Electra , recreates the 1937 Amelia Earhart flight to circumnavigate the globe solo. Her attempt is successful, taking 73 days. She touches down in Oakland (Oakland, California), California. * March 18 – Badly corroded after extensive service in the Congo (Congo (area)), the tail section (Empennage) of Stavropolskaya Aktsionernaya Avia Flight 1023, an Antonov An-24, breaks off in mid-air during a charter flight from Stavropol, Russia, to Trabzon, Turkey. The airliner crashes in a forest near Prigorodny, Russia, east of Cherkessk, killing all 50 people on board. * March 27 – The Royal Thai Navy commissions (Ship commissioning) its first aircraft carrier, HTMS ''Chakri Naruebet'' (HTMS Chakri Naruebet). *'''Leninskiy rayon''' (Ленинский район ~ Lenin city district), Minsk Belarus *'''Leninskiy rayon''' (Ленинский район ~ Lenin city district) in the following Russian cities: Astrakhan, Barnaul, Cheboksary, Chelyabinsk, Grozny, Irkutsk, Ivanovo, Izhevsk, Kaluga, Kemerovo, Kirov (Kirov, Russia), Komsomolsk-na-Amure, Krasnoyarsk, Magnitogorsk, Makhachkala, Murmansk, Nizhniy Novgorod, Nizhniy Tagil, Novosibirsk, Omsk, Orenburg, Orsk, Penza, Perm, Rostov-na-Donu, Samara (Samara, Russia), Saransk, Saratov, Smolensk, Stavropol, Tambov, Tomsk, Tyumen, Ufa, Ulyanovsk, Vladimir (Vladimir, Russia), Vladivostok, Voronezh, Yaroslavl and Yekaterinburg *'''Závody V. I. Lenina''' (V. I. Lenin Works) – now Škoda Plzeň (Škoda Works), Plzeň Czech Republic Throughout the Soviet Union's existence, the town of Vararakn Khankendi (Stepanakert) in the Nagorno-Karabakh region of the Azerbaijan SSR was renamed ''Stepanakert'', after Shahumyan. In 1992, Azerbaijan restored the pre-Soviet name of the town, ''Khankendi'', while Nagorno-Karabakh authorities (Politics of Nagorno-Karabakh) still refers to it as ''Stepanakert''. The city of Dzhalal-Ogly (Stepanavan) in the Armenian SSR was also renamed, in Shahumyan's honor, ''Stepanavan'', a name it has retained in post-Soviet (History of the Soviet Union (1985-1991)) Armenia. Streets in Lipetsk, Yekaterinburg, Stavropol and Rostov-on-Don (Russia), an avenue in Saint-Petersburg are named in Shahumian's honour. A statue of him erected in 1931 also exists in Yerevan, the capital of Armenia. About 40 million people were affected by the food shortages including areas near Moscow where mortality rates increased by 50% . The center of the famine, however, was Ukraine and surrounding regions, including the Don (River Don, Russia), the Kuban, the Northern Caucasus and Kazakhstan where the toll was one million dead. The countryside was affected more than cities, but 120,000 died in Kharkiv, 40,000 in Krasnodar and 20,000 in Stavropol. page 167, ''The Black Book of Communism'', ISBN 0-674-07608-7 #Oktyabrsky City District, Saratov, a city district of Saratov, Исполнительный комитет Саратовского областного Совета депутатов трудящихся. "Саратовская область. Административно-территориальное деление на 1 января 1970 года". Приволжское книжное издательство. Саратов 1970. Стр. 5 Official website of Saratov. Об Октябрьском районе города Саратова commons:category:Stavropol
, the commandos sabotage the rudder of every A6M Zero and report the carrier's position before taking off in two undamaged Zeroes. The ''Shinano'' is then bombed by American F4U Corsairs. Throughout the 1960s and early 1970s, VMCJ-1 saw extensive service during the Vietnam War. From April 14, 1964 to December 16, 1965, the squadron flew its RF-8A Crusaders (F-8 Crusader) in photoreconnaissance missions from the USS ''Ticonderoga'' (USS Ticonderoga (CVA-14)), USS ''Constellation'' (USS Constellation (CVA-64)), USS ''Coral Sea'' (USS Coral Sea (CVA-43)), and the USS ''Oriskany'' (USS Oriskany (CVA-34)). In April 1965, VMCJ-1 took its EF-10B aircraft from Marine Corps Air Station Iwakuni, Japan and joined Marine Aircraft Group 16 at Danang to combat the increase of surface-to-air missiles in Vietnam. In July of that same year, six VMCJ-1 EF-10B Skynights supported the first strike against a surface-to-air missile site in history. In November 1966, the Grumman EA-6A Electric Intruder (A-6 Intruder) was introduced at Danang and flew combat missions as far north as Hanoi and Haiphong and eventually phased out the EF-10Bs. VMCJ-1 retired its RF-8A Crusaders and received RF-4B Phantom II’s (F-4 Phantom) to accomplish the photoreconnaissance mission. Again VMCJ-1 carried out a major portion of the area reconnaissance and electronic warfare missions for USMACV, just as it did for 5th AF in the Korean War with its photographic reconnaissance. VMCJ-1 provided escort for B-52s, support for tactical air strikes, and collection of all forms of electronic intelligence. On the photorecon side, VMCJ-1 was operating in a science which had become much more sophisticated and was now called "imagery intelligence." As a trading center, the city gradually began to lose its importance beginning from the early 20th century. The importance of Mengzi was ended by the construction of the French railway (Yunnan–Vietnam Railway) from Haiphong to Kunming (the Yunnan provincial capital) in 1906–10. This railway bypassed Mengzi, but in 1915 a branch line was built via the town to the Gejiu tin mines. Apart from a brief respite during the early days of World War II, the town of Mengzi has, nevertheless, steadily declined in importance ever since. '''Frank Jao''' is a prominent Asian American businessman in Southern California. He was born in Haiphong, Vietnam, to a Vietnamese (Vietnamese people) father and ethnic Chinese (Hoa) mother. WikiPedia:Hai Phong
; (Royal Colonial Army) saw extensive service in the various Italian colonial territories between 1888 and 1942. Prior to the outbreak of the 1998–2000 Ethiopian–Eritrean war, landlocked Ethiopia mainly relied on the seaports (port) of Asseb and Massawa in Eritrea for international trade. fr:Massaoua Wikipedia:Massawa Commons:Category:Massawa
. The Italian flag was taken down and in the absence of an Australian flag, a signaler from the 2 4th Battalion (2 4th Battalion (Australia)) tied his slouch hat to the flag staff and hauled it up to the top. WikiPedia:Tobruk Commons:Category:Tobruk
thumb 250px left Lackawanna R.R. sign is still seen on Hoboken Terminal (Image:Hoboken2742.JPG) The '''Liggett's Gap Railroad''' was incorporated on April 7, 1832, but stayed dormant for many years. It was chartered on March 14, 1849, and organized January 2, 1850. On April 14, 1851, its name was changed to the '''Lackawanna and Western Railroad'''. The line, running north from Scranton (Scranton, Pennsylvania), Pennsylvania, to Great Bend (Great Bend, Pennsylvania), just south of the New York state line, opened on December 20, 1851
) in Quebec in 1779. In 1784, they settled west of Kingston (Kingston, Ontario), near the current location of Amherstview (Amherstview, Ontario). Goligher was born in Montreal (Montreal, Canada). He is a veteran of the Canadian Forces and has done extensive service overseas, including in Cyprus and Sinai (Sinai Peninsula) (''KWS'', 6 May and 31 October 2000). He lived in Kingston (Kingston, Ontario) during the 1980s, and returned to the city in 1995 after retiring from the army
extensive service at the end of the First World War. He did not, however, design the MP 40, Bishop, Chris. ''The Encyclopedia of Weapons of World War II''. New York: Metrobooks, 2002, p. 260. ISBN 1-58663-762-2. although he held a patent on the magazine. He later designed the '''MP 41''', which was an MP 40 with a wooden rifle stock and a selector, identical to those found on the earlier MP 28 (MP 18#Evolution) submachine gun. The MP 41 was not introduced as a service weapon with the German Army, but saw limited use with some SS (Schutzstaffel) and police units. They were also exported to Germany's ally, Romania. The MP 41's production run was brief, as Erma filed a successful patent infringement lawsuit against Schmeisser's employer, Haenel. On arrival in Cernăuţi July 1941 the German SS (Schutzstaffel) Einsatzkommando and their Romanian allies set the city's Great Synagogue (Czernowitz Synagogue) on fire. In October, the Romanians deported a large number of Jews after forcing them into a ghetto, where Celan translated William Shakespeare's ''Sonnets (Shakespeare's sonnets)'' and continued to write his own poetry, all the while being exposed to traditional Yiddish songs and culture. Before the ghetto was dissolved in the fall of that year, Celan was pressed into labor, first clearing the debris of a demolished post office, and then gathering and destroying Russian (Russian language) books. Though Papen's bold speech against some of the excesses committed by the Nazis had angered Hitler, Hitler was aware that he could not act directly against the Vice Chancellor without offending Hindenburg. Instead, in the Night of the Long Knives, the Vice Chancellery, Papen's office, was ransacked by the SS (Schutzstaffel), where his associate Herbert von Bose was shot dead at his desk. Another associate, Erich Klausener, was shot dead at his desk at the Ministry of Transportation. Many more were arrested and imprisoned in concentration camps where Jung, amongst others, was shot a few days later. Papen himself was placed under house arrest at his villa with his telephone line cut, though some accounts indicate that this "protective custody" was ordered by Göring, who felt the ex-diplomat could be useful in the future. Other sources suggest that Papen had shared a place with Schleicher on an SS "death list", and that Göring had in fact saved him from the purge by ordering his confinement, possibly unwittingly after personal disputes. thumb The best political weapon is the weapon of terror. Cruelty commands respect. Men may hate us. But, we don't ask for their love; only for their fear. (File:Bundesarchiv Bild 183-R99621, Heinrich Himmler.jpg) '''Heinrich Luitpold Himmler (w:Heinrich Himmler)''' (7 October 1900 – 23 May 1945) was the commander of the German ''Schutzstaffel (w:Schutzstaffel)'' (SS (w:SS)) and one of the most powerful men in Nazi Germany. As Reichsführer-SS (w:Reichsführer-SS) he controlled the SS and the Gestapo (w:Gestapo). He was the founder and officer-in-charge of the Nazi concentration camps (w:Nazi concentration camps) and the ''Einsatzgruppen (w:Einsatzgruppen)'' death squads. '''Otto Adolf Eichmann (w:Adolf Eichmann)''' (19 March 1906 – 1 June 1962) was a high-ranking Nazi (w:Nazi) and ''SS (w:Schutzstaffel)-Obersturmbannführer (w:Obersturmbannführer)'' (Lieutenant Colonel). Due to his organizational talents and ideological reliability, he was tasked by ''Obergruppenführer (w:Obergruppenführer)'' Reinhard Heydrich (w:Reinhard Heydrich) to facilitate and manage the logistics of mass deportation to ghettos and extermination camps in Nazi-occupied Eastern Europe and worked under Ernst Kaltenbrunner until the end of the war. He was captured by Israeli Mossad (w:Mossad) agents in Argentina and indicted by Israeli court on fifteen criminal charges, including charges of crimes against humanity (w:crimes against humanity) and war crimes (w:war crimes). He was convicted and hanged. '''Otto Skorzeny (w:Otto Skorzeny)''' (June 12, 1908 – July 7, 1975) was an Austrian SS (w:Schutzstaffel)-''Standartenführer (w:Standartenführer)'' (colonel) in the German (w:Germany) Waffen-SS (w:Waffen-SS) during World War II. After fighting on the Eastern Front (w:Eastern Front (WWII)), he was chosen as the field commander to carry out the rescue mission (w:Gran Sasso raid) that freed the deposed Italian dictator Benito Mussolini from captivity. Skorzeny was also the leader of Operation Greif (w:Operation Greif), in which German soldiers were to infiltrate through enemy lines, using their opponents' language, uniforms, and customs. At the end of the war, Skorzeny was involved with the Werwolf guerrilla movement (w:Werwolf) and the ODESSA (w:ODESSA) network where he would serve as Spanish coordinator. thumb right Christian Wirth (File:Wirth, Christian.jpg) '''Christian Wirth (w:Christian Wirth)''' (24 November 1885 — 26 May 1944) was a German (w:Germany) policeman and SS (w:Schutzstaffel) officer who was one of the leading architects of the program to exterminate the Jewish people of Poland (w:History of the Jews in Poland), known as Operation Reinhard (w:Operation Reinhard). His nicknames included '''Christian the Terrible''' and '''The Wild Christian'''. 27-year-old Robin Parkircher arrived in Israel (w:Israel) today to apologize to Holocaust (w:Holocaust) survivors for his grandfather's behavior. Parkircher's grandfather was an SS (w:Schutzstaffel) guard in a Nazi (w:Nazi) concentration camp (w:concentration camp) near Bremen (w:Bremen (city)), Germany (w:Germany), where over eight hundred women were incarcerated. In an interview, Parkircher told Israeli Yediot Aharonot (w:Yedioth Ahronoth) newspaper that years after his grandfather passed away, Parkircher found a picture of him wearing an SS uniform (w:uniform). After inquiring with his grandmother, he discovered about his grandfather's service as a camp guard.
credentials and social structure, and attempted to co-opt him into a National Unified Front. It was dissolved in July 1946 after it was apparent that Sổ would not follow the Việt Minh. Sổ entered politics openly by creating the Viet Nam Democratic Socialist Party, known as the '''''Dân Xã'''''. This defiant move made him a target of the Việt Minh as relations deteriorated. Throughout the 1960s and early 1970s, VMCJ-1 saw extensive service during the Vietnam War. From April 14, 1964 to December 16, 1965, the squadron flew its RF-8A Crusaders (F-8 Crusader) in photoreconnaissance missions from the USS ''Ticonderoga'' (USS Ticonderoga (CVA-14)), USS ''Constellation'' (USS Constellation (CVA-64)), USS ''Coral Sea'' (USS Coral Sea (CVA-43)), and the USS ''Oriskany'' (USS Oriskany (CVA-34)). In April 1965, VMCJ-1 took its EF-10B aircraft from Marine Corps Air Station Iwakuni, Japan and joined Marine Aircraft Group 16 at Danang to combat the increase of surface-to-air missiles in Vietnam. In July of that same year, six VMCJ-1 EF-10B Skynights supported the first strike against a surface-to-air missile site in history. In November 1966, the Grumman EA-6A Electric Intruder (A-6 Intruder) was introduced at Danang and flew combat missions as far north as Hanoi and Haiphong and eventually phased out the EF-10Bs. VMCJ-1 retired its RF-8A Crusaders and received RF-4B Phantom II’s (F-4 Phantom) to accomplish the photoreconnaissance mission. Again VMCJ-1 carried out a major portion of the area reconnaissance and electronic warfare missions for USMACV, just as it did for 5th AF in the Korean War with its photographic reconnaissance. VMCJ-1 provided escort for B-52s, support for tactical air strikes, and collection of all forms of electronic intelligence. On the photorecon side, VMCJ-1 was operating in a science which had become much more sophisticated and was now called "imagery intelligence." - Hanoi ends 25 March 2012
part in it. It saw extensive service in the conflict, including in the relief of the besieged British garrison at Kimberley (Siege of Kimberley) and in the defeat of the Boers at Paardeberg (Battle of Paardeberg) in February. The war raged on for a further two years and the regiment saw extensive service for the duration of the conflict. The Oxfordshires returned to the UK in 1902 with the conclusion of the war. It moved to India the following year where it was based until the outbreak of war in 1914. In 1956 after receiving the instruction from his Guru to spread yoga from door to door and shore to shore, Swami Satyananda he wandered throughout India as a mendicant parivrajaka traveling through Afghanistan, Nepal, Burma and Ceylon for the next 7 years, extending his knowledge of spiritual practices. He eventually found his way to Munger, in the province of Bihar. After establishing himself there, in 1963 he founded the International Yoga Fellowship and the Bihar School of Yoga a year later. . The Hmong are known in China as the ''Miao'', a designation that embraces several different ethnic groups. There is debate about usage of this term, especially amongst Hmong living in the West, as it is believed by some to be derogatory, although Hmong living in China still call themselves by this name. Chinese scholars have recorded contact with the Miao as early as the 3rd century BCE, and wrote of them that they were a proud and independent people. However, after the Ming Dynasty and Qing Dynasty attempted to impose several new taxation systems and continued expansion of their empire, the Hmong are reported to have rebelled. Many wars were randomness fought, and eventually many Hmong were pushed from China into Burma (Myanmar), Laos, Thailand and Vietnam. The history of the Hmong people is difficult to trace; they have an oral tradition, but there are no written records except where other people have encountered them. Hmong history has been passed down through legends and ritual ceremonies from one generation to another. Najmul Millat was a contemporary of Ziauddin al-Iraqi, Kazim Tabatabai Yazdi and Abul Hasan Isfehani. He was a Faqih of the highest rank and trained several Ulama like Sibte Hasan, Adeel Akhtar and Kitayat Husain. CHAPTER 2 THE FUQAHA He will always be remembered for his services to the Shi'a (Shia Islam) of Tibet, Burma, Africa and countries in the West rendered through the missionaries trained in his Jamia Nazmia. He wrote several books. * Three novels effectively tell the story of Burma (w:Burma)'s recent history. The link begins with Burmese Days (w:Burmese Days), which chronicles the country's history under British colonialism. Not long after Burma became independent from Britain in 1948, a military dictator sealed off the country from the outside world, launched 'The Burmese Way to Socialism', and turned Burma into one of the poorest countries in Asia. The same story is told in ''Animal Farm (w:Animal farm)''. Finally in ''Nineteen Eighty-Four'' Orwell's description of a horrifying and soulless dystopia paints a chillingly accurate picture of Burma today, a country ruled by one of the world's most brutal and tenacious dictatorships. In Burma there is a joke that Orwell wrote not just one novel about the country, but three: a trilogy comprised of ''Burmese Days'', ''Animal Farm'' and ''Nineteen Eighty-Four''. ** Emma Larkin (w:Emma Larkin), ''Finding George Orwell in Burma'', p. 3. *My attitude to peace is rather based on the Burmese (w:Burma) definition of peace - it really means removing all the negative factors that destroy peace in this world. So peace does not mean just putting an end to violence or to war, but to all other factors that threaten peace, such as discrimination, such as inequality (w:inequality), poverty. **Aung San Suu Kyi, in Suu Kyi gives Nobel speech in Norway, 21 years later *Ahoms, a tribe from Burma (w:Burma), who controlled the region from thirteenth to eighteenth centuries, who absorbed Hindu culture (w:Hindu culture), were the original builders of Guwahati’ most famous site, a shrine to the goddess Sati (w:Sati), also known as Kali (w:Kali), consort of Shiva (w:Shiva). **Anthony Levi, Trudy Ring, in Robert M. Salkin, Sharon La Boda, "International Dictionary of Historic Places: Asia and Oceania", p. 308. *Experimental gardens Tree that bears Qunine were opened on the Nilgiri Mountains (w:Nilgiri mountains) of Southern India (w:South India), the Himalayas on the north of Bengal (w:Bengal), the hills of Assam (w:Assam) and the Northwest Provinces, and on the highlands of Burma (w:Burma). With the exception of the Nilgiri and Himalayas, these localities were found to be unfavorable. At Darjeeling (w:Darjeeling) in the Himalayas, four hundred miles north of Calcutta, near which the cinchona (w:Cinchona)-gardens are located, … Cinchona alkaloid (w:Qunine) is now largely used throughout the country, with a proportionate reduction in the demand for quinine (w:Qunine). **Quinine (w:Quinine) in “The Tree That Bears Quinine” by Otis Robinson Bacheler quoted in: Science Monthly Volume 21 May 1882 , Wikisource. right thumb Saraswati, the goddess of knowledge is worthy of eulogisation - Sama Veda (File:Mysore_Painting.jpg). '''Saraswati (w:Saraswati)''' (Sanskrit (w;Sankrit language): सरस्वती, Sarasvatī ?) is the Hindu goddess of knowledge, music, arts, wisdom and nature. She is a part of the trinity of Saraswati, Lakshmi and Parvati. All the three forms help the trinity of Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva in the creation, maintenance and destruction of the Universe. The Goddess is also revered by believers of the Jain religion (w:Jain religion )of west and central India. She is known in Burmese (w:Burma) as Thurathadi or Tipitaka Medaw , in Chinese (w:Chinese language) as Biàncáitiān (辯才天), in Japanese as Benzaiten (弁才天 弁財天) and in Thai (w:Thai language) as Surasawadee (สุรัสวดี). Of the countries ratifying the treaty, the largest are (in order of decreasing population) India (w:India), Pakistan (w:Pakistan), Bangladesh (w:Bangladesh), Japan (w:Japan), Mexico (w:Mexico), Thailand (w:Thailand), France (w:France), and Burma (w:Burma). Nations that have signed but not yet ratified include China (w:China), USA (w:USA), Brazil (w:Brazil), Nigeria (w:Nigeria), Philippines (w:Philippines), Viet Nam (w:Vietnam), Germany (w:Germany), and Egypt (w:Egypt). The largest non-signers are Indonesia (w:Indonesia), Russia (w:Russia), Colombia (w:Colombia), Tanzania (w:Tanzania), and Uzbekistan (w:Uzbekistan). The Himalayan (w:Himalayas) kingdom of Bhutan (w:Bhutan) went beyond the treaty requirements when on December 17 it became the first country in the world to completely ban the sale of tobacco. Prominent guests included Viscount Slim (w:Viscount Slim) (son of the late Field Marshal Slim (w:William Slim, 1st Viscount Slim), commander of the British Fourteenth Army (w:British Fourteenth Army) in Burma (w:Burma)), Countess Mountbatten of Burma (w:Patricia Knatchbull, 2nd Countess Mountbatten of Burma) (daughter of the late Lord Louis Mountbatten (w:Louis Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma), Supreme Allied Commander South East Asia Theatre), and Dame Vera Lynn (w:Vera Lynn). The report comes just days ahead of an Asian political summit, where the foreign ministers of many of the countries already affected by the H5N1 (w:H5N1) virus are expected to agree to even closer co-operative measures to help stall the advance of the virus. The foreign ministers of Cambodia (w:Cambodia), Laos (w:Laos), Burma (w:Burma), Thailand (w:Thailand) and Vietnam (w:Vietnam) have already agreed to closer co-operation to contain the virus and develop a vaccine. Aung San Suu Kyi sentenced to another three years of house arrest Aung San Suu Kyi (w:Aung San Suu Kyi) has been sentenced by a court in Burma (w:Burma) to a further three years of house arrest (w:House arrest) for violating the terms of her previous sentence. However her sentence was immediately commuted to 18 months on the orders of Burmese head of state (w:Head of state) Senior-General Than Shwe (w:Than Shwe) out of respect for her father General Aung San (w:Aung San) and out of a desire for "national reconciliation".