Places Known For

difficult political

Cao Wei

Dynasty came to power. They wrote Taoist poems, poems criticizing the court and the administration, and manuals on Taoist mysticism and fangshi '''Zhang Qiu''' is a fictional character in Luo Guanzhong's historical novel ''Romance of the Three Kingdoms''. He was a military general of the state of Cao Wei. Zhang participated in the Battle of Hefei (Battle of Hefei (234)) against Eastern Wu, around the same time as the fifth Northern Expedition (Zhuge Liang's Northern Expeditions) against Cao Wei by Shu Han. Zhang Qiu attacked Zhuge Jin's fleet with fire and effectively drove him back. Later life and death In Pan's later years, he was tasked with the defense against the state of Cao Wei. Once, the Wei emperor, Cao Pi sent Zhang He, Xu Huang, Cao Zhen and Xiahou Shang to invade Nan Commandery with the immediate goal to capture Jiangling city, which Zhu Ran guarded with 5,000 troops. Wei vanguard of 30,000 led by Xiahou built wooden bridges to cross a stream to land the Hundred Miles Island (百里洲), while none of the Wu generals could locate the crossing points of the Wei troops. Pan then told his comrades that the Wei troops were highly spirited and the water level was low, so they'd better avoid battles with them at the moment. Following the river upstream, Pan ordered his soldiers to collect a few hundred million bundles of reeds, and attached them atop some large rafts and set them on fire. He then sent the rafts downstream so that they would burn the wooden bridges being used by Wei. Sensing the danger of being isolated, Xiahou withdrew from the island before his retreat route would be destroyed. For his effort in the siege, Pan was promoted to the rank of General of the Right (右将軍). The mountain is famous for the battle (Battle of Mount Dingjun) which took place there in the Three Kingdoms period, when Huang Zhong of Shu (Shu Han) defeated and killed Xiahou Yuan of Wei (Cao Wei). According to Sanguo Zhi, Shu prime minister Zhuge Liang wished to be buried on Mount Dingjun, so a tomb was built for him there. Huang Zhong was also buried there after his death, but his tomb was moved to Chengdu during the Qing Dynasty, and was destroyed during the Cultural Revolution.

Serbia and Montenegro

adversary Croatia. Although a difficult political issue domestically, Serbia has established a solid working relationship with UNMIK and has released all disputed ethnic Albanian prisoners from Kosovo to the competent UN bodies. Foreign aid Subsequent to the outbreak of hostilities with NATO, Belgrade received no foreign aid from the United States and other west European countries, but has received much aid from other countries such as Russia and Greece. Since October 2000


to make a decision: either initiate the uprising in the current difficult political situation and risk problems with Soviet support, or fail to rebel and face Soviet propaganda describing the Home Army as impotent or worse, Nazi collaborators. They feared that if Poland was 'liberated' by the Red Army, then the Allies would ignore the London-based Polish government (Polish Government in exile) in the aftermath of the war. The urgency for a final decision on strategy increased as it became clear that after successful Polish-Soviet co-operation in the liberation of Polish territory (for example, in Operation Ostra Brama), Soviet security forces (NKVD) behind the frontline shot or arrested Polish officers and forcibly conscripted lower ranks into the Soviet-controlled forces (Polish Armed Forces in the East). The NKVD Against the Home Army (Armia Krajowa), Warsaw Uprising, based on Andrzej Paczkowski. Poland, the "Enemy Nation", pp. 372–375, in Black Book of Communism. Crimes, Terror, Repression. Harvard University Press, London, 1999. On 21 July, the High Command of the Home Army decided that the time to launch Operation Tempest in Warsaw was imminent. Davies, p. 209. The plan was intended both as a political manifestation of Polish sovereignty and as a direct operation against the German occupiers. On 25 July, the Polish government-in-exile (without the knowledge and against the wishes of Polish Commander-in-Chief General Kazimierz Sosnkowski Borowiec, p. 4 and Davies, p. 213. ) approved the plan for an uprising in Warsaw with the timing to be decided locally. Davies, pp. 210–211. Most soldiers of the Home Army (including those who took part in the Warsaw Uprising) were persecuted after the war: captured by the NKVD or UB (Urząd Bezpieczeństwa) political police. They were interrogated and imprisoned on various charges like for example – "fascism". Michał Zając, ''Warsaw Uprising: 5 pm, 1 August 1944'', Retrieved on 4 July 2007. Many of them were sent to Gulags, executed or "disappeared". Between 1944 and 1956, all of the former members of Batalion Zośka were incarcerated in Soviet prisons. Żołnierze Batalionu Armii Krajowej "Zośka" represjonowani w latach 1944–1956 ", Instytut Pamięci Narodowej, Warszawa 2008, ISBN 978-83-60464-92-2 In March 1945 staged trial of 16 leaders of the Polish Underground State held by the Soviet Union took place in Moscow – (Trial of the Sixteen). Prazmowska, A. (2004) ''Civil war in Poland, 1942–1948'' Palgrave ISBN 0-333-98212-6 Page 115 Malcher, G.C. (1993) ''Blank Pages'' Pyrford Press ISBN 1 897984 00 6 Page 73 Mikolajczyk, S. (1948) ''The pattern of Soviet domination'' Sampson Low, Marston & Co Page 125 Garlinski, J.(1985) ''Poland in the Second World War'' Macmillan ISBN 0-333-39258-2 Page 324 The Government Delegate (Government Delegate's Office at Home), together with most members of the Council of National Unity and the C-i-C of the Armia Krajowa, were invited by Soviet general Ivan Serov with agreement of Joseph Stalin to a conference on their eventual entry to the Soviet-backed Provisional Government. They were presented with a warrant of safety, yet they were arrested in Pruszków by the NKVD on 27 and 28 March. Prazmowska, A. (2004) ''Civil war in Poland, 1942–1948'' Palgrave ISBN 0-333-98212-6 Page 116 Michta, A. (1990) ''Red Eagle'' Stanford University ISBN 0-8179-8862-9 Page 39 Leopold Okulicki, Jan Stanisław Jankowski and Kazimierz Pużak were arrested on 27th with 12 more the next day. A.Zwierzynski had been arrested earlier. They were brought to Moscow for interrogation in the Lubyanka. Garlinski, J.(1985) ''Poland in the Second World War'' Macmillan ISBN 0-333-39258-2 Page 325-326 Umiastowski, R. (1946) ''Poland, Russia and Great Britain 1941–1945'' Hollis & Carter Pages 462–464 Piesakowski, T. (1990) ''The fate of Poles in the USSR 1939~1989'' Gryf Pages 198–199 After several months of brutal interrogation and torture Garlinski, J.(1985) ''Poland in the Second World War'' Macmillan ISBN 0-333-39258-2 Page 335 they were presented with the forged accusations of "collaboration with Nazi Germany" and "planning a military alliance with Nazi Germany" Garlinski, J.(1985) ''Poland in the Second World War'' Macmillan ISBN 0-333-39258-2 Page 336 Umiastowski, R. (1946) ''Poland, Russia and Great Britain 1941–1945'' Hollis & Carter Pages 467–468 Many insurgents, captured by the Germans and sent to POW camps in Germany, were later liberated by British, American and Polish forces and remained in the West. Among those were the leaders of the uprising: Tadeusz Bór-Komorowski and Antoni Chruściel. thumb Military parade of the Milice French Milice (Image:Bundesarchiv Bild 101I-720-0318-04, Frankreich, Parade der Milice Francaise.jpg) armed with machineguns in 1944. thumb Secretary of State of the Vichy regime Fernand de Brinon (Image:Bundesarchiv Bild 183-J15385, Katyn, Öffnung der Massengräber, Gräber polnischer Generale.jpg) (white coat) and other French and German officers "visiting" the graves of anticommunist Poles killed by the USSR's NKVD during the 1940 Katyn massacre, in 1943. This event was exploited by the anti-bolshevic (bolshevism) Vichy French propaganda (watch the newsreel). The French Milice (Milice), ("militia") was a Vichy French paramilitary force created on 30 January 1943 by the French State for service as auxiliary of the German occupation army; hunting down the French Resistance maquisards (Maquis (World War II)). Its commander was Joseph Darnand a battle of France veteran and volunteer; he took an oath of loyalty to Adolf Hitler in October 1943 and received a rank of ''Sturmbannführer'' (Major) in the Waffen SS. By 1944, the French Milice had over 35,000 members. Damnatio memoriae Following the arrest and punishment of the infamous Lavrentiy Beria, the notorious head of the NKVD, in 1953 the encyclopedia—ostensibly in response to overwhelming public demand—mailed subscribers to the second edition a letter from the editor Sophie Lambroschini, “Russia: Putin-Decreed ‘Great Russian’ Encyclopedia Debuts At Moscow Book Fair,” Radio Free Europe Radio Liberty instructing them to cut out and destroy the three-page article on Beria and paste in its place enclosed replacement pages expanding the adjacent articles on F. W. Bergholz (Friedrich Wilhelm von Bergholz) (an 18th-century courtier), the Bering Sea, and Bishop Berkeley. O. Lawrence Burnette Jr. and William Converse Haygood (Eds.), ''A Soviet View of the American past: An Annotated Translation of the Section on American History in the Great Soviet Encyclopedia'' (Chicago: Scott, Foresman, 1964), p. 7.” By April 1954, the Library of the University of California had received this “replacement.” “He who destroys a good Book, kills reason it self:an exhibition of books which have survived Fire, the Sword and the Censors” University of Kansas Library 1955 This was not the only case of political influence. Encyclopedia subscribers received missives to replace articles in the fashion of the Beria article frequently. John T. Jost, Aaron C., ''Social and Psychological Bases of Ideology and System Justification'', Oxford University Press US, 2009, ISBN 0195320913, Google Print, p.465 Content of others changed significantly, to reflect not the scientific knowledge but the current party line (party line (politics)). An article affected in such a fashion was the one on Bukharin, whose evolution of descriptions went through several versions. Ludwik Kowalski, "Discriptions of Bucharin in Great Soviet Encyclopedia" '''Otto August Strandman''' VR (Cross of Liberty (Estonia)) III 1 (30 November 1875 – 5 February 1941) was an Estonian politician, who served as Prime Minister (Prime Minister of Estonia) (1919) and State Elder of Estonia (State Elder) (1929–1931). He was one of the leaders of the centre-left Estonian Labour Party, that saw its biggest support after the 1919 (Estonian Constituent Assembly) and 1920 elections (Estonian parliamentary election, 1920). Strandman was a key figure in composing the radical land reform law and the 1920 Constitution (Constitution of Estonia#First_Constitution_(1920–1933)). He also served as Minister of Agriculture (1918–1919), Minister of Justice (Estonian Minister of Justice) (acting 1918; 1920–1921), Minister of Finance (1924), Minister of Foreign Affairs (Estonian Minister of Foreign Affairs) (1918, 1920–1921 and 1924) and Minister of War (Estonian Minister of Defence) (1919). While he was in the office of Minister of Finance, he stabilized the economy and managed to avoid hyperinflation. Strandman was also the speaker of both the Estonian Provincial Assembly (1917–1918) and Riigikogu (1921). He was a diplomat, serving as an envoy in Warsaw (1927–1929), when he made contacts with Polish (Poland) politicians, and in Paris (1933–1939). During the Soviet Occupation (Occupation of the Baltic states) in 1941, Strandman was ordered to show up to the NKVD headquarters. Already knowing about his fate, he committed suicide in his home in Kadrina. In 1939, Strandman returned to Estonia, but resigned from public life due to bad health. As he wasn't active in politics, he was left alone after the Soviet occupation (Occupation of the Baltic States) in 1940. In 1941 however, Strandman achieved a formal notice to arrive in front of the NKVD. He knew of his fate and decided to shoot himself to death in his home in Kadrina on 5 February 1941. He was buried in Tallinn Sisekalmistu cemetery. right thumb Infantry in a trench in the Mannerheim Line (File:Trenches mannerheim line winter war.png) Soviet intelligence worked in Finland on multiple levels. The Finnish communist party, running in the Soviet Union, had its own military line to the Central Committee. Its intelligence concentrated on the Finnish army, taking notes on the locations of Finnish artillery and defensive positions. The most important Soviet intelligence organisations in Finland were the NKVD and the Fourth Department of the Army General Staff (Military counterintelligence of the Soviet Army). Leningrad Military District, the Baltic Fleet and border troops under the NKVD, conducted espionage operations. Geust & Uitto 2006 (#UittoGeust2006), pages 15–16 ''The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich'' is a comprehensive historical interpretation of the Nazi (Nazism) era, positing that German history logically proceeded from Martin Luther to Adolf Hitler; Rosenfeld 1994, p. 102. "The notion that 'rectitude and authenticity were integrally German attributes, in contrast to Roman or Latin influences which were degrading' held to have originated with Luther developed with German Romanticism in the 19th Century, and culminated with National Socialism (Nazism)." Johnson 2001. , in the area patrolled by the 97th Unit of Soviet Border Troops, 471 people had crossed the border illegally from the districts of Hlyboka, Hertsa, Putila, and Storozhynets. The zone assigned to this unit extended from the border to about 7.5 km south of Chernivtsi. * Kakha Bendukidze, former Russian (Russians) businessman, currently working in the administration of President Mikheil Saakashvili. * Lavrenti Beria, head of the NKVD (the predecessor to the KGB), supervisor and one of the initiators of the Soviet Union's Nuclear Project * Giga Bokeria, Georgian (Georgia (country)) political leader With the onset of the Second World War, he was arrested by the NKVD (People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs, (the Soviet secret police) and on 14 June 1941, was in the Sosva prison camp, and was sentenced to death but died before the execution at Sosva, Sverdlovsk oblast, Russia (see Gulag)) Medvedev was born in Bryansk in a steelworker's family. During the Russian Civil War he joined the Red Army and in 1920 he joined the All-Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks). Between 1920 and 1935 worked in the Cheka, OGPU and the NKVD in Soviet Ukraine (Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic). Great Purge Uborevich was arrested during the Great Purge of the Red Army. In May 1937, Uborevich was tried by the NKVD in an event known as the Case of Trotskyist Anti-Soviet Military Organization. He was executed in June 1937 and posthumously rehabilitated (Rehabilitation (Soviet)) in 1957. ''Superman: Red Son'' In Mark Millar's ''Superman: Red Son'', Martha and her husband are anti-communist protesters in the Soviet Union. They are executed by the NKVD under Commissar Pyotr Roslov (Pete Ross), which leads to their son vowing to overthrow the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. Until recently his true date of death was not officially known. Soviet sources such as the ''Soviet Encyclopedia'' stated that he died in 1943 during the German occupation (Reichskommissariat Ukraine). Recently, it has become known that Kucherenko was arrested and after a period of 8 months of prolonged torture was finally shot by the NKVD in 1937. His body was buried in a mass grave on the territory of the KGB recreational facility in the area of Piatykhatky on the outskirts of Kharkiv. Soon after the German forces were pushed out of the city, Filipkowski was invited to a conference with Michał Rola-Żymierski and arrested by the Soviet NKVD in Zhytomir on August 3, 1944; at the same time most of his soldiers were also arrested and sent to Soviet prisons - or had to flee back to German-held part of Poland. Filipkowski was held in a number of Soviet prisons, including the prison in Kiev, a Smersh camp of the 1st Ukrainian Front, and NKVD camps in Kharkov, Ryazan, Dyagilev, Gryazovets and Brest (Brest, Belarus). In November 1947 he was handed over to the Ministry of Public Security of Poland in Biała Podlaska, interrogated and set free. However, soon afterwards his younger son Andrzej (b. 1925), also a former soldier of the Home Army, was arrested by the Communists and was held in prisons until the destalinization thaw of 1956. * In the NKVD (w:NKVD) as it was now in 1936 , Stalin (w:Stalin) had a powerful and experienced instrument. At its head stood Yagoda (‪w:Genrikh Yagoda‬). His deputy in security matters was Stalin’s crony Agranov (‪w:Yakov Agranov‬), who had finished his special operations at Leningrad and handed over that city to the dreadful Sakovsky, who is said to have boasted that if he had Karl Marx to interrogate he would soon make him confess that he was agent of Bismark (Otto von Bismark). ** Robert Conquest (w:Robert Conquest) (1990, 2000), The Great Terror: A Reassessment (40th Anniversary Edition) Oxford University Press p. 81.

Republic of Macedonia

'''Ferid Muhić''' (born 1944 in Zavidovići, Bosnia and Herzegovina) is a Professor of Philosophy at University Sts. Cyril and Methodius, Skopje, Republic of Macedonia. He started his academic career as Assistant at the Institute for Sociological Research in Skopje in 1970. He entered the Department of Philosophy as Assistant in 1974; Associate Professor 1976-1980; Full-time Professor 1980-present. Visiting Professor in International Institute of Islamic Thought and Civilization, Kuala Lumpur; Florida State University; Syracuse University, New York; Sorbonne 8, Paris; and several universities in Southern-East Europe. Main professional specialties: contemporary philosophy, cultural anthropology, aesthetics and political philosophy. Aromanians (w:Aromanians) are a distinct ethnic group currently living mainly in Southeastern Europe (w:Southeastern Europe), especially Greece (w:Greece) and Macedonia (w:Republic of Macedonia). The Aromanians are closely related to the Romanian people (w:Romanians), both being descendants from the Latin peoples which lived in Southeastern Europe since the time of the Roman Empire (w:Roman Empire). The Aromanian language (w:Aromanian language), which is spoken by around 500,000 people internationally, is the closest language to Romanian (w:Romanian language). Six of the suspects are Swiss (w:Switzerland) nationals, two come from Serbia and Montenegro (w:Serbia and Montenegro), one comes from Italy (w:Italy), two from the Republic of Macedonia (w:Republic of Macedonia), one from the Dominican Republic (w:Dominican Republic) and one from Bosnia and Hercegovina (w:Bosnia and Hercegovina). All live in Zurich.

Saudi Arabia

; in Algeria, it sought justice for victims of torture; in Uzbekistan, a brutal dictatorship, it sought to defend human rights advocates; in Venezuela, it worked with those seeking to protect and promote human rights in a difficult political environment." Freedom House has been critical of Saudi Arabia and Chile under Augusto Pinochet, classifying them as "Not Free." It was also strongly critical of the South Africa under apartheid

United States

Cushing Neville''' (May 12, 1870–July 8, 1930) was a major general (Major general (United States)) of the United States Marine Corps (US Marine Corps). He was a Medal of Honor recipient and 14th Commandant of the Marine Corps between 1929 and 1930. thumb François Mitterrand (File:Bundesarchiv B 145 Bild-F076314-0006, Manching, Manöver Frankreich-Deutschland.jpg) and Helmut Kohl in 1987. The treaty was signed under difficult political situations at that time

history methodology have appeared internationally in professional journals and anthologies such as ''The Oral History Reader''. He has also been a guest columnist for mainstream periodicals such as the ''Christian Science Monitor'' and the ''Baltimore Sun'' as well as progressive religious periodicals like the ''National Catholic Reporter'' and ''Tikkun''. His op-eds (editorial) often tackle difficult political and social issues, such as his piece "The Internet: Our

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