Places Known For

early political


Villa de Leyva

'') death_date death_place Villa de Leyva, Cundinamarca (Boyacá Department), Colombia (Gran Colombia) birthname Antonio de la Santísima Concepción Nariño y Álvarez '''Antonio de la Santísima Concepción Nariño y Álvarez''' (Santa Fé de Bogotá, Colombia 1765 - 1824 Villa de Leyva, Colombia) was an ideological Colombian precursor (wiktionary:precursor) and one of the early political and military leaders


Captaincy General of Guatemala

Morazán (a Corsican immigrant) and María Borjas Alvarenga. Thirteen days after his birth Morazán was baptized at San Miguel Arcángel church, by father Juan Francisco Márquez. El excelso hijo de la Villa "Teguz" del Recuerdo, la tribuna.hn, October 06, 2009. Retrieved December 2009. Early political and military career After the Captaincy General of Guatemala, which


Abu Dis

, with the possibility of merging it to Israeli Jerusalem, in which case Palestinian Jerusalem would be governed by a Palestinian branch municipality within the framework of an Israeli higher municipal council. birth_place Abu Dis, British Mandate for Palestine death_date Early political career Qurei was born in Abu Dis (near Jerusalem) in 1937 to a relatively wealthy family. He joined the Fatah


Vermillion, South Dakota

Bluffs, Iowa , and Kearney (Kearney, Nebraska) and Hastings, Nebraska. They spent two years in Chicago, and finally settled in Grinnell, Iowa. The Oyate Trail is one of the names given (in the late 1990s) to US-18 traveling across South Dakota from I-29 (Interstate 29) east of Vermillion (Vermillion, South Dakota) to Maverick Junction (Maverick Junction, South Dakota). http: www.dm.net ~chris-g sd1-30.html#US-18 Early life, education, and early

political career Brady was born in Vermillion, South Dakota, one of five children of William and Nancy Brady. His father, a lawyer, was killed in 1967 in a courtroom shooting in Rapid City (Rapid City, South Dakota) when Brady was 12 years old. Brady graduated from Rapid City Central High School, and the University of South Dakota in Vermillion, where he also became a member of Lambda Chi Alpha Fraternity. '''Ratingen''' is a town in the Mettmann (district) district


Beira, Mozambique

in 1975) and finally returned to Devonport (Plymouth) in October 1969 - having been on deployment for 12 months. Early political action In 1956 he released his first record, ''Fados de Coimbra (Coimbra Fado)''. In 1956 57 he became a teacher and worked in the south of Portugal. Due to his financial problems he sent his children to the Portuguese overseas territory of Mozambique (Mozambique (Portugal)) in 1958, where his parents were at the time. In that year he became enthralled by Humberto Delgado's presidential campaign; Delgado lost due to massive fraud perpetrated by the authoritarian Estado Novo (Estado Novo (Portugal)) regime. In 1959 he started singing in his trademark musical style, colored with political and social connotations, in many popular groups around the country. This granted him a growing popularity among the working class and the rural population. In 1960 his fourth record, ''Balada do Outono'' (Autumn Ballad), was released. From 1961 to 1962 he paid close attention to the student strikes and demonstrations demanding democracy and the end of the authoritarian Estado Novo regime, which were brutally repressed by the police. He continued releasing many of his songs and introduced important new guitar arrangements. He played in Switzerland, Germany, and Sweden, in a fado guitar group with Adriano Correia de Oliveira, José Niza, Jorge Godinho, Durval Moreirinhas and the singer Esmeralda Amoedo. In May 1964, José Afonso played in the Musical Society ''Workers' Brotherhood'' in Grândola, where he found the inspiration to compose the song ''Grândola, Vila Morena'', which would be the signal (broadcast by the national radio channel) for the start of the Carnation Revolution in 1974. Also in 1964 the album ''Baladas e Canções'' was released. From 1964 to 1967, José Afonso was in Lourenço Marques (now Maputo) and Beira (Beira, Mozambique), Mozambique, with Zélia (his second wife); there he reunited with his children. In his last two years in the overseas province he taught in Beira, and composed music for the Bertolt Brecht play ''The Exception and The Rule''. In 1965 his daughter Joana was born. In 1967 he returned to Lisbon, marked by the colonial reality and by the Portuguese Colonial War against the independence-seeking guerrilla movement of Mozambique, Frelimo. However, he left his older son, José Manuel, with the latter's grandparents in Mozambique. José Afonso became a teacher in Setúbal; after that he developed a severe health crisis which left him hospitalized for 20 days. When he left the hospital, he found that he had been expelled from public school teaching because of his leftist politics and because the regime's censors considered his songs strongly subversive. His book ''Cantares de José Afonso'' (José Afonso's songs) was published. The Portuguese Communist Party invited him personally to become a party member but Zeca refused because of his bourgeois origins. In that year he signed a contract with the Orfeu label, which would record 70% of his works. Expelled from the teaching job, he became a private tutor for some students and he started singing much more regularly in the popular groups on the south bank of the Tagus river, ''Margem Sul do Tejo'', a fiercely Communist-supporting region that even before the revolution had strong local movements and associations. For Christmas, Zeca released the album ''Cantares do Andarilho'', with Rui Pato, the first album recorded for Orfeu. His contract was very special: he received 15,000 escudos (Portuguese escudo) per month on condition that he recorded an album per year. It was originally formed as a subsidiary of Central African Airways in June 1964, but became an independent corporation on September 1, 1967. Air Rhodesia flew internal routes to Buffalo Range, Bulawayo, Fort Victoria (Masvingo), Kariba (Kariba, Zimbabwe), and Victoria Falls. During the 1970s the airline had international flights to Johannesburg and Durban in South Africa, Beira (Beira, Mozambique), Vilanculos and Lourenço Marques (Maputo) in Mozambique, and Blantyre (Blantyre, Malawi) in Malawi. In 1997 he was appointed Patriarchal Vicar of Alexandria by Patriarch Petros VII (Patriarch Peter VII of Alexandria) to assist him at the outset of his Patriarchate and after ten months he was elected as Metropolitan of Cameroon. He greatly developed missionary activity there. He built churches, schools and hospitals, helping many Africans and local Greeks. In 2002 he was transferred to the Holy Metropolis of Zimbabwe, where he established four missionary centres in Harare, a Hellenic Cultural Centre for 400 delegates, two large missionary centres in Malawi, with a hospital, technical schools and nursery schools. Aided by the Greek Parliament he renovated the Hellenic Square (School-Church-Vicarage) in Beira (Beira, Mozambique), Mozambique. He founded churches and contributed to the establishment of the Hellenic Communities of Botswana and Angola. BC Beira, Mozambique to Durban (OR) Mumbai to Colombo July 1942 from Beira - September 1943 from Mumbai Some 250 of Union-Castle's staff were invited for the shakedown cruise made from London in March, 1950. She left London on her maiden voyage on 6 April 1950 - sailing the London - Rotterdam - Las Palmas (Las Palmas de Gran Canaria) - Ascension (Ascension Island) - St. Helena - Walvis Bay - Cape Town - Port Elizabeth - East London (East London, South Africa) - Durban - Lourenço Marques (Maputo) - Beira (Beira, Mozambique) route that she alone served. She sometimes called at Southampton homewards during the busy fruit season. * Accra, Ghana * Beira (Beira, Mozambique), Mozambique * Budapest, Hungary birth_date southwest of the coastal city of Beira (Beira, Mozambique), centered near Espungabera, a small farming town in a remote and sparsely populated area near the border with Zimbabwe. (USGS), (AP) *An ancient Egyptian sun temple has been discovered beneath a flea market in the Ein Shams (Ain Shams) suburb of Cairo, which is built on top of the ancient city of Heliopolis (Heliopolis (ancient)). (Australian Broadcasting Corporation) (MSNBC) * Uganda holds first multiparty election (Multi-party system) in 25 years. (Times Online) * A magnitude (Richter scale) 7.5 earthquake occurred at 12:19am local time (Feb.22, 2219 UTC) in southern Mozambique, 140 miles southwest of the coastal city of Beira (Beira, Mozambique), centered near Espungabera, a small farming town in a remote and sparsely populated area near the border with Zimbabwe. (USGS), (AP) Geographic range East Africa. The southern part of its range begins near Beira (Beira, Mozambique), in central Mozambique, extends up north over the Mozambique Plain to Quissanga, and through Malawi and as far north as the floodplains of southern Tanzania at the northern end of Lake Malawi. The type locality (Type locality (biology)) given is "Terra Querimba" (Quissanga mainland opposite Ilha Quirimba, Mozanbique).


Willimantic, Connecticut

rows along First and Second Streets. These uniformly-colored structures were sold by the railroad in 1959. Early life, education, and early political career Dodd was born in Willimantic, Connecticut. His parents were Grace Mary Dodd (née Murphy) and U.S. Senator Thomas Joseph Dodd (Thomas J. Dodd); all eight


Achaean League

to which often presaged election to the annual ''strategia'' or post of chief general. His early political career was devoted largely towards maintaining the independence of Megalopolis. * Archidamus V, son of the Spartan King, Eudamidas II, and grandson of Archidamus IV, flees to Messenia after the murder of his brother Agis IV. * As general of the Achaean League, Aratus of Sicyon defeats the Aetolians at Pellene and then pursues a policy of establishing democracies in the Peloponnese. Greece * Battle of Corinth (Battle of Corinth (146 BC)) – The Romans under Lucius Mummius defeat the Achaean League under Critolaus near Corinth. Corinth (Corinth, Greece) is destroyed, and the Achaean League dissolved. Greece (Ancient Greece) becomes a Roman province (Roman Greece). The Romans strip Corinth of its art treasures and ship them back to Rome. During the Punic Wars Sparta was an ally of the Roman Republic. Spartan political independence was put to an end when it was eventually forced into the Achaean League. In 146 BC Greece was conquered by the Roman general Lucius Mummius (Lucius Mummius Achaicus). During the Roman conquest, Spartans continued their way of life, and the city became a tourist attraction for the Roman elite who came to observe exotic Spartan customs. Supposedly, following the disaster that befell the Roman imperial army at the Battle of Adrianople (AD 378), a Spartan militia phalanx (Phalanx formation) met and defeated a force of raiding Visigoths in battle. The Military Engineer, By Society of American Military Engineers * 213 BC ** Aratus of Sicyon, Greek statesman, general and advocate of Greek unity, who, for many years, has been the leader of the Achaean League (b. 271 BC) ** Achaeus (Achaeus (general)), Seleucid general and later separatist ruler of most of Anatolia until his defeat and execution by the Seleucid king Antiochus III (Antiochus III the Great) ** Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus Major (Scipio Africanus), Roman (Roman Republic) statesman and general, famous for his victory over the Carthaginian (Carthage) leader Hannibal in the Battle of Zama in 202 BC, which has ended the Second Punic War and given him the surname Africanus (b. 236 BC) ** Philopoemen, Greek general and statesman, strategos of the Achaean League on eight occasions and a major figure in the demise of Sparta as a Greek power (b. 253 BC) ** Hannibal, Carthaginian (Carthage) statesman, military commander and tactician, one of history's great military leaders, who has commanded the Carthaginian forces against Rome (Roman Republic) in the Second Punic War (b. 247 BC) * Rhodes and its allies Pergamum, Cyzicus, and Byzantium combine their fleets and defeat Philip V in the Battle of Chios. His flagship is trapped and rammed by two enemy ships. * The Spartan king, Nabis, once more invades and captures Messene. However, the Spartans are forced to retreat when the Achaean League army of Philopoemen intervenes. Nabis' forces are decisively defeated at Tegea by Philopoemen and Nabis is forced to check his expansionist ambitions for the time being. * Philip V of Macedon makes a temporary peace (the Peace of Phoenice) with Rome (Roman Republic) on favourable terms for Macedonia ending the First Macedonian War. The treaty formally acknowledges the favourable position of Macedonia, including their capture of Illyria, but in return Philip effectively repudiates his alliance with Hannibal. * After the peace, the Spartan king, Nabis, goes to war with the Achaean League. The Achaean general Philopoemen expels Nabis of Sparta from Messene. * The Peace of Phoenice prohibits Philip from expanding westward into Illyria or the Adriatic Sea, so the king turns his attentions eastwards to the Aegean Sea, where he starts to build a large fleet. After concluding the First Macedonian War, Philip of Macedon, seeing his chance to defeat Rhodes, forms an alliance with Aetolian and Spartan pirates who begin raiding Rhodian ships. The Cretan War begins between Philips' Macedonians, the Aetolian League, several Cretan (Crete) cities (of which Olous and Hierapytna are the most important) and Spartan pirates against the forces of Rhodes and later Attalus I (Attalus I Soter) of Pergamum, Byzantium, Cyzicus, Athens and Knossos. Greece * The general leading the Achaean League, Philopoemen, introduces heavier Macedonian armour and phalanx (Phalanx formation) tactics. His army then crushes the Spartans under the Spartan regent and general, Machanidas, in the battle of Mantinea (Battle of Mantinea (207 BC)). Machanidas is killed by Philopoemen during the battle. * Nabis, a Syrian sold into slavery, rises to power in Sparta and becomes regent of the young Spartan king, Pelops, following the death of Machanidas. Nabis soon overthrows Pelops, claiming to be a descendent of the Eurypontid Spartan king Demaratus. Nabis then starts a social revolution which will lead to the freeing of all the helots, the destruction of the ruling oligarchy, the redistribution of land and the cancelling of debts. Greece * As strategos of the Achaeans, the Greek general Philopoemen is responsible for turning the Achaean League into an aggressive military power. He builds up the League's military capability. The Achaean League's army and cavalry under Philopoemen then defeat the Aetolians on the Elean frontier. Greece * The Battle of Gythium is fought between Sparta and a coalition of Rome, Rhodes, the Achaean League and Pergamum. As the port of Gythium is an important Spartan base, the allies decide to capture it before they advance inland to Sparta. The Romans and the Acheans are joined outside the city by the Pergamese and Rhodian fleets. The Spartans hold out, however the pro-consul Titus Quinctius Flamininus arrives with 4,000 extra men. Facing too great an army, the Spartans decide to surrender the city on the condition that the garrison can leave unharmed. As a result, Nabis, the tyrant of Sparta, is forced to abandon the surrounding land and withdraw to the city of Sparta. Later that year, Sparta capitulates to the allies. Roman Republic * After his election to the consulship, Titus Quinctius Flamininus is chosen to replace Publius Sulpicius Galba Maximus as the leading Roman (Roman Republic) general in Macedonia. He then crosses into Macedonia with his army. Flamininus realizes that future peace depends on breaking the power of king Philip V of Macedon, not merely humbling him. He secures the backing of the Achaean League and then opens peace negotiations with Philip at Nicaea (Nicaea (Locris)) in Locris. Though peace proposals are submitted to the Roman Senate, the talks break down, and fighting resumes. * Titus Quinctius Flamininus' forces manage to push Philip V out of most of Greece (Ancient Greece), except for a few fortresses. He then defeats Philip V in the Battle of the Aous, near modern Tepelenë (Tepelenë (town)) in Albania. * Flamininus is sent to negotiate with Antiochus III and warns him not to interfere with the Greek states. Antiochus does not accept that Flamininus has the authority to speak for the Greeks and only promises to leave Greece alone only if the Romans do the same. * Flamininus attempts to rally the Greeks against Antiochus III and to counter the pro-Seleucid policy of the Aetolians. When the Aetolians call on Antiochus III for aid, Flamininus persuades the Achaean League to declare war on both parties. He also prevents Philopoemen from taking Sparta. * In the mean time, the Spartan ruler, Nabis, moves to recover lost territory, including Gythium. Greece * The Achaeans (Achaean League) respond to Sparta's renewed interest in recovering lost territory by sending an envoy to Rome (Roman Republic) with a request for help. In response, the Roman Senate sends the praetor Atilius with a navy, as well as an embassy headed by Titus Quinctius Flamininus. * Not waiting for the Roman fleet to arrive, the Achaean army and navy head towards Gythium under the command of Philopoemen. The Achaean fleet under Tiso is defeated by the Spartan fleet. On land, the Achaeans are unable to defeat the Spartan forces outside Gythium and Philopoemen retreats to Tegea. Greece * The leader of the Achaean League, Philopoemen, enters northern Laconia with his army and a group of Spartan exiles. His army demolishes the wall that the former tyrant of Sparta, Nabis, has built around Sparta. Philopoemen then restores Spartan citizenship to the exiles and abolishes Spartan law, introducing Achaean law in its place. Sparta's role as a major power in Greece (Ancient Greece) ends, while the Achaean League becomes the dominant power throughout the Peloponnese. Greece * The leader of the Achaean League, Philopoemen, enters northern Laconia with his army and a group of Spartan exiles. His army demolishes the wall that the former tyrant of Sparta, Nabis, has built around Sparta. Philopoemen then restores Spartan citizenship to the exiles and abolishes Spartan law, introducing Achaean law in its place. Sparta's role as a major power in Greece (Ancient Greece) ends, while the Achaean League becomes the dominant power throughout the Peloponnese. Deaths * Aratus of Sicyon, Greek statesman, general and advocate of Greek unity, who, for many years, has been the leader of the Achaean League (b. 271 BC) * Achaeus (Achaeus (general)), Seleucid general and later separatist ruler of most of Anatolia until his defeat and execution by the Seleucid king Antiochus III (Antiochus III the Great) Greece * Cleomenes III of Sparta is defeated in the Battle of Sellasia (north of Sparta) by Antigonus III (Antigonus III Doson) and his allies, the Achaean League and the Illyrians (under the command of Demetrius of Pharos), and flees to Egypt (Ancient Egypt) under the protection of King Ptolemy III (Ptolemy III Euergetes). Antigonus III's forces occupy Sparta, which is the first time this city has ever been occupied. * Almost all of Greece (Ancient Greece) falls under Macedonian suzerainty after Antigonus III re-establishes the Hellenic Alliance as a confederacy of leagues, with himself as president. Greece * Private documents collected by the Romans (Roman Republic) when they capture Perseus of Macedon incriminate political leaders of the Achaean League. Many influential Greeks (Ancient Greece) are deported to Rome. * On his way back to Rome, the Roman general Lucius Aemilius Paulus (Lucius Aemilius Paulus Macedonicus) is ordered by the Roman Senate to inflict a brutal revenge on Epirus (Epirus (ancient state)) for being an ally of Macedonia. Seventy towns in Epirus are destroyed and at least 100,000 citizens are sold into slavery. These actions take place despite the fact that Epirus has not aided Perseus in his war with Rome. Greece * The town of Messene rebels against the Achaean League. When the Achaean League's general, Philopoemen, intervenes to try to control the rebellion, he is captured during a skirmish and imprisoned. He is then given poison to take so that he can die honourably. * Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus Major (Scipio Africanus), Roman (Roman Republic) statesman and general, famous for his victory over the Carthaginian (Carthage) leader Hannibal in the Battle of Zama in 202 BC, which has ended the Second Punic War and given him the surname Africanus (b. 236 BC) * Philopoemen, Greek general and statesman, strategos of the Achaean League on eight occasions and a major figure in the demise of Sparta as a Greek power (b. 253 BC) * Hannibal, Carthaginian (Carthage) statesman, military commander and tactician, one of history's great military leaders, who has commanded the Carthaginian forces against Rome (Roman Republic) in the Second Punic War (b. 247 BC) * An earthquake (226 BC Rhodes earthquake) destroys the city of Kameiros on the island of Rhodes and the Colossus of Rhodes. * The Spartan King Cleomenes III captures Mantineia and defeats the Achaean League under Aratus of Sicyon at Hecatombaeum, near Dyme in north-eastern Elis. * The Spartan King Cleomenes III imposes reforms on his kingdom which include the cancelling of debts, providing land for 4,000 citizens (Citizenship), and restoring the training of youth in the martial arts. The Ephorate, five elected magistrates who, with the King, form the main executive body of the state, is abolished (four of the five ephors being executed); the powers of the Gerousia, the oligarchic council of elders, is curtailed; and the patronomoi (the board of six elders) is introduced. Cleomenes' changes are designed to make the monarchy supreme and re-create a society of aristocrats, while neglecting Sparta's helots (serfs) and perioikoi (free but non-citizen inhabitants). Eighty opponents of the reforms are exiled, while his brother Eucleidas is installed as co-ruler in the place of the murdered Archidamus V. * Cleomenes III defeats the Achaeans (Achaean League) under Aratus of Sicyon at Mount Lycaeum and at Ladoceia near Megalopolis (Megalopolis, Greece). * Antigonus II (Antigonus II Gonatas), King of Macedonia, dies and is succeeded by his son, Demetrius II (Demetrius II of Macedon). * With Aetolia now as its ally, the Achaean League under the command of Aratus of Sicyon repeatedly attack Athens and Argos. Greece * Without a declaration of hostilities, Greek statesman, Aratus of Sicyon, who has gradually built up the Achaean League into a major power in Greece (Ancient Greece), makes a surprise attack on Corinth and forces the withdrawal of the Macedonian occupation troops. Megara, Troezen, and Epidaurus also desert the Macedonian King Antigonus II (Antigonus II Gonatas). * Drawing upon the tradition of the Spartan lawgiver, Lycurgus (Lycurgus (Sparta)), the young Eurypontid king of Sparta, Agis IV, seeks to reform a system that distributes the land and wealth unequally and burden the poor with debt. He proposes the cancellation of debts and the division of the Spartan homeland into separate lots for each of its citizens. Full citizenship is to be extended to many perioeci (voteless freemen) and foreigners. In addition to pursuing these reforms, Agis seeks the restoration of the Lycurgan system of military training. Agis is supported by his wealthy mother and grandmother (who surrender their property), by his uncle Agesilaus, and by Lysander, who is an ephor (magistrate with the duty of limiting the power of the king). * Agis IV succeeds his father, Eudamidas II, as King of Sparta. * The war in Asia Minor and the Aegean Sea intensifies as the Achaean League allies itself to Ptolemy III (Ptolemy III Euergetes) of Egypt (Ancient Egypt), while Seleucus II (Seleucus II Callinicus) secures two allies in the Black Sea region. Ptolemy III's armies reach as far as Bactria and the borders of India in their attacks on the Seleucid Empire. * By defeating the Egyptian fleet at Andros, Antigonus II (Antigonus II Gonatas) is able to maintain his control over the Aegean Sea. * Paseas, the tyrant of the Greek city-state (Polis) of Sicyon, is assassinated by Nicocles (Nicocles (Sicyon)), with the acquiescence of the Macedonian (Ancient Macedonians) king Antigonus II (Antigonus II Gonatas). Nicocles reigns as tyrant of Sicyon for only four months, during which period he drives into exile eighty of the city's citizens. Then the citadel of Sicyon is surprised in the night by a party of Sicyonian exiles, headed by a young nobleman, Aratus. The palace of the tyrant is set on fire, but Nicocles escapes from the city through a subterranean passage. * Aratus recalls back to Sicyon those exiled by Nicocles. This leads to confusion and division within the city. Fearing that Antigonus II would exploit these divisions to attack the city, Aratus applies for the city to join the Achaean League, a league of a few small Achaean towns in the Peloponnese. Aratus then gains the financial support of the Egyptian (Ancient Egypt) king Ptolemy II (Ptolemy II Philadelphus) to enable the Achaean League to defend itself against Macedonia. The city-states formed themselves into two leagues; the Achaean League (including Thebes, Corinth and Argos) and the Aetolian League (including Sparta and Athens). For much of the period until the Roman conquest, these leagues were usually at war with each other, and or allied to different sides in the conflicts between the Diadochi (the successor states to Alexander's empire). * Pyrrhus (Pyrrhus of Epirus) makes an alliance with Ptolemy Keraunos, King of Macedon. This allows him to go to southern Italy with his army. * The Achaean League is reformed by twelve towns in the northern Peloponnesus and will later grow to include non-Achaean cities. It has two generals, a federal council with proportional representation of members and an annual assembly of all free citizens. The League achieves a common coinage and foreign policy and the member cities pool their armed forces. * Rhodes, rising in prosperity, becomes head of an Island League and helps to keep the peace and freedom of the Greek islands in the Aegean Sea. He had already during his father's lifetime distinguished himself by defeating Alexander II of Epirus at Derdia and so saving Macedonia The '''Battle of Gythium''' was fought in 195 BC between Sparta and the coalition of Rome, Rhodes, the Achaean League and Pergamum. As the port of Gythium was an important Spartan base the allies decided to capture it before they advanced inland to Sparta. The Romans and the Achaeans (Achaean League) were joined outside the city by the Pergamese and Rhodian fleets. The Spartans held out but one of the joint commanders, Dexagoridas, decided to surrender the city to the Roman legate (legatus). When Gorgopas (Gorgopas (2nd Century BC)), the other commander, found out he killed Dexagoridas and took solo command of the city. After Dexagoridas' murder the Spartans held out more vigorously. However, Flaminius of the allied forces arrived with 4,000 more men and the Spartans decided to surrender the city on the condition that the garrison could leave unharmed. The result of this battle forced Nabis, the tyrant of Sparta, to abandon the surrounding land and withdraw to the city of Sparta. Later that year, Sparta capitulated to the allies. The '''Battle of Mantinea''' was fought in 207 BC between Sparta led by Machanidas and the Achaean League, whose forces were led by Philopoemen. The Achaeans were victorious, and Machanidas was slain. Historical usage Not all states gave their naval commanders such a title. Athens, for instance, placed its fleet under the command of generals (''strategoi (strategos)'') holding the same title as those who commanded its land forces. Such command structures reflected the fact that, especially early in the Classical period, fleets operated in close conjunction with land forces, and indeed, the title of navarch did not begin to appear until the time of the Peloponnesian War, when fleets began to operate more independently. This separate title was originally used in cities that lacked an established naval tradition, Sparta being the most prominent, but entered broader use later, being adopted by the navies of the Hellenistic era states such as Macedon, Syracuse (Syracuse, Italy), Ptolemaic (Ptolemaic Empire) and Seleucid Empire, Achaean League, and Rhodes. Based on the design of the defense towers, Ober proposes that the site was fortified after 370 BCE. Lawrence opts for a date in the late 4th century BCE, on the assumption that Demetrios Poliorcetes (Demetrius I of Macedon) built the fortress rather than simply occupying it. The site was under the control of the Achaean League in 243-224 BCE, and in 224 - 146 BCE it joined the Boeotian League. Shrines of Melampos (Melampus) and Heracles are known to have existed by inscriptions recovered on the site. The town and its warehouses operated down into Roman times. An inscription of c. 420 CE listed Aigosthena as a free city. A five-aisled Christian basilica was erected in the lower fortified area in the medieval period, and there was a monastery complex within the citadel. In politics after the death of Alexander the Great it was briefly ruled by Cassander. It gained some attention in 280 BC for being a part of the effort to revive the Achaean League. A battle took place at Dyme in 226 BC between the Spartans under King Cleomenes III and the Achaean League under the command of Aratus of Sicyon and ended in a Spartan victory. It was ransacked by Publius Sulpicius Galba Maximus during the First Macedonian War. There was a rebellion in 115 BC. Pompey settled some pirates there and Caesar later installed a Roman colony at Dyme. The '''Battle of Dyme''' or Dymae was a battle that was fought by the Achaean League under the command of their Strategos, Aratus (Aratus of Sicyon) and a Spartan army under the command of King Cleomenes III and was part of the Cleomenean War. The battle took in place near Dyme in north-west Achaea and was fought in 226 BC. In the spring of 198 BC, Attalus returned to Greece with twenty-three quinqueremes joining a fleet of twenty Rhodian decked warships at Andros, to complete the conquest of Euboea begun the previous year. Soon joined by the Romans, the combined fleets took Eretria and later Carystus. Thus, the allies controlled all of Euboea except for Chalcis. Livy, 32.16,17; Hansen, pp. 63–64. The allied fleet then sailed for Cenchreae in preparation for an attack on Corinth. Meanwhile, the new Roman consul for that year, Titus Quinctius Flamininus, had learned that the Achaean League, allies of Macedon, had had a change in leadership which favored Rome. With the hope of inducing the Achaeans to abandon Philip and join the allies, envoys were sent, including Attalus himself, to Sicyon, where they offered the incorporation of Corinth into the Achaean League. Attalus apparently so impressed the Sicyonians, that they erected a colossal statue of him in their market place and instituted sacrifices in his honor. A meeting of the League was convened and after a heated debate and the withdrawal of some of delegates the rest agreed to join the alliance. Attalus led his army from Cenchreae (now controlled by the allies) through the Isthmus and attached Corinth from the north, controlling the access to Lechaeum, the Corinthian port on the Gulf of Corinth, the Romans attacked from the east controlling the approaches to Cenchreae, with the Achaeans attacking from the west controlling the access to the city via the Sicyonian gate. However the city held, and when Macedonian reinforcements arrived, the siege was abandoned. The Achaeans were dismissed, the Romans left for Corcyra, while Attalus sailed for Piraeus. Livy, 32.19–23; Polybius, 18.16; Hansen, p. 64. Gruen (1986), pp. 179, 181.


Socialist Republic of Croatia

, now Hrvatski Sabor (Parliament of Croatia)): Socio-Political Council (Društveno-političko vijeće), Council of Municipalities (Vijeće općina) and Council of United Labor (Vijeće udruženog rada). This was abolished with new constitution in 1990. 1972–1989: Early political career Račan entered politics in the Socialist Republic of Croatia in 1972 as a member of the League of Communists of Croatia (SKH), the Croatian branch of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia (SKJ


Murfreesboro, Tennessee

in television October 5, 1970 . The station had the callsign (broadcast callsign) changed to WPBA in 1984. The WETV callsign today is now used by a low-power television station in Murfreesboro, Tennessee, WETV-LP Channel 11. Early life, education, and early political career Gordon was born in Murfreesboro, Tennessee, where he has lived all of his life. He served in the United States Army Reserve in 1971 and 1972.


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