In preparation for their mission, the Apollo 16 astronauts participated in an extensive training program that included, among other things, several field geology trips to introduce the astronauts to concepts and techniques they would eventually use on the lunar surface. During these trips, the astronauts would visit and provide scientific descriptions of geologic features they were likely to encounter on the surface of the Moon. Rimstead began his journalism career at the age of 11, reporting on local farm births. A high school drop-out, Rimstead would become a seasoned sports reporter, columnist, and writer.
after Muhammad's migration from Makkah to the then Yathrib, now Al-Madina. His birth came two years before the end of the rule of Caliph Óthman ibn Áffan. Iraq Just before Operation ''Telic'' (Operation Telic) began (Britain's contribution to the 2003 invasion of Iraq), the brigade, commanded by Brigadier Graham Binns, moved to Kuwait where it undertook extensive training and was 'desertised' for service in the Middle East. The brigade, consisting of 112 Challenger 2 tanks, 140 Warriors (Warrior Tracked Armoured Vehicle) and 32 AS-90 155 mm self-propelled howitzers, entered Iraq on 21 March. The main objective of the Desert Rats was to advance towards Iraq's second largest city, Basra, and help encircle and isolate it. The brigade, led by the 1st Fusiliers Battlegroup, made a rapid advance towards the city and soon reached its outskirts, securing Basra Airport and the critical bridges across the Shatt al-Arab. The advance by the brigade met sporadic though fierce resistance,with The Queen's Royal Irish Hussars, including an engagement between 14 Challenger 2s of the Royal Scots Dragoon Guards and 14 Iraqi tanks, all of the Iraqi tanks being destroyed; it was the largest tank engagement by the British Army since WWII. Initially the Brigade was faced by very spirited but un-coordinated attacks from Basra and in the town of Az Zubayr. These attacks were initially orchestrated by members of the Iraqi secret police, who used violence and threats against family members to coerce men to attack the Desert Rats and other elements of 1st Armoured Division. As their influence waned, so did the frequency and ferocity of the Iraqi attacks. or, alternatively, *Basra — Kazvin or *Dzhulfa — Beslan. History right thumb 250px Soldiers from 16 Air Assault Brigade preparing for an evening raid near Basra (Image:Land Rover Defender 110 patrol vehicles.jpg), Iraq Macedonia The brigade was subsequently used to guard the oil fields and protect Allied supply lines with elements moving further north of Basra – Iraq's second largest city – to provide a screen protecting it from Iraqi attack. On 31 March the brigade, assisted by artillery and air support, attacked an Iraqi armoured column advancing on Basra, destroying 17 T-55 tanks, 5 artillery pieces and 7 armoured personnel carriers. After British forces entered Basra on 6 April, 3 PARA was employed to clear the 'old quarter' of the city on 7 April due to the narrow streets making it inaccessible to vehicles. From between the eighth and eighteenth centuries, the use of glazed ceramics (Ceramic glaze) was prevalent in Islamic art, usually assuming the form of elaborate pottery. Mason (1995) p.1 Tin-opacified glazing (Tin-glazing), for the production of tin-glazed pottery, was one of the earliest new technologies developed by the Islamic potters. The first Islamic opaque glazes can be found as blue-painted ware in Basra, dating to around the 8th century. Another significant contribution was the development of stoneware originating in 9th century Iraq. Mason (1995) p.5 It was a vitreous or semivitreous ceramic ware of fine texture, made primarily from non-refactory fire clay. Standard Terminology Of Ceramic Whiteware and Related Products. ASTM Standard C242. Other centres for innovative pottery in the Islamic world included Fustat (from 975 to 1075), Damascus (from 1100 to around 1600) and Tabriz (from 1470 to 1550). Mason (1995) p.7 Biography Al-Ash'ari was born in Basra, Iraq, a descendant of the famous companion of Muhammad and arbitrator at Siffin for Ali ibn Abi Talib, Abu Musa al-Ashari. He spent the greater part of his life at Baghdad. Although belonging to an orthodox family, he became a pupil of the great Mutazalite (Mu'tazili) teacher al-Jubba'i (d.915), and himself remained a Mutazalite until his fortieth year. In 912 he left the Mu'tazalites and became one of its most distinguished opponents, using the philosophical (philosophy) methods he had learned. Al-Ash'ari then spent the remaining years of his life engaged in developing his views and in composing polemics and arguments against his former Mutazalite colleagues. He is said to have written over a hundred works, from which only four or five are known to be extant. Most recently it was based at Basra in southern Iraq. It commanded the Chinooks assigned to the British-commanded division based in the area. It was stood down in April 2005 and replaced by No. 1419 Flight (No. 1419 Flight RAF). a Prophet in Hebrew Bible Al-Uzair near Basra, Iraq Ezra's Tomb *Akbar (1556-1605), the Mughal (Mughal Empire) emperor, invited Armenians to settle in Agra in the 16th century, and by the middle of the 19th century, Agra had a sizeable Armenian population. By an imperial decree, Armenian merchants were exempted from paying taxes on the merchandise imported and exported by them, and they were also allowed to move around in the areas of the Mughal empire where entry of foreigner (Alien (law))s was otherwise prohibited. In 1562, an Armenian Church was constructed in Agra. *During the 16th century onwards, the Armenians (mostly from Persia (Persian Empire)) formed an important trading community in Surat, the most active Indian port of that period, located on the western coast of India. The port city of Surat used to have regular sea borne to and fro traffic of merchant vessels (Ship) from Basra and Bandar Abbas. Armenians of Surat built two Churches and a cemetery there WikiPedia:Basra Dmoz:Regional Middle_East Iraq Localities Basra
. In 1940, the castle was seized from the last owner, Adolph Schwarzenberg by the Gestapo and confiscated by the government of Czechoslovakia after the end of WWII. The castle is opened to public. There is a winter garden and riding-hall where the Southern Bohemian gallery exhibitions have been housed since 1956. Piwnik was informed of creation of the ''Cichociemni'' formation, which he joined. After receiving extensive training, he was transported to Poland on November 7, 1941. There he joined the Home Army and served at various posts. In the summer of 1942, he was assigned to head one of the ''Wachlarz'' units operating from Równe in eastern Poland. Arrested by the Gestapo, he managed to escape from the German prison and reached Warsaw. There he was ordered to prepare a mission to rescue his fellow ''Wachlarz'' members from the prison in Pińsk (Pinsk). On January 18, 1943, he and his men successfully stormed the German prison, liberated all the prisoners and hostages, and transported them safely to Warsaw. During the Nazi (Nazi Germany) occupation of France, as a young man Semprún joined the ''Francs-Tireurs et Partisans – Main-d'Œuvre Immigrée'' (FTP-MOI), a Resistance (French Resistance) organization made up mostly of immigrants. After joining the Spanish Communist Party in 1942 in France, Semprun was reassigned to the Francs-Tireurs et Partisans (FTP), the Communist armed Resistance. Note: With the agreement of the FTP-MOI, Semprun was assigned to the group, ''Jean-Marie Action'', supported by Maurice Buckmaster and the British. In 1943 he was arrested by the Gestapo and deported to the Buchenwald concentration camp for his role in the Resistance (French Resistance). Semprun, Jorge. ''L'écriture ou la vie'', Paris: Gallimard, 1994 Unfortunately, Witte and Rudolph were pursued by the Gestapo as enemies of the Third Reich. Alfred Witte committed suicide before being sent to a concentration camp, and Ludwig Rudolph was indeed interned, the ''Rulebook for Planetary Pictures'' banned and burned by the Nazis (Nazism). In elections held on 4 December 1938, 97.32% of the adult population in Sudetenland voted for the NSDAP (Nazi Party) (most of the rest were only the Czechs allowed to vote as well). About half a million Sudeten Germans joined the Nazi Party (17.34% of the German population in the Sudetenland (the average in Nazi Germany was 7.85%). Because of their knowledge of the Czech language, many Sudeten Germans were employed in the administration of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia as well as in the Nazi oppressive machinery such as the Gestapo. The most notable was Karl Hermann Frank: the SS and Police general and Secretary of State in the Protectorate. The Gestapo commander in the city, with the help of the Italian police commissioner, captures Giorgio and the priest as they are escorting an ex German soldier and Giorgio out of town, and interrogates Giorgio violently. They attempt to use Pietro's religious beliefs to convince him to betray his cause, citing that he allies himself with atheists. Pietro responds that anyone who strives to help others is on the path of God whether they believe in Him or not. They then force Pietro to watch as Giorgio is tortured to death. When Don Pietro still refuses to crack, he is executed. At the same time, former Royalist General Milan Nedić was installed by the Axis as head of the Serb puppet state (Nedić's Serbia) and local Serbs were recruited into the Gestapo and the Serbian Volunteer Corps (Serbian Volunteer Corps (World War II)). From 1943-1945, he was imprisoned and tortured by the Gestapo in Prague and in Berlin. A postwar refugee in Germany, in 1949 he emigrated to the United States where he continued to teach at the Ukrainian Technical Institute in New York City. He died on June 25, 1962 in Paterson, New Jersey, aged 68. In August 1944 he was arrested with Victor Kugler by the Gestapo after an unknown informant alerted the authorities to their aiding and concealment of Jews in the premises on the Prinsengracht. After interrogation at the Gestapo Headquarters he and Kugler were transferred to a prison on the Amstelveenseweg for Jews and 'political prisoners' awaiting deportation. He was imprisoned in the Amersfoort labour camp before he was released by special dispensation of the Red Cross, due to ill-health. In all, he was a prisoner of the Nazis for about six weeks. She was hired by Otto Frank in 1937 as a secretary and by 1942 was the administration manager of his company, Opekta, based at 263 Prinsengracht, the address which would become the Frank family's hiding place. She agreed to help bring provisions to his family and four other people concealed in the back rooms of the office building, from July 1942, until their betrayal and arrest in August 1944. She also ordered correspondence courses, such as shorthand, and Latin. During the Gestapo raid she managed to escape, but returned to assist Miep Gies in collecting the personal possessions of the captured Jews, amongst which were Anne Frank's diaries and manuscripts. In September 1942 the Gestapo established a labour camp (Unfree labour) in Großbeeren, where at least 1197 forced labourers from Belgium, Czechoslovakia, France, Poland, Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union were killed. Werner Seelenbinder was imprisoned here in 1943. thumb left Church (by Karl Friedrich Schinkel Schinkel (File:Grossbeeren church.jpg)) The remaining 73 escapees were captured. Adolf Hitler wanted to execute (Execution (legal)) them all, but Heinrich Himmler persuaded him not to do this, and fifty were shot as an example. The remaining 23 were held in the custody of the Gestapo before being sent off to other camps. 17 were returned to Stalag Luft III, four were sent to Sachsenhausen (Sachsenhausen (detention camp)), and two to Colditz Castle. The remaining 73 escapees were recaptured. Adolf Hitler wanted to have them all shot, but Heinrich Himmler (or possibly Hermann Göring) persuaded him not to do this. Instead, fifty of the escapees were executed to make an example. This was a serious breach of the Geneva Convention which constituted a war crime. The remaining 23 recaptured prisoners were held in the custody of the Gestapo before being sent off to other camps. Of these, 17 were returned to ''Stalag Luft III'', four were sent to Sachsenhausen (Sachsenhausen (detention camp)), and two to Colditz Castle. ''The Reprisal'' (History in Film) In December 1942, Werner's father was admitted to the Bavaria Hospital. The Gestapo however raided the hospital and sent him to a Jewish hospital which had been requisitioned by the Gestapo for use as prison, with Jews being taken from and sent to Auschwitz. On Christmas Eve, gambling that the guards would be drunk or absent, Werner took his father from the hospital. Mr. Goldberg was soon back in the hands of the Gestapo and in April 1943 was summoned for deportation, but Werner told him not to show up and he was again saved. He became the only member of Werner's family to survive the War. A solo soprano sings a different Polish text in each of the three movements. The first is a 15th-century Polish lament of Mary, mother of Jesus (Mary (mother of Jesus)), the second a message written on the wall of a Gestapo cell during World War II, and the third a Silesian folk song of a mother searching for her son killed in the Silesian uprisings. Ellis, David. "Evocations of Mahler" (PDF). ''Naturlaut'' 4(1): 2–7, 2005. Retrieved 22 June 2007. The first and third movements are written from the perspective of a parent who has lost a child, and the second movement from that of a child separated from a parent. The dominant themes of the symphony are motherhood and separation through war. Later that year Górecki learned of an inscription scrawled on the wall of a cell of a Gestapo prison in the town of Zakopane, which lies at the foot of the Tatra mountains in southern Poland. The words were those of 18-year-old Helena Wanda Błażusiakówna, a highland woman incarcerated on 25 September 1944. It read ''O Mamo nie płacz nie—Niebios Przeczysta Królowo Ty zawsze wspieraj mnie'' (Oh Mamma do not cry—Immaculate Queen of Heaven support me always). The composer recalled, "I have to admit that I have always been irritated by grand words, by calls for revenge. Perhaps in the face of death I would shout out in this way. But the sentence I found is different, almost an apology or explanation for having got herself into such trouble; she is seeking comfort and support in simple, short but meaningful words". Thomas (1997), 82 He later explained, "In prison, the whole wall was covered with inscriptions screaming out loud: 'I'm innocent', 'Murderers', 'Executioners', 'Free me', 'You have to save me'—it was all so loud, so banal. Adults were writing this, while here it is an eighteen-year-old girl, almost a child. And she is so different. She does not despair, does not cry, does not scream for revenge. She does not think about herself; whether she deserves her fate or not. Instead, she only thinks about her mother: because it is her mother who will experience true despair. This inscription was something extraordinary. And it really fascinated me." Górecki, Henryk Mikołaj. "Remarks on Performing the Third Symphony". ''Polish Music Journal'', Vol. 6, No. 2, Winter 2003. ISSN 1521 – 6039. Retrieved on 29 May 2007. Best joined the NSDAP with member number 341,338. He went on to join the SS with membership number, 23,377. Biondi, Robert, ed., ''SS Officers List: SS-Standartenführer to SS-Oberstgruppenführer'' (As of 30 January 1942), Schiffer Military History Publishing, 2000, p 13. Prior to September 1939, as an SS-Brigadeführer, Best while head of Department 1 of the Gestapo oversaw organization, administration, and legal affairs. McNab, Chris. ''The SS: 1923-1945'', p 156. He was a deputy of Reinhard Heydrich. In September 1939 the security and police agencies of Nazi Germany were consolidated into Reich Main Security Office (RSHA) (''Reichssicherheitshauptamt'' or RSHA), headed by Heydrich. Lumsden, Robin. ''A Collector's Guide To: The Allgemeine - SS'', pp 80-84. Best was made head of Amt I (Department I) of the RSHA: Personnel. That department dealt with the legal and personnel issues matters of the SS and security police. Lumsden, Robin. ''A Collector's Guide To: The Allgemeine - SS'', p 83. Heydrich and Heinrich Himmler relied on Best to develop and explain legally the activities against enemies of the state and in relation to the Nazi Jewish policy. In 1939 Best became one of the directors of Heydrich's foundation, the Stiftung Nordhav. Due to the Danish cabinet's decision on 9 April 1940 to accept cooperation with German authorities, the Danish police consequently cooperated with the German occupation forces. "Gads leksikon om dansk besættelsestid 1940-1945." Published 2002. Page 367. This arrangement remained in effect even after the resignation of the Danish government on 29 September 1943. On 12 May 1944, Best demanded that the Danish police should take over the task of protecting 57 specific enterprises sabotaged by the Danish resistance movement, which was growing in strength. Should the Danish civil service not accept this, the Danish police force would be reduced to 3,000 men. The head of the Danish administration, Nils Svenningsen, was inclined to accept this demand, but the organizations of the Danish police were opposed to the idea. The German request was ultimately turned down, and this was reported to Best on 6 June 1944. This reduced the Gestapo's already limited trust in the Danish police even further, and on 19 September 1944, the German army began arresting members of the Danish police forces. 1,960 policemen were arrested and deported (deportation of the Danish police) to German KZ and prisoner of war camps. During the Second World War Pirszel was frequently pressured by the Germans to sign the Volksliste (Volksliste#Poland), the list of Germans and supporters living in Poland; his constant refusal lead to his imprisonment. He was released due to the efforts of his wife, who bribed the Gestapo. After the war he was a pensioner in Chorzów. '''Begunje na Gorenjskem''' is a village in the Municipality of Radovljica in the Upper Carniola region of Slovenia. It is the location of the headquarters of the Elan Line (Elan (company)) company. Twelfth-century Kamen Castle stands just outside the village and 15th-century Katzenstein mansion, rebuilt in the late 17th century, in the centre of the village. Katzenstein Mansion was used by the Gestapo as a prison in World War II and a museum dedicated to hostages that were victims of the Gestapo is arranged in part of the building. The mansion house also houses a psychiatric hospital, which mainly accepts patients from the Upper Carniola region. Biography She was born as '''Milada Králová''' in Prague and then studied law at the Charles University. She graduated in 1926 and then worked at the Prague City Council. In the same year she graduated, she entered the Czechoslovak National Socialist Party, despite the misleading name a strong opponent of the Nazis. After the German occupation of Czechoslovakia in 1939, she joined the underground resistance movement, but was arrested by the Gestapo in 1940. She was initially sentenced to death, but later her punishment was reduced to life imprisonment and Horáková was sent to the concentration camp Terezín (Concentration camp Theresienstadt) and then to various prisons in Germany. After the war At the Nuremberg Trials, Naujocks declared the attack against German Radio Tower in Gleiwitz (Gliwice Radio Tower) was under orders from Heinrich Müller (Heinrich Müller (Gestapo)), the head of Gestapo and his superior, Reinhard Heydrich. Member of the Polish resistance Armia Krajowa (codenames: Bródka, Poręba) during World War II. In 1940 Władysław became commander of the "Kraków area (ZWZ)" and in 1941 Chief-Inspector of the Protection Service of the Uprising (''Główny Inspektor Wojskowej Służby Ochrony Powstania''). Arrested by the Gestapo in 1943 he was murdered by Germans (Germany) in Pawiak. Troczyński worked at the Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań. During the Second World War and the German (Germany) occupation of Poland he taught at the so-colled "Secret Universities" in Kraków. He was arrested by the Gestapo and murdered in the German concentration camp Auschwitz. Tempka was member of the Sejm from 1928 until 1935. During the Second World War and the German (Germany) occupation of Poland he was chairman of the resistance organisation "Komitet Wykonawczy SP". He was arrested by the Gestapo and murdered in the German concentration camp Auschwitz. He was arrested by the Gestapo and murdered in the German concentration camp Auschwitz. Politically, a follower of Charles Maurras, his views evolved towards fascism in the 1930s. Bonnard was one of the ministers of National Education under the Vichy regime (1942–44). The political satirist Jean Galtier-Boissière gave him the nickname "la Gestapette", Olivier Mathieu, ''Abel Bonnard, une aventure inachevée'', Mercure, 1988, p. 188. a portmanteau of Gestapo and ''tapette'', the latter French slang for a homosexual. The name, along with the homosexual inclinations it implied, became well known. Jean-François Louette, ''Valéry et Sartre'', in ''Bulletin des études valéryennes'', éd. L'Harmattan, 2002, p. 105, on line At the end of the 1920s Aschberg moved to France, where he bought Château du Bois du Rocher at Jouy-en-Josas, in 1950 offered to the Unesco and subsequently sold to the Yvelines department (Departments of France). He helped finance the Popular Front (Popular Front (Spain)) during the Spanish Civil War. Again Münzenberg was often invited to Aschberg's Paris townhouse on the place Casimir-Périer and received the funds for launching ''Die Zukunft'' (The Future), a weekly political broadsheet. The Left Bank (Rive Gauche (Paris)) townhouse was gradually transformed into a kind of all-purpose Münzenberg salon, which did attract the attention of the Gestapo, spying on the meetings taking place there. With the outbreak of World War II Aschberg was interned in Camp Vernet by the French authorities. Thierry Wolton, ''Le grand recrutement'', Paris, Bernard Grasset 1993, p. 183 Due to his Jewish background he was endangered when France was invaded by Nazi Germany in 1940 and could not sooner as January 1941 leave Europe via Lisbon when Vichy government (Vichy France) gave order to set him free. Aschberg and his family fled to the USA where he immediately started to support the Free World Association. After the war, Aschberg moved back to Sweden. In 1946 he started publishing his memoirs in three volumes (''En vandrande jude från Glasbruksgatan'', ''Återkomsten'', and ''Gästboken'') and he invited Margarete Buber-Neumann to write there ''Under Two Dictators: Prisoner of Stalin and Hitler''. Notes After the Polish Defense War of 1939 (Polish September Campaign) the German authorities of the General Gouvernment (General Government) mobilized all the pre-war Polish policemen to the German service. The so-called Navy-Blue Police (''Policja granatowa'', nick-named after the colour of their uniforms) were used as an auxiliary unit of the Gestapo and Kripo. In 1908, Filipkiewicz joined the Society of Polish Artists. He became the contributing artist to the legendary Zielony Balonik art-and-literary cabaret. In 1929, Filipkiewicz was awarded the Golden Medal of the Universal Exhibition in Poznań. Four years later, he was also awarded by the Polish Academy of Skills for his works. During the 1939 Invasion of Poland (Invasion of Poland (1939)) he fled to Hungary, where he became an active member of several underground organizations. Arrested by the Gestapo, he was sent to the Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp where he was murdered. Taken prisoner of war by the Germans, he spent the remainder of World War II in various German POW camps, including Oflag VII-C in Laufen (Laufen, Germany), Oflag XI-B in Brunswick (Braunschweig), Oflag II-C in Woldenberg and Oflag II-B in Arnswalde. Transferred to the Oflag II-D in Gross-Born, he was the highest ranking officer there and the informal commander of all the allied prisoners held there. He also became the lead organizer of an underground organization there, intending to prepare an escape of the prisoners. Handed over to the Gestapo, he was imprisoned in the Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp, where he died. Life in Nazi Germany Odeman's boyfriend, a bookseller, was pressured by the Gestapo to denounce him in 1937 and he was arrested under Paragraph 175, which outlawed homosexual acts between men. Odeman was sentenced to 27 months in prison, which he spent first in Plötzensee and then in various Berlin prisons. After his release in 1940, Odeman was subject to a 'Berufsverbot' forbidding him from carrying on certain professions, and he was not permitted to appear in public. He also remained under police surveillance. thumb right The people (File:Hermann Goering - Nuremberg2.jpg) can always be brought to the bidding of the leaders. That is easy. All you have to do is tell them they are being attacked and denounce the pacifists for lack of patriotism and exposing the country to danger. It works the same way in any country. Reichsmarschall (w:Reichsmarschall) '''Hermann Wilhelm Göring (wikipedia:en:Hermann Göring)''' also rendered as '''Goering''' (12 January 1893 – 15 October 1946) was a German politician, military leader, and leading member of the Nazi party. He was founder of the Gestapo (w:Gestapo), and Head of the Luftwaffe (w:Luftwaffe). * '''Indeed, the ideal for a well-functioning democratic state is like the ideal for a gentleman's well-cut suit — it is not noticed.''' For the common people of Britain, Gestapo (w:Gestapo) and concentration camps have approximately the same degree of reality as the monster of Loch Ness (w:Loch Ness Monster). Atrocity propaganda is helpless against this healthy lack of imagination. ** ''A Challenge to 'Knights in Rusty Armor'', The ''New York Times'', (14 February 1943). thumb right (File:Erich Fried.jpg) '''Erich Fried (w:Erich Fried)''' (6 May 1921 – 22 November 1988) was an Austrian (w:Austrian) poet, essayist (w:essayist) and translator (w:translator). Born in a Jewish family in Vienna (w:Vienna), he fled with his mother to London after his father's murder by the Gestapo (w:Gestapo) following the Anschluss with Nazi Germany (w:Nazi Germany). From 1952 to 1968 he worked as a political commentator for the BBC German Service. He translated works by Shakespeare, T S Eliot (w:T S Eliot) and Dylan Thomas. He died in Baden-Baden (w:Baden-Baden), Germany, in 1988 and is buried in Kensal Green cemetery, London. thumb The best political weapon is the weapon of terror. Cruelty commands respect. Men may hate us. But, we don't ask for their love; only for their fear. (File:Bundesarchiv Bild 183-R99621, Heinrich Himmler.jpg) '''Heinrich Luitpold Himmler (w:Heinrich Himmler)''' (7 October 1900 – 23 May 1945) was the commander of the German ''Schutzstaffel (w:Schutzstaffel)'' (SS (w:SS)) and one of the most powerful men in Nazi Germany. As Reichsführer-SS (w:Reichsführer-SS) he controlled the SS and the Gestapo (w:Gestapo). He was the founder and officer-in-charge of the Nazi concentration camps (w:Nazi concentration camps) and the ''Einsatzgruppen (w:Einsatzgruppen)'' death squads. * '''I believe in the magic and authority of words.''' ** René Char, in a message as a member of the French resistance, to his superiors in London, insisting that certain codewords "The library is on fire" be changed after a disastrous parachute drop which set a forest on fire and alerted the Gestapo (w:Gestapo) to the location of his group of Maquis (w:Maquis (World War II)) fighters, as quoted in ''René Char : This Smoke That Carried Us : Selected Poems'' (2004) edited by Susanne Dubroff Wiesenthal devoted almost his entire Post-WWII life tracking down and pursuing Nazi war criminals. In 1947 he and thirty colleages founded the Jewish Documentation Center in Linz (w:Linz), Austria which was devoted to collecting information on the whearabouts of war criminals and the documentation of their crimes. But the brewing cold war caused the U.S. and Soviet Union to quickly lose interest in the prosecution of Nazis. Wiesenthal closed the Linz centre in 1954 but gained new hope with the capture of Adolf Eichmann (w:Adolf Eichmann), whom he helped to track down. Possibly his biggest success was the capture and trial of Franz Stangl (w:Franz Stangl), commandant at the Treblinka (w:Treblinka) extermination camp. In total he and the Simon Wiesenthal center he set up in the U.S. in 1977 is thought to have brought some 1100 war criminals to justice. But he failed to capture Gestapo (w:Gestapo) chief Heinrich Müller (w:Heinrich Müller) and Auschwitz "doctor" Josef Mengele (w:Josef Mengele).
Air Force had lengthy and extensive training, and high standards; with Poland conquered and under brutal (World War II crimes in Poland) German occupation (Occupation of Poland (1939–1945)), the pilots of No. 303 (Polish) Squadron (No. 303 Polish Fighter Squadron), the highest-scoring Allied unit, Zaloga and Hook 1982, p. 15. were strongly motivated. Josef František, a Czech regular airman who had flown from the occupation of his own country to join Invasion
-war Polish ET-38 anti-tank grenade. The primer and the detonator were designed by two engineers of the pre-war Polish munition works in Warsaw, pyrotechnician Władysław Pankowski (Wladyslaw Pankowski) and engineer Józef Michałowski (Jozef Michalowski). Piwnik was informed of creation of the ''Cichociemni'' formation, which he joined. After receiving extensive training, he was transported to Poland on November 7, 1941. There he joined the Home Army and served at various posts. In the summer of 1942, he was assigned to head one of the ''Wachlarz'' units operating from Równe in eastern Poland. Arrested by the Gestapo, he managed to escape from the German prison and reached Warsaw. There he was ordered to prepare a mission to rescue his fellow ''Wachlarz'' members from the prison in Pińsk (Pinsk). On January 18, 1943, he and his men successfully stormed the German prison, liberated all the prisoners and hostages, and transported them safely to Warsaw. In Warsaw on 16 May 2005, the Council of Europe Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings was opened for accession and has since been signed by 43 member states of the Council of Europe. The Convention established a Group of Experts on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings (GRETA) which monitors the implementation of the convention through country reports. birth_date September 26, 1926 birth_place Warsaw, Poland (Second Polish Republic) death_date December 2, 2000 In 1939, when Nazi Germany invaded Poland, Daniel and his sister and mother were staying in southern France. They went to Paris in an attempt to book passage to Warsaw, but could not. Instead, after the occupation of Paris by the Germans, Daniel and his mother and sister left Paris. They went first to Anger where Daniel went to the Lycée David d'Anger, then to Toulouse (Lyce Lakanal) and after to Marseille (Lycée Thiers). In the beginning of August 1942 the French police came to arrest them; his sister jumped through the window from the second floor, broke her leg and was send to the hospital; Daniel was away in the countryside with some school friends and learned about his sister coming back home. With the help of the resistance, first Daniel and then his mother and sister escaped to Switzerland. Bernard Singer, meanwhile, was arrested by the Soviet Union, which had occupied eastern Poland under the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact. Bernard was send to the gulag for two years and released when the USSR entered the war before being allowed to leave for London. The film was in production for over a year. WikiPedia:Warsaw Dmoz:Regional Europe Poland Voivodships Mazovia Warszawa Commons:Category:Warsaw
. In response the 10th (Irish) Division was shipped to Salonika for the Macedonian campaign (Macedonian front (World War I)). . Staunton, p.104 The division received extensive training as well as reinforcements from non-regimental sources changing the character of the two battalions. Still wearing summer uniforms the severe snow and frost at high level caused many casualties. The Bulgarian forces made intensive progress and threatened the Anglo-French force, the 7th RMF
of these centers varies greatly, depending on the number of SELRES assigned. They are intended mostly to handle administrative functions and classroom style training. However, some NOSC's have more extensive training facilities, including damage control trainers and small boat units. Some NOSC's are co-located on existing military facilities, but most are "outside-the-wire", stand alone facilities that are often the only U.S. Navy representation in their communities or even the entire state
in Russian (Russian language) closed by the end of 1991. Russian was still widely taught, however, as a second language. Life Chesnokov was born in Vladimir, near Moscow on 24 October 1877. While attending the Moscow Conservatory, he received extensive training in both instrumental and vocal music including nine years of solfege, and seven years training for both the piano and violin. His studies in composition included four years of harmony
formed the unit and remained its commander throughout World War II. After extensive training and maneuvers the unit embarked on 19 December 1943 in New York and sailed on 28 December 1943 for Belfast, Northern Ireland, arriving on 8 January 1944. After