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Nationalsozialistischer Reichsbund für Leibesübungen

(1944–1945). History Forerunner organizations The 1916 Summer Olympics had been awarded to Berlin, but were canceled because of the duration of World War I. The ''Deutscher Reichsausschuss für Olympische Spiele (Deutsche Reichsausschuss für Leibesübungen)'' (DRA or DRAfOS) ''"German Imperial Commission for Olympic Games"'', was the German Olympic Sports organization at that time. In 1917 the "German Imperial Commission for Olympic Games" was renamed Deutscher Reichsausschuss für Leibesübungen (:de:Deutscher Reichsausschuss für Leibesübungen) (DRA), (sometimes also DRL or, more rarely, DRAfL) (''"German Imperial Commission for Physical Exercise"''). The name change reflected Germany's protest against the fact that Germany and other Central Powers were being excluded from the "Olympic family" which was dominated by the Entente Powers. Name change The Deutscher Reichsausschuss für Leibesübungen was led by Theodor Lewald and Carl Diem was its Secretary General. Even though it saw itself as the pan-German umbrella organization for sports, the fact is that it did not represent all types of sports and sports associations of Germany. A great number of sport clubs, especially those stemming from industrial workers' background, had not joined the DRA. After the Enabling Act (Enabling Act of 1933), which legally gave Hitler dictatorial control of Germany in March 1933, all sports organizations connected to the Social Democratic Party (History of the Social Democratic Party of Germany), the Communist Party (Communist Party of Germany), and even to the church, were banned. This ban affected especially the sports clubs of industrial workers, most of which were called to split up on their own ''(Selbstauflösung)'' before the first semester of 1933 was over. The more conservative nationalistic and bourgeois clubs were allowed to subsist into the following year. On April 12, 1933 Theodor Lewald gave in to the Nazi authorities and resigned as leader of the German Sports Office after it was revealed his paternal grandmother was Jewish. The History Place; Triumph of Hitler The Nazi minister of the interior Wilhelm Frick, interfered with the process of the election of a new Sports leader and the decision was made by a hurriedly-instituted three-men commission. Thus, in April 1933, Hans von Tschammer und Osten, a figure formerly unknown in German sports, was named ''Reichskommissar für Turnen und Sport'' (Commissioner for Gymnastics and Sports of the Reich). Von Tschammer, however, would keep his predecessor in a high position in the sports body, and years later he would appoint Theodor Lewald as president of the Organizing Committee of the Berlin Olympic Games. Hans von Tschammer und Osten was a SA (Sturmabteilung) group leader and promoter of Nazism. In the name of ''gleichschaltung'' he disbanded the ''Deutscher Reichsausschuss für Leibesübungen'' on May 5, 1933 (officially on May 10). Von Tschammer was then elevated to ''Reichssportführer'' on July 19 and the whole sports sphere in Germany was placed under his power. Sports and propaganda in Nazi Germany: The Aryan ideal The '''Deutscher Reichsbund für Leibesübungen''' ('''DRL''') was established on July 27, 1934 as the official Sports governing body of the Third Reich. It would quickly become a formidable system within the German nation. After the DRL's foundation all other German sport associations gradually lost their freedom and were coopted into the DRL as mere units ("Fachämter"). Even the most prestigious ones, like the German Football Association (DFB) lost their independence. Havemann, Nils (2006) ''Fußball unterm Hakenkreuz. Der DFB zwischen Sport, Politik und Kommerz Bonn: Bundeszentrale für politische Bildung'' 1933-45 Chronik Rückblick mit scheinbaren Analogien und ohne Anspruch auf Vollständigkeit Von Tschammer's goal was to build a formidable Nazi sports body to which all German sports associations would be submitted. His vision was that physical exercise would ''"improve the morale and productivity of German workers"'' as well as making sports a source of national pride for the Germans. Sporting skills were made a criterion for school graduation as well as a necessary qualification for certain jobs and admission to universities. Bruce Campbell, ''The SA Generals and the Rise of Nazism'' Among the controversial measures taken by the Sports Office of the Reich at the time, the staging of the massive Reichssportfest event on Trinity Sunday was a decision that shocked devout Catholics. Kurt Josef Wecker, ''Themenheft Gemeinde 48: Rituale für Fernstehende'' Bergmoser & Höller Verlag, Aachen In 1935 journalist Guido von Mengden, was named public relations officer of the Reich Sports Office. He became the personal advisor and consultant of the ''Reichssportführer'' in 1936. A committed Nazi, von Mengden became the chief editor of '''NS-Sport''', the official organ of the Reich Sports Office. Bernett, Hajo (1976), ''Guido von Mengden "Generalsstabschef" des deutschen Sports'', Verlag Bartels & Wernitz. Other DRL NSRL publications included ''Dietwart'', a sports magazine with excellent illustrations and ''Sport und Staat'' (Sports and State), a massive four-volume Nazi propaganda report on the organized sports activities in the Third Reich. ''Sport und Staat'' was made by Arno Breitmeyer and Hitler's personal photographer Heinrich Hoffmann. This lavishly illustrated work had many pictures and information about the various Nazi organizations, i.e. SA (Sturmabteilung), NSKK (National Socialist Motor Corps), Bund Deutscher Mädel, Hitler Jugend, etc. Printed in 1934 by the publishing house of the German Sports Aid Funds, a branch of the DRL, only volume one and two of a planned series of four volumes were published. 'Sport und Staat The aims of the promotion of sports in the Third Reich included hardening the spirit of every German as well as making German citizens feel that they were part of a wider national purpose. This was in line with the ideals of Friedrich Ludwig Jahn, the "Father of physical exercises", who connected the steeling of one's own body to a healthy spirit and promoted the idea of a unified, strong Germany. Turnverein Riesel, History A more controversial aim was the demonstration of Aryan physical superiority (Racial policy of Nazi Germany). Liz Jewitt ''How successful was Nazi propaganda''. Von Tschammer's impressively staged events of sports pageantry not only enhanced the physical activity, but also the nationalism of Germans. Nordic (Nordic race) aesthetic beauty and commitment to Germanic ideals of race (Master race) went hand in hand during the Third Reich, and von Tschammer und Osten implemented a policy of racial exclusion within sports. Athletes of Jewish origin were excluded from participation in relevant sporting events. Von Tschammer's biography 1936 Olympic Games: Zenith of the Nazi Sports Office In 1936 Hans von Tschammer und Osten, as the head of the Deutscher Reichsbund für Leibesübungen, played a major role in the structure and coordination of the Summer Olympics (1936 Summer Olympics) in Berlin. The Olympic games, the first in history to have live television coverage, provided an ideal setting to showcase the Nazi regime and what Hitler deemed to be his exploits. As Secretary General of the Organizing Committee of the Berlin Olympic Games, Carl Diem, the former secretary of the Deutscher Reichsausschuss für Leibesübungen (DRA), the forerunner of the DRL NSRL, became the chief organizer of the Berlin Olympic Games. Diem held high posts in the Reichs Sports office even after the Olympics, being named leader of the Foreign Department of the Nationalsocialist Sports Office in 1939 by the ''Reichssportführer''. As such Carl Diem was responsible for the issues of German athletes in foreign countries, as well as for the international affairs of the NSRL. Der "politische Sturm" um Carl Diem als Leiter der Sporthochschule Köln The 1936 Winter Olympics were organized on behalf of the Sports Office of the Third Reich (Nationalsozialistischer Reichsbund für Leibesübungen) (DRL) by Karl Ritter von Halt. Von Halt had been named President of the Committee for the organization of the Fourth Winter Olympics in Garmisch by ''Reichssportführer'' Hans von Tschammer und Osten. Doctrine The HJ were viewed as future "Aryan (Aryan race) supermen" and were indoctrinated in anti-Semitism. One aim was to instill the motivation that would enable HJ members, as soldiers, to fight faithfully for the Third Reich. The HJ put more emphasis on physical (body) and military training than on academic study. Hakim 1995 The ''Nationalsozialistischer Reichsbund für Leibesübungen'' (NSRBL), the umbrella organization promoting and coordinating sport activities in Germany during the Nazi period, had the responsibility of overseeing the physical fitness development programs provided to the German youth. "Hitlerjugend: An In-Depth History." ''axishistory.com''. Retrieved: 1 February 2010. Carl Diem became the secretary of the all-German sports organization Deutscher Reichsausschuss für Leibesübungen (:de:Deutscher Reichsausschuss für Leibesübungen) (DRL) the forerunner of the Nationalsozialistischer Reichsbund für Leibesübungen, the Sports Organ of the Third Reich.


South San Francisco, California

: replay.web.archive.org 20090626060346 http: www.gamedaily.com articles galleries top-25-nintendo-gimmicks ?page 4 title Gallery and Images publisher GameDaily accessdate 2010-08-10 unused_data More UGO Networks ranked Luigi at #16 on their "25 Most Memorable Italians in Video Games" list, ranking him over Mario himself.

title Top 100 Villains publisher IGN accessdate 2010-05-13 UGO.com listed Mario's Hat twenty-first on their list of "The Coolest Helmets and Headgear in Video Games", stating "there’s always somebody at your Halloween party wearing one."

, California pages 46, 47 accessdate 2010-07-24 ''Computer and Video Games'' found the levity of Wario's games "liberating" compared to big Nintendo franchises such as ''Mario'' and ''The Legend of Zelda'', and that regarding the character, "perhaps secretly we empathise more with the hopelessly materialistic Wario than goody brown-shoes Mario. Deep down, we'd all rather chase pounds (Pound sterling) over princesses."


Roseville, Minnesota

first game product (Twilight Imperium) in 1997, the company has been doing business as Fantasy Flight Games ("FFG"). Since that time, FFG has grown to become one of the biggest names in the hobby games industry, being a marketplace leader in board games and maintaining strong businesses in the card game, roleplaying game, and miniature (Miniature figure (gaming)) game categories.


Lebanon, Pennsylvania

attended Cedar Crest High School in Lebanon, Pennsylvania where he played baseball, football, and basketball. Reich started on the football team for his last two years in high school. He played quarterback in the Big 33 Football Classic (known as the "Super Bowl of high school games") his senior year of high school. Reich, Frank. Telephone Interview. 9 February 2009. Personal history Born in Lebanon, Pennsylvania


Novato, California

location_city Novato (Novato, California), California location_country United States The name "2K Games" comes from Visual Concepts' sports game (2K Sports) lineup typically referred to as the ''2K series'', which were originally published exclusively for the Dreamcast console. 2K Games is headquartered in Novato (Novato, California), California. The label publishes a wide variety of console and PC titles developed both internally and externally


Kingdom of Galicia

, came to the rescue of his mother, whose nephew he was, and thus freed the kingdom from political dependence on the crown of his cousin of León. On 6 April 1129, Afonso Henriques dictated the writ in which he proclaimed himself '''Prince of Portugal'''. thumb right The game of astronomical tables, from ''Libro de los juegos'' (File:Alfonso LJ 97V.jpg) The '''''Libro de los Juegos''''', ("Book of games"), or '''''Libro de acedrex, dados e tablas''''', ("Book of chess, dice

of Alfonso X’s Book of Games" (PhD diss., University of Arizona, 2007), 31. Although Golladay is not the first to assert that 1283 is the finish date of the ''Libro de Juegos'', the ''a quo'' information compiled in her dissertation consolidates the range of research concerning the initiation and completion dates of the ''Libro de Juegos''. Wollesen, Jens T. "Sub specie ludi...: Text and Images in Alfonso El Sabio's Libro de Acedrex


Port Harcourt

(Permanent Secretary) MI Tella, Director Public Affairs Kenneth Anga, Director Legal Dr. Justice Nwobike, Director Projects Edmund Altraide, Director Development Control Sir Ngozi Worgu. The Greater Port Harcourt city hosted several of the events at the 17th national sports festival tagged "Garden City Games". Notable people Sister cities Port Harcourt has the following sister city relationship, according to Sister Cities International


Veszprém

: mostly the Community Centre. Date: 1st half of Aug * Veszprem Gala Games Festival (Veszprémi Ünnepi Játékok), concerts in the Castle. Date: Aug * Street Music Festival (Utcazene Fesztivál). Amateur artists. Several days long. * "Spring Games" (Tavaszi Játékok) International Children's - Youth and Sports and Arts Festival * Veszprém Beer Festival (Sörfesztivál) - end of Jun early Jul * Veszprém Spring Festival (Veszprémi Tavaszi Fesztivál) * Festival of Dance (A Tánc Fesztiválja


Corvallis, Oregon

, Oregon . In June 2011, Redbox launched video game rentals nationwide. Games for all major platforms are offered, including Wii, PlayStation 3, and Xbox 360.


Atlanta metropolitan area

;Atlanta Braves and Clear Channel Announce Move to Project 9–6–1 for 2009 Games." March 2, 2009. Retrieved July 8, 2010. '''Atlanta''' ( ) is the capital and the most populous city in the U.S. (United States) state of Georgia (Georgia (U.S. state)) with a 2010 population of 420,003.


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