Places Known For

great game


Khanate of Khiva

episode during The Great Game involved a Russian expedition to Khiva in 1839. The nominal purpose of the mission was to free the slaves captured and sold by Turkmen (Turkmens) raiders from the Russian frontiers on the Caspian Sea, but the expedition was also an attempt to extend Russia's borders while the British Empire entangled itself in the First Anglo-Afghan War. The expedition, led by General V.A. Perovsky (Vasily Alekseevich Perovsky), the commander of the Orenburg garrison, consisted of 5,200 infantry, and ten thousand camels. Due to poor planning and a bit of bad luck, they set off in November 1839, into one of the worst winters in memory, and were forced to turn back on 1 February 1840, arriving back into Orenburg in May, having suffered over a thousand casualties. thumb 275px The painter Vasily Vereshchagin (File:У крепостной стены.jpg) was present at the taking of Khiva by Russian forces in 1873. At the same time, Britain, anxious to remove the pretext for the Russian attempt to annex Khiva, launched its own effort to free the slaves. Major Todd, the senior British political officer (Political officer (British Empire)) stationed in Herat (in Afghanistan) dispatched Captain James Abbott (James Abbott (Indian Army officer)), disguised as an Afghan, on Christmas Eve, 1839, for Khiva. Abbott arrived in late January 1840 and, although the khan was suspicious of his identity, he succeeded in talking the khan into allowing him to carry a letter for the Tsar regarding the slave issue. He left on 7 March 1840, for Fort Alexandrovsk (Aqtau) (Aqtau), and was subsequently betrayed by his guide, robbed, then released when the bandits realized the origin and destination of his letter. His superiors in Herat, not knowing of his fate, sent another officer, Lieutenant Richmond Shakespear, after him. Shakespear had more success than Abbott: he convinced the khan to free all Russian subjects under his control, and also to make the ownership of Russian slaves a crime punishable by death. The freed slaves and Shakespear arrived in Fort Alexandrovsk on 15 August 1840, and Russia lost its primary motive for the conquest of Khiva, for the time being. thumb left A 1903 Polish map showing Khiva (''Chiwa'', in Polish) within the much reduced borders the Khanate had during 1874-1920 (File:Zakaukazie-Turkestan1903.jpg) A permanent Russian presence in Khwarezm began in 1848 with the building of Fort Aralsk at the mouth of the Syr Darya. The Empire's military superiority was such that Khiva and the other Central Asian principalities, Bukhara (Emirate of Bukhara) and Kokand (Khanate of Kokand), had no chance of repelling the Russian advance, despite years of fighting. John Ayde, ''Indian Frontier Policy''. Khiva was gradually reduced in size by Russian expansion in Turkestan and, in 1873, after Russia conquered the neighbouring cities of Tashkent and Samarkand, General Von Kaufman (Konstantin Petrovich Von Kaufman) launched an attack on Khiva consisting of 13,000 infantry and cavalry. The city of Khiva fell on 28 May 1873 and, on 12 August 1873, a peace treaty was signed that established Khiva as a quasi-independent Russian protectorate. The first significant settlement of Europeans in the Khanate was a group of Mennonites who migrated to Khiva in 1882. The German-speaking Mennonites had come from the Volga (Volga Germans) region and the Molotschna colony under the leadership of Claas Epp, Jr. The Mennonites played an important role in modernizing the Khanate in the decades prior to the October Revolution by introducing photography, which resulted with the development of the Uzbek photography and filmmaking, more efficient methods for cotton harvesting, electrical generators, and other technological innovations. ) was a Central Asian Gabriele Rasuly-Paleczek, Julia Katschnig (2005), ''European Society for Central Asian Studies. International Conference'', p.31 state that existed from 1785 to 1920. It occupied the land between the Amu Darya and Syr Darya rivers, known formerly as Transoxiana. Its core territory was the land along the lower Zarafshan River (Zeravshan), and its urban centres were the ancient cities of Samarkand and the emirate's capital, Bukhara. It was contemporaneous with the Khanate of Khiva to the west, in Khwarezm, and the Khanate of Kokand to the east, in Fergana (Fergana Valley). It is now within the boundaries of Uzbekistan. Two years later, a Turkmen (Turkmen people) traveller arrived in Astrakhan and announced to local authorities that the Oxus River, formerly flowing to the Caspian Sea, had been diverted by the Khiva (Khanate of Khiva)ns to the Aral Sea in order to extract golden sand from the river waters. Prince Gagarin, who was a local governor at that time, sent his envoys to the Khanate of Khiva in order to verify the fable. They returned with a sack of golden sand, allegedly extracted from the Oxus. Two years later, a Turkmen (Turkmen people) traveller arrived in Astrakhan and announced to local authorities that the Oxus River, formerly flowing to the Caspian Sea, had been diverted by the Khiva (Khanate of Khiva)ns to the Aral Sea in order to extract golden sand from the river waters. Prince Gagarin, who was a local governor at that time, sent his envoys to the Khanate of Khiva in order to verify the fable. They returned with a sack of golden sand, allegedly extracted from the Oxus. With the Russian Empire continuously advancing south in the course of two wars against Persia, and the treaties of Turkmanchai and Golestan in the western frontiers, plus the unexpected death of Abbas Mirza in 1823, and the murder of Persia's Grand Vizier (''Mirza AbolQasem Qa'im Maqām''), Persia lost its traditional foothold in Central Asia to the Russian Tsarist armies. '' Nasser Takmil Homayoun. ''Kharazm: What do I know about Iran?''. 2004. ISBN 964-379-023-1 p.78 '' The Russian armies occupied the Aral (Aral Sea) coast in 1849, Tashkent in 1864, Bukhara (Emirate of Bukhara) in 1867, Samarkand in 1868, and Khiva (Khanate of Khiva) and Amudarya in 1873. The Treaty of Akhal, in which the Qajarid's were forced to cede Khwarazm, topped off Persian losses to the global emerging power of Imperial Russia. After the Russian revolution of 1917, the entire space occupied today by Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, and the southern part of Kazakhstan consisted of three administrative territorial units: the Turkestan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (Turkestan ASSR), created in April 1918 within the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (RSFSR), and the two successor states of the Emirate of Bukhara and the Khanate of Khiva, which were transformed into Bukhara (Bukharan People's Soviet Republic) and Khorezm People's Soviet Republics following the takeover by the Red Army in 1920. North of Turkestan ASSR lay the Kirghiz Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (Kirghiz ASSR, Kirgizistan ASSR on the map), which was created on 26 August 1920 in the territory coinciding with the northern part of today's Kazakhstan (the southern part of Kazakhstan, south of the Aral Sea–Balkhash Lake line, was part of Turkestan ASSR in 1920).


Emirate of Bukhara

) was a Central Asian Gabriele Rasuly-Paleczek, Julia Katschnig (2005), ''European Society for Central Asian Studies. International Conference'', p.31 state that existed from 1785 to 1920. It occupied the land between the Amu Darya and Syr Darya rivers, known formerly as Transoxiana. Its core territory was the land along the lower Zarafshan River (Zeravshan), and its urban centres were the ancient cities of Samarkand and the emirate's capital, Bukhara. It was contemporaneous with the Khanate of Khiva to the west, in Khwarezm, and the Khanate of Kokand to the east, in Fergana (Fergana Valley). It is now within the boundaries of Uzbekistan. History thumb left A bureaucrat in Bukhara, ca.1910 (File:Gorskii 04653u.jpg) thumb left Fires in Bukhara during the Red Army's Bukhara operation (1920) attack (File:Fires in Bukhara 1920.jpg), 1 September 1920 thumb 200px The Emirate of Bukhara (top), with Kabul Kabool (File:Bokhara 1838.jpg) (centre) and Balochistan (Baluchistan (Chief Commissioners Province)) (bottom and right). thumb left 200px The borders of the Russia (File:XXth Century Citizen's Atlas map of Central Asia.png)n imperial territories of Khiva, Bukhara and Kokand in the time period of 1902-1903. The Emirate of Bukhara was officially created in 1785, upon the assumption of rulership by the Manghit emir, Shah Murad. Over the course of the 18th century, the emirs had slowly gained effective control of the Khanate of Bukhara, from their position as ''ataliq''. By the 1740s, when the khanate was conquered by Nadir Shah of Persia, it was clear that the emirs held the real power. In 1747 after Nadir Shah's death, the ataliq Muhammad Rahim Bi murdered Abulfayz Khan and his son, ending the Janid dynasty. From then on the emirs allowed puppet khans to rule until, following the death of Abu l-Ghazi Khan, Shah Murad assumed the throne openly. Svat Soucek, ''A History of Inner Asia'' (2000), pp 179–80 Fitzroy Maclean recounts in ''Eastern Approaches'' how Charles Stoddart and Arthur Conolly were executed by Nasrullah Khan (Nasrullah Khan (Bukhara)) in the context of The Great Game, and how Joseph Wolff, known as the Eccentric Missionary, escaped their fate when he came looking for them in 1845. He was wearing his full canonical costume, which caused the Emir to burst out laughing, and "Dr. Wolff was eventually suffered to leave Bokhara, greatly to the surprise of the populace, who were not accustomed to such clemency.". ''Eastern Approaches'' ch 6 "Bokhara the Noble" In 1868 the emirate lost a war with Imperial Russia, which had colonial (colonialism) aspirations in the region. Russia annexed much of the emirate's territory, including the important city of Samarkand. ''ibid.'', p 198 In 1873 the remainder became a Russian protectorate, Russo-Bukharan War 1868, ''Armed Conflict Events Database'', OnWar.com and was soon surrounded by the Governorate-General (Guberniya) of Turkestan (Russian Turkestan). Reformists within the Emirate had found the conservative emir, Mohammed Alim Khan, unwilling to loosen his grip on power, and had turned to the Russian Bolshevik revolutionaries for military assistance. The Red Army launched an unsuccessful assault in March 1920, and then a successful one in September of the same year. ''ibid.'', pp 221–2 The Emirate of Bukhara was conquered by the Bolsheviks and replaced with the Bukharan People's Soviet Republic. Today the territory of the defunct emirate lies mostly in Uzbekistan, with parts in Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan. It had also included present northern Afghanistan between 1793 and 1850. Family The emir's daughter Shukria Raad Alimi worked as a broadcaster in Radio Afghanistan. Shukria Raad left Afghanistan with her family three months after Soviet troops invaded the country (Soviet war in Afghanistan) in December 1979. With her husband, also a journalist, and two children she fled to Pakistan, and then through Germany to the United States. In 1982, she joined the VOA, and has worked as a broadcaster for VOA's Dari (Dari (Eastern Persian)) Service, editor, program host and producer ever since.

of Khiva (Khanate of Khiva), Bukhara (Emirate of Bukhara) and Kokand (Khanate of Kokand) had fallen, becoming Russian vassals. With Central Asia in the Tsar's grip, the Great Game now shifted eastward to China, Mongolia and Tibet. In 1904, the British invaded Lhasa, a preemptive strike against Russian intrigues and secret meetings between the 13th Dalai Lama's envoy and Tsar Nicholas II. The Dalai Lama fled into exile to China and Mongolia. The British were petrified at the idea


Orsk

Category:Orenburg Governorate Category:Populated places established in 1735 thumb left Traditional Kazakh wedding dress (File:SB - Kazakh woman on horse.jpg) The Russian Empire introduced a system of administration and built military garrisons and barracks in its effort to establish a presence in Central Asia in the so-called "Great Game" between it and the British Empire. The first Russian outpost, Orsk, was built in 1735. Russia enforced the Russian language in all schools


Farah, Afghanistan

40974.TXT title Farah Climate Normals 1961-1990 publisher National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration accessdate December 26, 2012 Books relating to Farah Little has been written about Farah; some fleeting references can be found in works related to Afghanistan or works that focus on the Great Game Politics of the UK and the Russian Empire during the 19th century. However, 2011 saw the publication of ''Words in the Dust'' Trent Reedy, ''Words in the Dust'', Arthur A. Levine 2011 by author Trent Reedy, who was one of the first American soldiers to enter Farah in 2004. His book, while fiction, is set in Farah City and the wider province. See also * Provincial Reconstruction Team * Granai airstrike References Imam reached Kandahar after completing the journey of Khurasan. He stayed here for a fortnight. The acceptance of Imam Mehdi by the governor of Kandahar had a very positive effect. Finally the Imam reached Farah (Farah, Afghanistan). As usual he started delivering his sermons (Bayan-e-Qur’an) at this place. The governor of Farah, Mir Dhunoon Baig, after learning about the Imam, came to one of his sermons. At that time thousands of people from Farah were listening to the sermons. At the end of the sermon, Mir Dhunoon wanted to verify the truth of his claim as promised Mehdi (for test of a Hadith by Mir Dhunoon, see an article under literature).


Osh

(Category:Osh) Category:Populated places in Osh Province Category:Regions of Kyrgyzstan Category:Populated places along the Silk Road Category:Kyrgyzstan–Uzbekistan border crossings Category:Populated places in Kyrgyzstan There are vague plans about extending rail lines from Balykchy in the north and or from Osh in the south into the People's Republic of China, but the cost of construction would be enormous. thumb Most of the intercity travelers having switched from the big state-run buses to minivans, the palatial halls of Bishkek's West Bus Terminal remain mostly deserted (Image:E8103-Bishkek-West-Bus-Terminal.jpg) With support from the Asian Development Bank, a major road linking the north and southwest from Bishkek to Osh has recently been completed. This considerably eases communication between the two major population centers of the country—the Chui Valley in the north and the Fergana Valley in the South. An offshoot of this road branches off across a 3,500 meter pass (mountain pass) into the Talas Valley in the northwest. Plans are now being formulated to build a major road from Osh into the People's Republic of China. Army The Army of Kyrgyzstan includes the 1st Motor Rifle Brigade (Mountain) at Osh, a brigade at Koy-Tash, in the Bishkek area, the 25th Special Forces Brigade, independent battalions at Karakol and Naryn, a brigade at Balykchi, and other units. Uzbekistan dominates southern Kyrgyzstan both economically and politically, based on the large Uzbek population in that region of Kyrgyzstan and on economic and geographic conditions. Much of Kyrgyzstan depends entirely on Uzbekistan for natural gas; on several occasions, Karimov has achieved political ends by shutting pipelines (Pipeline transport) or by adjusting terms of delivery. In a number of television appearances broadcast in the Osh and Jalal-Abad provinces of Kyrgyzstan, Karimov has addressed Akayev with considerable condescension; Akayev, in turn, has been highly deferential to his much stronger neighbor. Although Uzbekistan has not shown overt expansionist tendencies, the Kyrgyz government is acutely aware of the implications of Karimov's assertions that he is responsible for the well-being of all Uzbeks, regardless of their nation of residence. Tajikistan has an estimated 30,000 kilometers of roads, nearly all of which were built before 1991. One main north-south artery runs across the mountains between the northwestern city of Khujand and Dushanbe. A second main artery runs east from Dushanbe to Khorog in the Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Province


Russian Empire

v. 1.0 publisher Koninklijke Brill NV location Leiden, The Netherlands year 1999 The capital of Afghanistan was shifted in 1776 from Kandahar to Kabul and part of the Afghan Empire (Durrani Empire) was ceded to neighboring empires by 1893. In the late 19th century, Afghanistan became a buffer state in the "Great Game (The Great Game)" between the British (British Raj) and Russian (Russian Empire) empires.

afghan ahist.html#6 title Western Powers and the Great Game work publisher Center for Applied Linguistics date 30 June 2002 accessdate 14 October 2010 Following the Third Anglo-Afghan War (European influence in Afghanistan#Third Anglo-Afghan War) of 1919 and the signing of the Treaty of Rawalpindi, King Amanullah (Amanullah Khan) started modernization of the country. When the British withdrew from neighboring India (Partition of India) in 1947, Afghanistan became a buffer

Press doi url http: books.google.com books?id FfRYRwAACAAJ&dq Russia+and+Iran+in+the+great+game:+travelogues+and+orientalism isbn 978-0-231-07068-3, 978978-0-231-07068-3


Khanate of Kokand

Kokand had fallen, becoming Russian vassals. With Central Asia in the Tsar's grip, the Great Game now shifted eastward to China, Mongolia and Tibet. In 1904, the British invaded Lhasa, a preemptive strike against Russian intrigues and secret meetings between the 13th Dalai Lama's envoy and Tsar Nicholas II. The Dalai Lama fled into exile to China and Mongolia. The British were petrified at the idea of a Russian invasion of their crown colony of India, though Russia – badly defeated by Japan


Orenburg

and pokhidnii ataman (campaign leader) of the Don Cossacks with a transfer to their HQ at Novocherkask. A notable episode during The Great Game involved a Russian expedition to Khiva in 1839. The nominal purpose of the mission was to free the slaves captured and sold by Turkmen (Turkmens) raiders from the Russian frontiers on the Caspian Sea, but the expedition was also an attempt to extend Russia's borders while the British Empire entangled itself in the First Anglo-Afghan War. The expedition, led by General V.A. Perovsky (Vasily Alekseevich Perovsky), the commander of the Orenburg garrison, consisted of 5,200 infantry, and ten thousand camels. Due to poor planning and a bit of bad luck, they set off in November 1839, into one of the worst winters in memory, and were forced to turn back on 1 February 1840, arriving back into Orenburg in May, having suffered over a thousand casualties. thumb 275px The painter Vasily Vereshchagin (File:У крепостной стены.jpg) was present at the taking of Khiva by Russian forces in 1873. A notable episode during The Great Game involved a Russian expedition to Khiva in 1839. The nominal purpose of the mission was to free the slaves captured and sold by Turkmen (Turkmens) raiders from the Russian frontiers on the Caspian Sea, but the expedition was also an attempt to extend Russia's borders while the British Empire entangled itself in the First Anglo-Afghan War. The expedition, led by General V.A. Perovsky (Vasily Alekseevich Perovsky), the commander of the Orenburg garrison, consisted of 5,200 infantry, and ten thousand camels. Due to poor planning and a bit of bad luck, they set off in November 1839, into one of the worst winters in memory, and were forced to turn back on 1 February 1840, arriving back into Orenburg in May, having suffered over a thousand casualties. thumb 275px The painter Vasily Vereshchagin (File:У крепостной стены.jpg) was present at the taking of Khiva by Russian forces in 1873. thumb Orenburg Cossacks with camels, 19th century. (File:Orenburg cossacks with camels.jpg) In the 17th century rich and high-quality mineral deposits were discovered in the Ural region. First iron and copper smelters were founded by the mid-17th century. The area was recognized by the Russian government as a strategic source of raw materials. More than 60 factories were built in the first half of the 18th century and this number doubled in the 1750–60s. The industrial activity declined in the early 19th century due to the crisis of the feudal system in Russia, and the growth slowed down in all areas except for the gold mining. The largest industrial and commercial centers were Perm, Yekaterinburg, Orenburg, Ufa, Kungur and Irbit. Irbit hosted the biggest fair of the Urals. In the 1840s, regular commercial navigation started on the Kama River. caption birth_place Orenburg, Russia death_place Munich, Germany Saint '''Alexander Schmorell''' (16 September 1917 in Orenburg, Russia; – 13 July 1943 in Munich) was one of five Munich University students who formed a resistance (Widerstand) group known as White Rose (''Weiße Rose'') which was active against Germany's Nazi (Nazism) regime from June 1942 to February 1943. In 2012, he was glorified as a New Martyr by the Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia. * '''UWLW''' (ULY) – Vostochny Airport – Ulyanovsk, Russia * '''UWOO''' (REN) – Tsentralny Airport – Orenburg, Russia * '''UWOR''' (OSW) – Orsk Airport – Orsk, Russia From 1809 to 1812 he lived in his estate near Tula (Tula, Russia). In 1812 he formed and then commanded the militia of Nizhny Novgorod, Simbirsk, Kazan, Vyatka (Kirov, Kirov Oblast) and Orenburg governorates. In 1813 he participated in the taking of Dresden and Magdeburg. *Igor Leonidovich Kirrilov (Igor Kirillov) (b. 1932), a Soviet and Russian television presenter and announcer *Ivan Kirillovich Kirillov (-1747), founded Orenburg, involved in the Bashkir War of 1735-40 (Bashkirs) *Mikhail Kirillov (1900–1971), a Russian Soviet actor Theren shold be some major work done to expand articles about major Russian cities. There are only pathetic stubs about such historically, politically and economically vital cities, administrative centers of oblasts with a population of over 500 000 people such as Perm (actually over 1 million people!) Krasnodar, Penza, Lipetsk, Stavropol, Belgorod, Orenburg, Ulyanovsk and Tyumen. As well as capitals of autonomus republics such as Petrozavodsk, Syktyvkar and Makhachkala More information and at least one picture per article should be added. Fisenko (User:Fisenko) 09:17, 7 November 2005 (UTC) :That's why I proposed the creation of the Russian COTW, but people didn't seem to be interested at all. KNewman (User:KNewman) 23:35, 7 November 2005 (UTC) In 1863, the Russian Empire created two administrative districts, the Governor-Generalships in Central Asia of Russian Turkestan (the oasis region to the South of the Kazakh steppes and Zhetysu (Semirechye) region) and that of the Steppe ( modern eastern and northern Kazakhstan including the lands of the Siberian and Semiryechensk Cossask Hosts) with their capital at Omsk. The north-west of Kazakhstan was at the time part of Orenburg gubernia. First Governor-General Gerasim Kolpakovsky of the Steppe region (and all his future successors) was also ataman of Siberian Cossacks symbolizing the important role the Cossacks played in the Russian colonization of Kazakh territories. In 1869 Russian settlers founded the town of Aktobe (Aktyubinsk), in 1879 Kostanay. In the 1860s General Mikhail Chernyayev conquered the only towns that existed in Kazakhstan before the Russian conquest Hazrat-e Turkestan, Taraz and Shymkent that belonged to the Khanate of Kokand. Christianity spread in the predominantly Muslim region together with Russian colonists: the Russian Orthodox Church established a Central Asian bishopric in 1871 with its bishop first residing in Verniy (Almaty) and after 1916 in Tashkent. Christianity spread in the predominantly Muslim region together with Russian colonists: the Russian Orthodox Church established a Central Asian bishopric in 1871 with its bishop first residing in Verniy (Almaty) and after 1916 in Tashkent. In the 1890s, many non-Cossack Russian settlers migrated into the fertile lands of northern and eastern Kazakhstan. In 1906 the Trans-Aral Railway between Orenburg and Tashkent was completed, further facilitating Russian and Ukrainian migration to Central Asia. Between 1906 and 1912, more than half a million Russian farms were started in Kazakhstan as part of the reforms of the Russian minister of the interior Petr Stolypin. - 029 027 '''Orenburg''' Оренбург Orenburg Oblast 549,361 544,987 Wikipedia:Orenburg


Bukhara

painting depicting a Chinese campaign against Turkic Muslim rebels in Xinjiang, 1828 At the same time as the Chinese consolidation of control in Xinjiang, explorers from the British (British Empire) and Russian (Russian Empire) empires explored, mapped, and delineated Central Asia in a competition of colonial expansion (The Great Game). Several influential Russians would propose new terms for the territories, as in 1805 when the Russian explorer Timovski revived the use of "

, with the taking of Bukhara and Samarkand in 1863 and 1868 respectively, thereby setting the stage for the Great Game of Central Asia. -- Life Akhmad (or Akhmat) Abdulkhamidovich Kadyrov was born in Karaganda in the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic, to a Chechen family that had been expelled from Chechnya during the Stalinist repressions (Great Purge). In April 1957, his family returned to Shalinsky District

vitralios, which are mostly Swiss. thumb left 200px Typical scenery in the area (Image:khorog2.jpg) Until the late 19th century, Khorugh was in an area disputed between the Emir of Bukhara, Shah of Afghanistan, Russia and Britain (United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland). The Russians emerged the winners of the region after The Great Game, which fixed the current northern border of Afghanistan on the Panj River and established the territory of Russian Pamir around Khorugh


Copyright (C) 2015-2017 PlacesKnownFor.com
Last modified: Tue Oct 10 05:56:30 EDT 2017