Duchy of the Archipelago

of the Archipelago was created in 1207 by Marco Sanudo, a participant in the Crusade and a nephew of the former Venetian (Republic of Venice) doge (Doge of Venice) Enrico Dandolo, who had led the Venetian fleet to Constantinople. This was an independent venture, without the consent of the Latin emperor (Latin Empire) Henry of Flanders. Sanudo was accompanied by Marino Dandolo and Andrea (Andrea Ghisi) and Geremia Ghisi (as well as Filocalo Navigajoso, possibly). He

of the Archipelago and the short-lived duchies of Nicaea (Duke of Nicaea), Philippopolis (Renier of Trit), and Philadelphia (Alaşehir). The Doge of Venice did not rank as a vassal to the Empire, but his position in control of 3 8 of its territory and of parts of Constantinople itself, ensured Venice's influence in the Empire's affairs. However, much of the former Byzantine territory remained in the hands of rival successor states led by Byzantine Greek aristocrats, such as the Despotate

(1194–1234) *'''Duchy of the Archipelago (Naxos) (Duchy of the Archipelago)''' - Marco Sanudo (1207–1227) *'''Duchy of Normandy''' - Henry III (Henry III of England) (claimed, 1216–1259) *'''Ottoman (Turkish) Empire (Ottoman Empire)''' - Beyazid II (1481–1512) *'''Duchy of the Archipelago''' - Francesco III Crispo (1500–1511) *'''Republic of Venice''' - Leonardo Loredan, Doge of Venice (Leonardo Loredan) (1501&


Venetian Dalmatia

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hinterland. Maps showing the historical evolution of the Venice empire History Middle Ages Starting from Doge Pietro II Orseolo, who ruled Venice from 991 AD, Venetian attention towards mainland Veneto was definitely overshadowed by a strong push towards the control of the Adriatic Sea. Inner strife was pacified

, and trade with the Byzantine Empire boosted by the favourable treaty (''Grisobolus'' or Golden Bull) with Emperor Basil II. The imperial edict granted Venetian traders freedom from taxation paid by other foreigners and the Byzantines themselves. In the year 1000 AD an expedition of Venetian ships in coastal Istria and Dalmatia secured the Venetian suzerainty in the area, and the Narentines, Slav pirates, were suppressed permanently. In the occasion Doge Orseolo named himself "Duke


Makarska

). In the 7th century the region between the Cetina and Neretva was occupied by the Narentines, with ''Mokro'', located in today's Makarska, as its administrative centre. The doge of Venice Pietro I Candiano, whose Venetian fleet aimed to punish the piratesque activities of the city's vessels, was defeated here on September 18, 877 and had to pay tribute to the Narentines for the free passage of its ships on the Adriatic. Late Middle

200px Makarska Riviera He followed Orso I Participazio and Giovanni II Participazio as Doge of Venice, elected to the throne at the side of the elderly, and beloved, Giovanni circa April 887. He launched a military attempt against the Dalmatian Croat principality of Pagania, which was hostile to Venetia after 886. As soon as he became Doge, he advanced with a fleet of twelve galleys to the port of Makarska ( ), where he sank five Narentines

ships. He landed near Mokro and advanced deeper inland, but the Narentines crushed his forces, killing him in open battle on 18 September 887. Harry Hearder, Jonathan Morris, ''Italy: a short history'', pg. 61, Cambridge University Press (2002), ISBN 0-521-00072-6 He was the first Doge to die


Duchy of Amalfi

) was a ''de facto'' independent state centred on the Southern Italian (Southern Italy) city of Amalfi during the 10th and 11th centuries. The city and its territory were originally part of the larger ''ducatus Neapolitanus'', governed by a patrician (Patrician (post-Roman Europe)), but it extracted itself from Byzantine (Byzantine Empire) vassalage and first elected a duke (dux) (or doge) in 958. It rose to become an economic powerhouse, a commercial centre whose merchants

-governing republic, still nominally tied to the Byzantine empire, was defeated in a war with Sorrento (Duchy of Sorrento), supported by Naples (Duchy of Naples), in which her prefect was captured, later ransomed. In 914, the prefect Mastalus I (Mastalus I of Amalfi) was appointed first judge. In 958, Mastalus II (Mastalus II of Amalfi) was assassinated and Sergius I (Sergius I of Amalfi) was elected first duke (dux) (or doge). From 981 to 983, Amalfi ruled the Principality


County of Toulouse

of Toulouse in the Middle Ages and today is the capital of the Midi-Pyrénées region. *'''Kingdom of Thessalonica''' - Demetrius (Demetrius of Montferrat) (1207–1224) *'''County of Toulouse''' - Raymond VI (Raymond VI of Toulouse) (1194–1222) *'''Republic of Venice''' - Pietro Ziani Doge of Venice (Doges of Venice) (1205–1229) *'''Kingdom of Thessalonica''' - Demetrius (Demetrius of Montferrat) (1207–1224) *''' County

of Toulouse ''' - Raymond VII (Raymond VII of Toulouse) (1222–1249) *'''Republic of Venice''' - Pietro Ziani, Doge of Venice (Pietro Ziani) (1205–1229) *'''Kingdom of Thessalonica''' - Demetrius (Demetrius of Montferrat) (1207–1224) *'''County of Toulouse''' - Raymond VII (Raymond VII of Toulouse) (1222–1249) *'''Republic of Venice''' - Pietro Ziani, Doge of Venice (Pietro Ziani) (1205–1229) *'''Kingdom of Sweden''' - Eric

XI of Sweden Eric XI (1222–1229, 1234–1250) *'''County of Toulouse''' - Raymond VII (Raymond VII of Toulouse) (1222–1249) *'''Republic of Venice''' - Pietro Ziani, Doge of Venice (Pietro Ziani) (1205–1229) *'''Duchy of Stettin''' - Dobry (Dobry of Stettin) (1220–1278) *'''County of Toulouse''' - Raymond VII (Raymond VII of Toulouse) (1222–1249) *'''Republic of Venice''' - Pietro Ziani Pietro Ziani, Doge


Giurgiu

of Moldavia. Giurescu, p. 183. Mihai continued his attacks deep within the Ottoman Empire, taking the forts of Nicopolis (Nikopol, Bulgaria), Ribnic, and Chilia Coln, Emporungen so sich in Konigereich Ungarn, auch in Siebenburgen Moldau, in der der bergischen Walachay und anderen Oerten zugetragen haben, 1596 and even reaching as far as Adrianople. Marco Venier, correspondance with the Doge of Venice, 16 July 1595 At one point

of Nicopolis (Nikopol, Bulgaria), Ribnic, and Chilia Coln, Emporungen so sich in Konigereich Ungarn, auch in Siebenburgen Moldau, in der der bergischen Walachay und anderen Oerten zugetragen haben, 1596 and even reaching as far as Adrianople. Marco Venier, correspondence with the Doge of Venice, 16 July, 1595 At one point his forces were only from the Ottoman capital, Constantinople. He was co-founder of the Romanian

, correspondance with the Doge of Venice, 16 July 1595 At one point his forces were only 24 kilometers from Constantinople. In 1806, Napoleon I of France encouraged Czar Alexander Pavlovitch (Alexander I of Russia) to begin another war with Turkey. Russian troops occupied again Moldavia and Wallachia under General Kutussoff who was made Governor-General of the Romanian Principalities. The foreign consuls and diplomatic agents had to leave the capital cities of Iaşi


Trogir

- * Travnik, Bosnia and Herzegovina (1972) In 998 Zadar sought Venetian protection against the Neretvian pirates (Neretvians). Britannica 1911: Zara The Venetians were quick to fully exploit this opportunity: in 998 a fleet commanded by Doge of Venice Doge

, Trogir and Split (Split (city)). He also delegated much of his authority to his powerful governors (bans (Ban (title))). He also invested considerable effort integrating the Latin minority with the Croatian majority. In Trogir under Venetian control, there was a meeting between Doge Pietro Orseolo II and Krešimir III, in which his son Stephen was to be taken hostage and marry the Doge's daughter, Joscella (Hicela) Orseolo, http


Cisalpine Republic

Napoleon invaded the territory of the Venetian Republic (Republic of Venice). Overwhelmed by more powerful forces, Doge (Doge of Venice) Ludovico Manin resigned and retired to his villa at Passariano in Friuli and the thousand year old Republic disappeared as an independent state (Sovereign state). This proved very unpopular in the mainland cities where sympathies were strong with the Republic of Venice. By the Treaty of Campoformio (Treaty of Campo Formio) signed on October 17


Knin

became Banus, king Sigismund left him in return a loan of 28,000 ducats, also the town of Bihać on Una (Una (Sava)) river, further Knin, Lapacgrad, Vrlika, Ostrovica (near Bribir), Skradin, the county of Luk between Zrmanja and Krka rivers and the district of Poljice. Thus, Nikola Frankopan (Frankapan (Frankopan) originally spelled as Frangipani) owned nearly all of Croatia. In 996, Venetia (Venetia (region))n Doge (Doge of Venice) Pietro II Orseolo stopped

paying tax for safe to the Croatian King after a century of peace, renewing old hostilities. Stjepan Držislav, together with the Neretvians (Pagania), restored naval conflicts with the Venetian ships, but with little success. He sent delegates demanding the tribute to be paid, but the Doge was again reluctant and continued the war. Držislav died shorly after, leaving the country separated among his sons, which was used in advance for Venice. Before the end of his reign, Stjepan Držislav gave


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