrations of groups to modern day Abomey, including some Aja (Aja people), a Gbe (Gbe languages) people

on walls, p9. Getty Publications, 1999. ISBN 0892365692 Dahomey had a military culture aimed at securing and eventually expanding the borders of the small kingdom with its capital at modern day Abomey. The majority of Benin's population lives in the south. The population is young, with a life expectancy of 59 years. About 42 African ethnic groups live in this country; these various groups settled in Benin at different times and also migrated within the country. Ethnic groups include

of Donga province and its capital Djougou; and several groups in the Atakora, including the (Ditamari) of the Otammari country around the provincial capital of Natitingou, the Biali, the Waama of Tanguiéta, and the Gulmàceba (Gurma). * Kwa (Kwa languages), especially the Gbe languages spoken by the Tado peoples in the southern and central provinces: the Aja (Aja people) who established themselves in Kouffo province from neighboring Togo

Muang Sing

*Suakhao-Tai *Ta *Tami-Kao *Tapao *Texa *Thong-Mai *Tia Kamla *Tinthat (21°9'22"N 101°10'3"E) *Tinthat (21°2'7"N 101°'30"E) *Tinthat-Noy *Tonpouay *Xam *Xay *Xiangkheng *Xieng Yun *Yangpeng *Yao *'''Muang Sing''' (capital) *Muong Moune *Pang Kalom Demographics There are over nine minority groups in Mueang Sing District. As of 2000 there were some 68 Akha (Akha people) villages, 26 Tai Lue villages, 5 Tai Neua villages, 5 Yao people Yao

villages, 3 Hmong (Hmong people) villages and 1 Tai Dam (Tai Dam people) village in the district. These ethnic groups are classified in terms of altitude such as ''Lao lum'' (lowland Lao) and ''Lao sung'' (highland Lao). There are also many ethnic Yunnanese people in the area, mainly traders. The Akha which comprise about 45%, speak Tibeto-Burman languages and are mostly found in the rural parts

cultural nexus, as well as a trade centre for Tai Dam, Hmong, Mien, and Lolo. The most common groups are Akha accounting for about half of the residents followed by Tai Lue accounting for 30%. While Akha primarily inhabit upland areas, Tai Lue villages are some of the province's oldest continuously inhabited settlements in the northern reaches of the Muang Sing valley. Get in By bus * From Luang Namtha small buses depart several times a day at a small bus station near the Lao Airline


(of Ibusa origin) and C. N. Ugochukwu (Nnewi origin) share the opinion that groups who left Benin with Ezechima and journeyed Eastward might have settled in Igbuzo considering the geographical location of the town. Ugochukwu, C. N. (2000), ''Isu Factor in Nnewi History''. Tabansi Publishers. The implication of this therefore is that this new set of settlers could have been sick or generally lacking in interest in furthering their journey, this could also have

resulted in their final settlement in not too distant Onitsha. This new group of settlers in Igbuzo might have become assimilated by the Umejei and Edini groups. Oral history Ibusa is a federation of two units known as “the Umejei and Ogboli settlements. According to the oral history of the town, Umejei Nwa Eze Isu (Prince Umejei of Isu) killed his opponent in a traditional wrestling bout, an act considered “Alu” (Abomination) in the land and punishable by death. However, his

wives but Eze Nshi commuted the mandatory death sentence to exile. His father, mother and younger brother, Edini voluntarily opted to accompany him. Odaigbo and Edini were given one pot each and charms by Eze Nshi with the instruction to settle wherever the pot fell and on crossing the River Niger, Edini’s pot fell at Ani-Nshi(Nri)Ogboli in Ibusa. Odaigbo’s pot was to fall at the present site of Ogwashi-Uku where he also settled. The groups (Umejei and Edini later became one and known as Ibusa

Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant

as under the control of forces holding roads and towns within them. Map of the current military situation in Iraq (Template:Iraqi insurgency detailed map) Map of the current military situation in Syria (Cities and towns during the Syrian Civil War) org_type Rebel group controlling territory (List of active rebel groups#Groups which control territory)

of active rebel groups#Groups which control territory rebel group that controls territory in Iraq and Syria and also operates in eastern Libya, the Sinai Peninsula of Egypt, and other areas of the Middle East, North Africa, South Asia,

commonly translated as the '''Islamic State of Iraq and Syria''' or '''Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham''' and abbreviated '''ISIS''' ( ). In June 2014 the group renamed itself the '''Islamic State''' ('''IS''') but the new name has been widely criticized and condemned, with the UN, various governments, and mainstream Muslim groups refusing to use it.

Islamic Courts Union

accessdate September 9, 2007 publisher year 2007 author Alisha Ryu Instead, hardline Islamists broke ranks from the ICU and formed other militant groups, such as Al-Shabaab (Popular Resistance Movement in the Land of the Two Migrations) and Hizbul Islam, to continue the war against the government. The less-militant members of the ICU went into exile in Eritrea and Djibouti, where they formed the Alliance for the Re

-liberation of Somalia Alliance for the Re-Liberation of Somalia in September 2007. In the two years following the ICU's ouster from Mogadishu, the hardline Islamist groups concentrated their power in the south and west of Somalia, taking ground from both the TFG and ICU. By January 2009, a reconciliation and powersharing deal was brokered between the Transitional Federal Government (TFG) and the Djibouti contingent from the former Islamic Courts Union which resulted in the expansion

for many years. Together (according to a 1999 BBC report) with some Ethiopian opposition groups such as the OLF, Eritrea sent "shiploads" of arms to the ICU and other rebels


created by the Kurdish Supreme Committee to control the Kurdish inhabited areas in Syria. In July 2012 the YPG established control in the towns of Kobane, Amuda and Afrin (Afrin, Syria). The two main Kurdish groups, the Kurdish National Council (KNC

of northern Syria referred to collectively as Rojava. Its programme immediately aimed to be "very inclusive" and people from a range of different backgrounds became involved (including Kurds, Arabs, Assyrians, and Turkmen (from Muslim, Christian, and Yazidi religious groups). It sought to "establish a variety of groups, committees and communes on the streets in neighborhoods, villages, counties and small and big towns everywhere". The purpose

of these groups was to meet "every week to talk about the problems people face where they live". The representatives of the different community groups meet "in the main group in the villages or towns called the “House of the People”". According to Zaher Baher of the Haringey Solidarity Group, the TEV-DEM has been "the most successful organ" in Rojava because it has the "determination and power" to change things, it includes many people who "believe

Bountiful, British Columbia

Columbia . Bountiful is made up of members of two polygamist (Polygamy) Mormon fundamentalist groups. The settlement is named after Bountiful (Bountiful (Book of Mormon)) in the Book of Mormon. History The first member of the group that bought property near Lister was Harold

lds_poly1.htm accessdate 2007-08-09 The Mormon fundamentalists in Bountiful have divided into two groups: about half are members of the Fundamentalist Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (FLDS Church), and the other half are members of the Church of Jesus Christ Inc. (List_of_sects_in_the_Latter_Day_Saint_movement#LDS-derived_churches_upholding_polygamy_after_the_.22Manifesto.22_of_1890),

) Also in 2002, after Warren Jeffs assumed leadership, Winston Blackmore, who had been serving in Canada as the Bishop of Bountiful for the FLDS Church, was excommunicated by Jeffs in an apparent power struggle. This led to a split within the community in Bountiful, British Columbia, with an estimated 700 FLDS members leaving the church to follow Blackmore.

North Norfolk

, the district had an area of , with a population of 98,382 in 43,502 households. Office for National Statistics & Norfolk County Council (2001). ''PKFHSPKFHS groups public documents general_resources ncc017867.xls Census population and household counts for unparished urban areas and all parishes''. Retrieved 2 December 2005. The district contains the following civil parishes: *Alby with Thwaite, Aldborough, Norfolk Aldborough

parish in the English county of Norfolk. It covers an area of 11 km 2 and had a population of 1,033 in the 2001 census (United Kingdom Census 2001).groups public documents general_resources ncc017867.xls Census population and household counts for unparished urban areas and all parishes. Office for National Statistics & Norfolk County Council (2001). Retrieved 20 June 2009. Horning parish lies

web work Office for National Statistics & Norfolk County Council (2001) url http: consumption groups public documents general_resources ncc017867.xls format Excel spreadsheet title Census population and household counts for unparished urban areas and all parishes accessdate 2005-12-02 The motto ''Gem of the Norfolk Coast'' is highlighted on the town's roadsigns.

Colonial Mauritania

, and their European leaders were killed or held for ransom. The obvious weakness of the French and their distraction with events elsewhere in the region emboldened the amirs to demand and secure the reinstatement of the ''coutume''. At the beginning of the twentieth century, after 250 years of French presence in Mauritania, the situation was little changed. The endemic warfare between different Maure groups may even have increased as French merchants made arms readily

with their policy of direct, centralized rule, the French made it clear that these African chiefs exercised authority not by virtue of their traditional position but by virtue of their status as modern colonial administrators. Before 1946 no legislative bodies existed in the AOF. The governor general was assisted by the Grand Council (Grand Council of French West Africa) in Dakar, Senegal, which since 1925 had represented the federation's major interest groups (military

administrators of Islamic justice, the qadis, were put on the French payroll without supervision, and administrative appointments of chiefs were subject to the approval of the traditional jamaa. In an effort to maintain order throughout the turbulent territory, the French co-opted the leaders of certain warrior groups to serve the administration. Notable among these were the amirs of Trarza, Brakna, and Adrar, the three most powerful men in the colony, who were aided by 50

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