800–822 Son of Višeslav I. He or his son ruled during the uprisings (819–822) of Ljudevit Posavski against the Franks. According to the Royal Frankish Annals, in 822, Ljudevit went from his seat in Sisak to the Serbs somewhere in western Bosnia (History of Bosnia and Herzegovina (until 958)) who controlled a great part of Dalmatia (Dalmatia (Roman province)). At this time, there was peace with Bulgaria (First Bulgarian Empire). center>
, p. 53 According to the Royal Frankish Annals (821-822), the rebellious ''Duke of Pannonia'' Ljudevit Posavski fled, during the Frankish invasion, from his seat in Sisak to the Serbs in western Bosnia, who controlled a great part of Dalmatia (Dalmatia (Roman province)) ("''Sorabos, quae natio magnam Dalmatiae partem obtinere dicitur''"). ''Eginhartus de vita et gestis Caroli Magni'',
of Serbia his son was the ruler of Serbia during the uprisings (819-822) of Ljudevit Posavski against the Franks. According to the Royal Frankish Annals, in 822, Ljudevit went from his seat in Sisak to the Serbs who controlled a great part of Dalmatia (Dalmatia (Roman province)) ("''ad Sorabos, quae natio magnam Dalmatiae partem obtinere dicitur''"). ''Nachrichten von der Georg-Augusts Universität und der Königliches Gesellschaft der Wisenschaften zu
resources is due in great part to strong institutions, some of which are described below. While institutions have been efficient, services are fragmented. For example, EPM only address a portion of stormwater management in the MAM; other institutions handle what remains. In Medellín, Empresas Varias de Medellin manages solid waste; however, other institutions in the metro area carry out this responsibility as well and do so without satisfactory collaboration between institutions. A new institutional
NovaLisboaAnosOuro.wmv , a film of Nova Lisboa, Overseas Province of Angola, before 1975. Post Independence After independence from Portugal in 1975, Nova Lisboa was given back its original name - Huambo. The Angolan Civil War (1975–2002) halted Angola's and Huambo's development, destroying a great part of its infrastructure. New Lisbon's Ghost, images of Nova Lisboa, Portuguese Angola Huambo, Angola (a few are from
of historical Russian towns, managed to preserve almost all of its architectural and cultural monuments. This was in a great part due to the efforts of the local intellectuals grouped around the Regional Museum, and most notably of Nikolay Bekryashev, the museum director from 1924 to 1938. This group managed to convince the authorities that the churches and old buildings have a historical significance and must be handed in the museum rather than demolished. Administrative and municipal status Within the framework of administrative divisions (subdivisions of Russia#Administrative divisions), Veliky Ustyug serves as the administrative center of Velikoustyugsky District, On January 7, 2008, then President Putin (Vladimir Putin) of the Russian Federation was reported to have visited Ded Moroz' residence in the town of Veliky Ustyug as part of the Russian Orthodox Christmas Eve celebration.
it was sold to the Duchy of Jülich, and remained in its possession until 1794. The city was destroyed and rebuild multiple times by fires and in various conflicts during the 15th-17th century. It was a stronghold until a great part of was destroyed in 1677 during the Franco-Dutch War. Under French occupation (First French Empire) (1794-1814), Sittard was part of the Roer (Roer (département)) department. Since 1814, it has been part of the Netherlands, except for the years 1830-1839, when it joined the Belgian Revolution. During the Second World War (World War) it was occupied by the Germans who dissolved several small municipalities, like Broeksittard (Broeksittard), into Sittard. The city was liberated September 18-19 1944 by the 2nd Armored Division (2nd Armored Division (United States)). The historic town was moslty spared destruction despite lying in the frontline for over four months in which over 4000 shells and rockets struck the city. The Prince-electors, perturbed by the steep rise of the Luxembourgs, disregarded the claims raised by Henry's heir King John, and the rule over the Empire was assumed by the Wittelsbach duke Louis of Bavaria (Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor). John instead concentrated on securing his rule in Bohemia and gradually vassalized the Piast (Silesian Piasts) dukes of adjacent Silesia (Duchy of Silesia) from 1327 until 1335. His son Charles IV (Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor), in 1346 again gained the Imperial crown, the most capable ruler of the Luxembourg dynasty, whose Golden Bull of 1356 served as a constitution of the Empire for centuries. Charles not only acquired the duchies of Brabant (Duchy of Brabant) and Limburg (Duchy of Limburg) in the west, but also the former March of Lusatia (Lower Lusatia) and even the Margraviate of Brandenburg in 1373, then holding two votes in the electoral college. Although Heerlen is only 35 km North from Kettenis, transportation in those days wasn't much different from mediaeval times (largely by stage coach or on foot). So the travelling distance was much greater than it is now. But the cultural distance was much smaller. Both Kettenis and Heerlen had been part of the Duchy of Limburg for centuries. The then borders between the Netherlands, Germany and Belgium had only recently been drawn (see Treaty of London, 1839) and regional sentiments were still much stronger than any national feelings. Limburgers (Limburg (Netherlands)) still felt closer to nearby Germans than to Hollanders. The Duchy was even part of the German Confederation from 1839 to 1866 (just 8 years earlier). Arnold never naturalised (Naturalization) and even his grandson Pierre (see #Spin-offs) had German citizenship until shortly before the Second World War. In 1363 the French king John II of Valois (John II of France) enfeoffed his youngest son Philip the Bold with the Duchy of Burgundy (''Bourgogne''). Philip in 1369 married Margaret of Dampierre (Margaret III, Countess of Flanders), only child of Count Louis II of Flanders (d. 1384), whose immense dowry not only comprised Flanders and Artois but also the Imperial County of Burgundy. He thereby became the progenitor of the House of Valois-Burgundy who systematically came into possession of different Imperial fiefs: his grandson Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy from 1419, purchased Namur (County of Namur) in 1429, inherited the duchies of Brabant (Duchy of Brabant) and Limburg (Duchy of Limburg) from his cousin Philip of Saint-Pol (Philip of Saint-Pol, Duke of Brabant) in 1430. In 1432 he forced Jacqueline of Wittelsbach (Jacqueline, Countess of Hainaut) to cede him the counties of Hainaut (County of Hainaut) and Holland (County of Holland) with Zeeland (County of Zeeland) according to the Treaty of Delft and finally occupied Luxembourg, exiling Duchess Elisabeth of Görlitz (Elisabeth, Duchess of Luxembourg) in 1443. Middle Ages The city of Geldern was first documented in 812. Several versions of the name have been used: ''Gelre, Gielra, Gellero, Gelera'' and similar. The probable ancestor of the Counts of Guelders was Gerhard Flamens, who received Wassenberg as a fief from Emperor Henry II (Henry II, Holy Roman Emperor) in 1020. His great-grandson Gerhard IV of Wassenberg was the first to call himself Count of Guelders (as Gerhard I), from 1096. The title "count" came from other properties, probably in Teisterbant. From 1125 only the title ''of Guelders'' was used. Wassenberg itself was given to the Duke of Limburg (Duchy of Limburg) (and later to Jülich (Duchy of Jülich)) as a wedding gift in 1107. The counts of Guelders moved their residence to the castle in Geldern, that was built probably around this date at the crossing of the Niers. The castle and the accompanying medieval settlement were the origin of the present city, and also gave its name to the county and later duchy of Guelders. History In 1104, a young priest by the name of Ailbertus of Antoing founded an Augustinian (Augustinians) abbey in the ''Land of Rode'', near the river Wurm. The abbey was called ''Kloosterrade'', which later became '''s-Hertogenrade'' (in French: ''Rode-le-Duc'' or ''Rolduc''), after the ducal castle that was built across the Wurm. Ailbertus died in 1111 and his bones were later interred in the crypt. In 1136 the land of Rode, including the abbey, fell into the hands of the Duchy of Limburg. Kloosterrade was considered to be their family church. Several dukes of Limburg are buried at Rolduc, such as Walram III (Waleran III of Limburg), whose cenotaph can be found in the nave of the church. During the 12th century and 13th century the abbey flourished. Several other communities were founded by Kloosterrade. In 1250 the abbey owned more than 3,000 hectares of land. History before 1795 Historically, those territories have little in common. The Northern part around Eupen was originally part of the Duchy of Limburg, a dependancy of the Duchy of Brabant, and was latterly owned by the Austrian Habsburgs, as part of the Austrian Netherlands. The Southern part (i.e. more or less what is now the district of Sankt Vith) belonged to the Duchy of Luxembourg. The small village of Manderfeld-Schönberg belonged to the Archbishopric of Trier. Malmedy and Waimes, except the village of Faymonville, were part of the abbatial principality (Imperial Abbey) of Stavelot-Malmedy which was — like Luxembourg and Trier — an Imperial Estate of the Holy Roman Empire. It is said that Philip of Alsace brought the lion flag with him from the Holy land, where in 1177 he supposedly conquered it from a Saracen knight, but this is a myth. The simple fact that the lion appeared on his personal seal since 1163, when he had not yet set one step in the Levant, disproves it. In reality Philip was following a West-European trend. In the same period lions also appeared in the arms of Brabant (Duchy of Brabant), Luxembourg (County, Duchy and Grand Duchy of Luxembourg), Holland (County of Holland), Limburg (Duchy of Limburg) and other territories. It is curious that the lion as a heraldic symbol was mostly used in border territories and neighbouring countries of the Holy Roman Empire. It was in all likelihood a way of showing independence from the emperor, who used an eagle (Reichsadler) in his personal arms. In Europe the lion had been a well known figure since Roman times, through works such as the fables of Aesop. After the Battle of Worringen in 1288, the dukes of Brabant also acquired the Duchy of Limburg and the lands of Overmaas (trans-Meuse (Meuse (river))). In 1354 the Joyous Entry (Joyous Entry of 1356), or charter of liberty was granted to the citizens of Brabant by John III (John III, Duke of Brabant).
violence in Russia, directed in a great part against the people from Caucasus. The Russian authorities were unlikely to label random attacks on people of non-Russian ethnicity as racist, preferring calling it "hooliganism". commons:category:Stavropol
; — El Espectador In the early 17th century a great part of the valley of Cúcuta belonged to Captain Christopher de Araque Ponce de Leon. The land passed through inheritance to his son Fernando Araque Ponce de Leon, who was owner of the entire territory from the Valley of Cúcuta to the village of San Jose, the jurisdiction of the city of San Faustino. These fields had been donated to the older Araque by the Governor of the Province of New Mérida on September 9, 1630. The constant hostility
KOS KOS-Airport . 31.3 31.2 32.1 33.7 32.3 31.2 30.0 30.8 30.8 30.8 31.2 31.7 23.9 24.6 25.4 25.0 26.8 26.3 25.9 25.1 25.2 24.7 24.4 23.5 28.3 25.2 50.3 124.8 207.3 252.7 341.4 377.2 320.6 290.4 138.2 54.4 Economy thumb Angkor Beer (File:Angkor beer bottles.jpg) bottles The economy of Sihanoukville province is very varied but to a great part defined by its international port and the nearby oil port with numerous import - and export companies settled in the area and the attached freight-transport sector with the local cargo storage facilities. Other sizable economic sectors of the province are fishery, aquaculture, agriculture, mining, frozen shrimp processing, the garment industry, the real estate market and the vast tourism industry. Economic Activities, pages 662-664, "Cambodia in the Early 21st Century", Royal Government of Cambodia. Phnom Penh, 2004, ISBN 2-9513524-0-9 Sihanoukville is the home of Angkor Beer, one of Cambodia's major breweries. class "wikitable" style "text-align:center; width:50%" colspan "22" style "text-align:center;font-size:100%; font-style:bold;background:#E8EAFA;" businesses according to people employed (whole province) - !style "text-align:center; background:#483d8b; color:#fff;" Size of Establishment !style "text-align:center; background:#483d8b; color:#fff;" Number of Establishments - style "text-align:center; background:#483d8b; color:#fff;" 1-10 persons style "text-align:center; background:#483d8b; color:#fff;" 10,424 - style "text-align:center; background:#dc143c; color:#fff;" 11-50 persons style "text-align:center; background:#dc143c; color:#fff;" 177 - style "text-align:center; background:#dc143c; color:#fff;" 51-100 persons style "text-align:center; background:#dc143c; color:#fff;" 19 - style "text-align:center; background:#dc143c; color:#fff;" 101 or more style "text-align:center; background:#dc143c; color:#fff;" 29 - style "text-align:center; background:#483d8b; color:#fff;" Total style "text-align:center; background:#483d8b; color:#fff;" 10.649 - ! colspan "5" Source: Cambodiainvestment - Preah-Sihanouk-Province http: www.cambodiainvestment.gov.kh content uploads 2014 03 Preah-Sihanouk-Province_eng.pdf - Sihanoukville Special Economic Zone thumb right '''Sihanoukville's Special Economic Zone (SSEZ) as seen from National Highway No. 4 near Ream commune''' (File:SSEZ Sihanoukville.jpg) The Sihanoukville Special Economic Zone (SSEZ) is an overseas economic and trade cooperation zone which was designed to promote favorable market conditions http: www.ssez.com en touzi.asp such as: policy advantages, a safe political environment, favorable trade status, completed infrastructure supporting, low labor cost and excellent services, among others. In addition to its areas around the port, a sizable industrial center, exclusively composed of Chinese companies has been developed since around 2010. http: www.ssez.com en index.asp Sihanoukville Autonomous Port Category:Provinces of Cambodia (Category:Sihanoukville) Category:Gulf of Thailand Phnom Penh: More Information: Phnom Penh#Etymology Sihanoukville Province: Named after the former king, Norodom Sihanouk Preah Vihear Province: Sacred Temple named after Preah Vihear Temple
WikiPedia:Khiva Commons:Category:Khiva Dmoz:Regional Asia Uzbekistan Localities Khiva
), also known as the '''Tuoba Wei''' (拓拔魏), '''Later Wei''' (後魏), or '''Yuan Wei''' (元魏), was a dynasty which ruled northern China (History of China) from 386 to 534 (''de jure'' until 535). Described as "part of an era of political turbulence and intense social and cultural change", Katherine R. Tsiang, p. 222 the Northern Wei Dynasty is particularly noted for unifiying northern China in 439: this was also a period of introduced foreign ideas; such as Buddhism, which became firmly established. Many antiques and art works, both Daoist and Buddhist, from this period have survived. During the Taihe period (477-499) of Emperor Xiaowen (Emperor Xiaowen of Northern Wei), court advisers instituted sweeping reforms and introduced changes that eventually led to the dynasty moving its capital from Datong to Luoyang, in 494. It was the time of the construction of the Buddhist cave sites of Yungang (Yungang Grottoes) by Datong during the mid-to-late 5th century, and towards the latter part of the dynasty, the Longmen Caves outside the later capital city of Luoyang, in which more than 30,000 Buddhist images from the time of this dynasty have been found. It is thought the dynasty originated from the Tuoba clan of the Xianbei tribe. The Tuoba renamed themselves the Yuan (Yuan (surname)#Adoption by non-Han peoples) as a part of systematic Sinicization. Towards the end of the dynasty there was significant internal dissension resulting in a split into Eastern Wei Dynasty and Western Wei Dynasty. Sinicization As the Northern Wei state grew, the emperors' desire for Han Chinese institutions and advisors grew. Cui Hao (381-450), an advisor at the courts in Datong played a great part in this process. He introduced Han Chinese administrative methods and penal codes in the Northern Wei state, as well as creating a Taoist theocracy (The Northern Celestial Masters) that lasted until 450. The attraction of Han Chinese products, the royal court's taste for luxury, the prestige of Chinese culture at the time, and Taoism were all factors in the growing Chinese influence in the Northern Wei state. Chinese influence accelerated during the capital's move to Luoyang in 494 and Emperor Xiaowen (Emperor Xiaowen of Northern Wei) continued this by establishing a policy of systematic sinicization that was continued by his successors. Xianbei traditions were largely abandoned. The royal family took the sinicization a step further by changing their family name to Yuan. Marriages to Chinese families were encouraged. With this, Buddhist temples started appearing everywhere, displacing Taoism as the state religion. The temples were often created to appear extremely lavish and extravagant on the outside of the temples. * Datong (WG: Ta-t'ong) was the capital during Northern Wei Dynasty before moving to Luoyang in 493. In 493 CE the Northern Wei Dynasty moved its capital from Datong to Luoyang and started the construction of the rock-cut (rock-cut architecture) Longmen Grottoes. More than 30,000 Buddhist statues from the time of this dynasty have been found in the caves. Many of these sculptures were two-faced. The Empress Dowager Wenming tomb and Yongning Temple (永宁寺), which had a pagoda nine stories high, were also built here. right thumb 150px Zhengde Emperor (File:Zhengde.jpg) (r.1505-1521) led his armies to defeat the Mongols but in the end did not accomplish much. From 1513 Mongol invasions of China recommenced. Dayan Khan built forts in Xuanhua and Datong. He also stationed 15,000 cavalry on Ming territory. His Mongols numbering up to 70,000 invaded China in 1514 and 1517. His sons established a series of permanent bases along the Chinese border where the Mongols could keep watch on the Chinese (China). Batumongke Dayan Khan repeatedly sought trade relation with the Ming, but rejection turned him more and more to outright warfare. Peter C. Perdue - China marches west, p.62 Caves, Art, and Technology The popularization of Buddhism in this period is evident in the many scripture-filled caves and structures surviving from this period. The Mogao Caves near Dunhuang in Gansu province, the Longmen Grottoes near Luoyang in Henan and the Yungang Grottoes near Datong in Shanxi are the most renowned examples from the Northern (Northern Dynasties), Sui (Sui Dynasty) and Tang Dynasties (Tang Dynasty). The Leshan Giant Buddha, carved out of a hillside in the 8th century during the Tang Dynasty and looking down on the confluence of three rivers, is still the largest stone Buddha statue in the world. In anticipation of this attempt to take control of Suiyuan, Japanese spies destroyed a large supply depot in Datong and carried out other acts of sabotage. Yan Xishan placed his best troops and most able generals, including Zhao Chengshou and Yan's son-in-law, Wang Jingguo, under the command of Fu Zuoyi. During the month of fighting that ensued, the army or Mengguguo suffered severe casualties. Fu's forces succeeded in occupying Bailingmiao on 24 November 1936, and was considering invading Chahar (Chahar Province) before he was warned by the Kuangtung Army that doing so would provoke an attack by the Japanese Army. Demchugdongrub's forces repeatedly attempted to retake Bailingmiao, but this only provoked Fu into sending troops north, where he successfully seized the last of Demchugdongrub's bases in Suiyuan and virtually annihilated his army. After Japanese were found to be fighting in Demchugdongrub's army, Yan publicly accused Japan of aiding the invaders. Yan's victories in Suiyuan over Japanese-backed forces were praised by Chinese newspapers and magazines, other warlords and political leaders, and many students and other members of the Chinese public. Gillin 234–236 In 494, Emperor Xiaowen moved the Northern Wei capital (Historical capitals of China) from Pingcheng (平城, in modern Datong, Shanxi) to Luoyang, a city long acknowledged as a major center in Chinese history (History of China). The shift in the capital was mirrored by a shift in tactics from active defense to passive defense against the Rouran. While the capital was moved to Luoyang, the military elite remained centered at the old capital, widening the differences between the administration and the military. The population at the old capital remained fiercely conservative, while the population at Luoyang were much more eager to adopt Xiaowen's policies of sinicization. His reforms were met with resistance by the Xianbei elite. In 496, two plots by Xianbei nobles, one centered around his crown prince Yuan Xun, and one centered around his distant uncle Yuan Yi (元頤). By 497, Xiaowen had destroyed the conspiracies and forced Yuan Xun to commit suicide. In 471, Emperor Xianwen, who favored Taoist (Taoism) and Buddhist (Buddhism) philosophies, tired of the throne, and considered passing the throne to his uncle Tuoba Zitui (拓拔子推) the Prince of Jingzhao. After opposition by virtually all high level officials, however, Emperor Xianwen was still resolved to pass the throne to someone else, but decided to instead yield the throne to Crown Prince Hong. He subsequently did so, and Crown Prince Hong took the throne as Emperor Xiaowen, while Emperor Xianwen took the title of ''Taishang Huang'' (retired emperor), although, due to Emperor Xiaowen's young age, Emperor Xianwen continued to be in actual control of important matters. When needed on the frontlines against Rouran, he conducted military campaigns himself, while leaving important officials in charge of the capital Pingcheng (平城, in modern Datong, Shanxi) with Emperor Xiaowen. *The top five cities with most effective pollution controls: Nantong, Lianyungang, Shenyang, Suzhou, Fuzhou *The 10 cities with worst air quality: Linfen, Yangquan, Datong, Shizuishan, Sanmenxia, Jinchang, Shijiazhuang, Xianyang, Zhuzhou, Luoyang ref name "