Places Known For

critical role


Hollidaysburg, Pennsylvania

of Public Works of the Pennsylvania Canal from Johnstown (Johnstown, Pennsylvania) on the west to Hollidaysburg (Hollidaysburg, Pennsylvania) on the east, thus allowing continuous barge traffic between the Ohio (Ohio River) and the Susquehanna (Susquehanna River) rivers. Considered a technological marvel in its day, it played a critical role in opening the interior of the United States beyond the Appalachian Mountains to settlement and commerce. It included the Oldest


Yaroslavl Oblast

of the Soviet Union in 1966–1970 and 1970–1974, and was elected to the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet in 1974. She was also the Soviet representative to the UN Conference for the International Women's Year in Mexico City in 1975. She also led the Soviet delegation to the World Conference on Women in Copenhagen and played a critical role in shaping the socialist women's global agenda for peace. She attained the rank of deputy to the Supreme Soviet, membership of the Communist Party


Mahdia

, and the promontory on which an important military settlement had been since the time of the Phoenicians. In 1087 the town was attacked (Mahdia campaign) by raiding ships from Genoa and Pisa who burned the Muslim fleet in the harbor. The attack played a critical role in Christians' seizure of control


Ramadi

p4013coll13%26CISOPTR%3D117+ltc+gubler+503+iraq&hl en&gl us&ct clnk&cd 9 Interview with LTC James Raymer Combat Studies Institute 24 February 2006 , as of February 2006, insurgent activity is markedly lowered from the year that 1-503rd conducted operations in Ramadi. Additionally, the 503rd played a critical role in the 2005 elections in Iraq in Ramadi. "U.S. Troops Fortify Iraqi Polling Stations", ''Stars and Stripes (Stars and Stripes (newspaper))'', 28 January 2005 wikipedia:Ramadi


Huế

of Danang and Huế in central Vietnam. '''Phu Bai International Airport''' north of Ho Chi Minh City. Du lịch đường bộ It borders Quảng Ninh District (Quang Ninh, Quang Binh) on the west and south, the South China Sea on the east, Bố Trạch District on the north. Quang Binh Major General '''Huỳnh Văn Cao''' (born 26 September 1927) was an officer in the Army of the Republic of Vietnam. In 1950, he graduated from Military school in Huế. He then attended College of Tactics and graduated in Hanoi in 1952. He went to the United States and attended Command and General Staff College and he graduated in 1958. thumb A pot of ''bún bò Huế'' broth with rice noodles being cooked separately at a Saigon (Image:Pot of Bun Bo Hue.jpg) eatery '''''Bún bò Huế''''' (literally: Huế style beef rice vermicelli) or more specifically, ''bún bò giò heo'' (literally: beef and pig's knuckle rice vermicelli) is a popular Vietnamese (Vietnamese cuisine) soup rice vermicelli dish. The predominant flavor is of lemon grass. Features ''Bún bò Huế'' originated from Huế, the last imperial capital of Vietnam. The term Bún bò Huế is used more by people from northern or southern Vietnam. In central Vietnam, it is simply known as bún bò. The broth is prepared by simmering beef bones and beef shank with lemongrass and then seasoned with fermented shrimp sauce and sugar for taste. Very spicy chilli oil is added later during the cooking process. ''Bún bò Huế'' usually includes thin slices of marinated and boiled beef shank, chunks of oxtail, Vietnamese sausage and pig's knuckles or pork. It can also include cubes of congealed pig blood, which has a color between dark brown and maroon, and a texture resembling very very firm tofu. Constitutional issues thumb left Bảo Đại (Image:Bao Dai 1953.jpg), previously emperor of Annam (Annam (French protectorate)), was the nominal ruler of the 1945 Empire of Vietnam. Kim and his ministers spent a substantial amount of time on constitutional matters at their first meeting in Huế on 4 May 1945. One of their first resolutions was to alter the national name to '''Việt Nam'''. This was seen as a significant and urgent task. It implied territorial unity; "Việt Nam" had been Emperor Gia Long's choice for the name of the country since he unified the modern territory of Việt Nam in 1802. Furthermore, this was the first time that Vietnamese nationalists in the northern, central and southern regions of the country officially recognized this name. In March, activists in the North always mentioned '''Đại Việt''' (Great Việt), the name used prior to the 15th century used by the Lê Dynasty and its predecessors, while those in the South used Vietnam, and the central leaders used '''An Nam (Annam (French protectorate))''' (Peaceful South) or '''Đại Nam''' (Great South, which was used by the Nguyễn Lords). Kim also renamed the three regions of the country-the northern (former Tonkin or Bắc Kỳ) became Bắc Bộ, the central region (former Annam (Annam (French protectorate)) or Trung Kỳ) became Trung Bộ, and the southern areas (former Cochinchina or Nam Kỳ) became Nam Bộ. Kim did this even though at the time the Japanese had only given him direct authority over the northern and central regions of Vietnam. When France had finished its conquest of Vietnam in 1885, only southern Vietnam was made a direct colony (French colonialism) under the name of Cochinchina, while the northern and central regions were designated as protectorates as Tonkin and Annam. When the Empire of Vietnam was proclaimed, the Japanese retained direct control of Cochinchina, in the same way as their French predecessors. Chieu, pp. 303–304. thumb South Vietnamese military and civilian personnel climb into a CH-47A Chinook of the South Vietnamese Air Force 247th Helicopter Squadron, Da Nang Air Base attempting to flee south in advance of the North Vietnamese seizure of the airfield, 29 March 1975. (File:Evacuation Da Nang AB -30 March 1975.jpg) With the capture of Ban Me Thuot and the Central Highlands by North Vietnamese forces in late March 1975, the disastrous retreat by the ARVN had a profound effect on the South Vietnamese troops and civilians around Huế, Quang Tri, and Da Nang.


Johnstown, Pennsylvania

on the west to Hollidaysburg (Hollidaysburg, Pennsylvania) on the east, thus allowing continuous barge traffic between the Ohio (Ohio River) and the Susquehanna (Susquehanna River) rivers. Considered a technological marvel in its day, it played a critical role in opening the interior of the United States beyond the Appalachian Mountains to settlement and commerce. It included the first railroad tunnel (Oldest railroads in North America) in the United States, the Staple Bend


Beersheba

:''For other meanings see Beersheba (disambiguation).'' is an Israeli airport located near Beersheba. The airport is mainly used for teaching flying, private aviation activity, a gliding club and SkyKef SkyDiving Center. The main operator of the airport is Ayit Aviation (Ayit Aviation and Tourism), owned by Captain Eli Peretz, who has managed the airport for the last 25 years. thumb 300px Be'er Sheva (Teyman) Airport chart (Image:BeerShevaAerodrome.jpg) The Desert Mounted Corps began its most famous campaign on the night of 30 October. The tactics were similar to those at Rafa and Magdhaba (Battle of Magdhaba), with the mounted troops making a surprise night march, enveloping the left and rear of the enemy's position at Beersheba and attacking it from the east while the infantry attacked frontally from the south. The Anzac Mounted Division was held up at Tel el Saba, the hill overlooking Beersheba, where the defenders held on until captured by the New Zealanders late in the day. 363 Beersheba CBS - Ashkelon CBS Regular 364 Beersheba CBS – Ashkelon Express 366 Beersheba CBS – Ashkelon Express 370 Beersheba CBS – Tel Aviv NCBS (Tel Aviv Central Bus Station) Direct 380 Beersheba CBS – Tel Aviv Arlozorov Terminal (2000 Terminal) Direct Regular Rishon LeZion New CBS, Beersheba CBS, Dimona CBS - 397 Beersheba CBS – Eilat CBS Express '''PLACES:''' Beersheba - Paran - Egypt A famine obliges Isaac to retire to Gerar, where Abimelech is king, and as his father had done previously, he reports that Rebeccah is his sister (Wife-sister narratives in Genesis). Abimelech, having discovered that she is his wife reproves him for the deception. Isaac grows very rich and his flocks multiply; the Philistines of Gerar are so envious that they fill up Isaac's wells. At the desire of Abimelech he departs and pitches his tent in the valley of Gerar where he digs new wells, but is again put to some difficulties and returns to Beersheba. Here the Lord appears to him, and renews the promise of blessing him. Abimelech visits him to form an alliance. Esau takes two Hittite women for wives. '''PLACES:''' Padanaram - Beersheba - Haran - House of God (Bethel (Israel)) - Luz


Sicherheitsdienst

Facilities such as Chelmno, Maydenek, Sobibor, Treblinka, and Auschwitz have their origins in the planning actions undertaken by Heydrich. Wright (1968). ''The Ordeal of Total War, 1939-1945'', p. 127. Heydrich remained chief of the Security Police (SiPo) and the SD (through the RSHA) until his assassination in 1942, after which Ernst Kaltenbrunner was named chief by Himmler on 30 January 1943, and remained there until the end of the war. Lumsden, Robin. ''A Collector's Guide To: The Allgemeine – SS'', p 84. The SD was declared a criminal organization after the war and its members were tried as war criminals at Nuremberg (Nuremberg Trials). Twenty-four ''Einsatzgruppen'' commanders (men with the SD sleeve diamond on their uniforms) were tried after the war, becoming infamous for their brutality. See: Rhodes (2003). ''Masters of Death: The SS-Einsatzgruppen and the Invention of the Holocaust'', p. 274. Whatever their original purpose, the SD and SS were ultimately created to identify and eradicate internal enemies of the State, as well as to pacify, subjugate, and exploit conquered territories and peoples. Mayer (2012). ''Why Did the Heavens Not Darken?: The “Final Solution” in History'', p. 162. thumb German passport extended by the SD in Norway, March 1945. (File:German passport extended by the SD in Norway, March 1945..jpg) Organization thumb Poster (1941) with Ordnungspolizei and Sicherheitspolizei (File:Berlin.Gestapo Museum 007.JPG) By 1933, the organization was known as the SS ''SD-Amt'' and, in 1934, became the official security organization of the entire Nazi Party. Consisting at first of paid agents and a few hundred unpaid informants scattered across Germany, the SD was quickly professionalized under Heydrich, who commissioned National Socialist academics and lawyers to ensure that the SS and the SD in particular, operated "within the framework of National Socialist ideology." Weale (2012). ''Army of Evil: A History of the SS'', p. 130. Heydrich was given the power to select men for the SD from among any of the SS component commands since Himmler considered the organization of the SD so important. Browder (1996). ''Hitler's Enforcers: The Gestapo and the SS Security Service in the Nazi Revolution'', p. 116. In 1939, the SD was divided into two offices, the ''Inland-SD'' and ''Ausland-SD'', and placed under the authority of the RSHA. By 1941, the SD had been organized into the following internal sections: Inland-SD The ''Inland-SD'' (Office II) was originally headed by SS-Colonel Hermann Behrends until September 1939 and it was within this organization that Adolf Eichmann began working out the details for the Final Solution of the Jewish problem. Weale (2012). ''Army of Evil: A History of the SS'', p. 135. The ''Inland SD'' was responsible for intelligence and security within Germany and was divided into the following sub-offices: * Department A (Law and Legal Structures) * Department B (Race and Ethnic Matters) * Department C (Cultural and Religious Matters) * Department D (Industry and Commerce) * Department E (High Society) After 27 September 1939, (Office II) became officially ''Amt'' III (department III), the SD-Inland of the RSHA. Otto Ohlendorf was named the Chief of ''Amt'' III. Ausland-SD The ''Ausland-SD'' (Office III) was the civilian foreign intelligence agency of the Third Reich and was "nominally commanded by Heydrich, but his chief of staff was SS-Colonel Heinz Jost." Weale (2012). ''Army of Evil: A History of the SS'', p. 136. Jost ran the department until March 1942. Jost was fired from his position as Chief of ''Ausland-SD'' which, as of September 1939, had officially become known as ''Amt'' VI (department VI) of the RSHA. Doerries, ''Hitler's Last Chief of Foreign Intelligence'', pp. 21, 80. Jost's place was taken by ''Brigadeführer'' Walter Schellenberg, a deputy of Heydrich. After the July 20 Plot in 1944, the ''Ausland-SD'' took over the functions of the ''Abwehr'' (military intelligence). The ''Ausland-SD'' was divided into the following sections: * Department A (Organization and Administration) * Department B (Espionage in the West) * Department C (Espionage in the Soviet Union and Japan) * Department D (Espionage in the American sphere) * Department E (Espionage in Eastern Europe) * Department F (Technical Matters) thumb right upright Members of the ''Sicherheitsdienst'' during a łapanka (File:Bundesarchiv Bild 146-1971-067-07, Sicherheitsdienst in Polen, Razzia.jpg) (random arrest) in occupied Poland Membership Given the nature of the intelligence operations assigned to the SD, there were clear delineations between what constituted a full member (''Mitglieder'') of the SD and those who were considered "associates" (''Mitarbeiter'') with a further subset for clerical support personnel (typists, file clerks, etc.) who were connoted as V-persons (''Vertrauensleute''). Browder (1996). ''Hitler's Enforcers: The Gestapo and the SS Security Service in the Nazi Revolution'', p. 131. All SD personnel, whether simply associates or full members were required to swear an oath of secrecy, had to meet all the requirements for SS membership, were assigned SD code numbers (''Chiffre Nummer'') and if they were "above the level of V-person" they had to carry "an SD identification card." Browder (1996). ''Hitler's Enforcers: The Gestapo and the SS Security Service in the Nazi Revolution'', pp. 133-134. The vast majority of early SD members were relatively young, but the officers were typically older by comparison; nevertheless, the average age of an SD member was approximately 2 years older than the average Nazi Party member. Kater (1983). ''The Nazi Party: A Social Profile of Members and Leaders, 1919-1945'', p. 141, p. 261. Much like the Nazi revolution in general, membership in the SS and the SD appealed more to the impressionable youth. Ziegler (1989). ''Nazi Germany's New Aristocracy: The SS Leadership, 1925-1939'', pp. 59-79. Most SD members were Protestant by faith, had served in the military, and generally had a significant amount of education, representing "an educated elite" in the general sense - with about 14 percent of them earning doctorate degrees. Browder (1996). ''Hitler's Enforcers: The Gestapo and the SS Security Service in the Nazi Revolution'', pp. 136-138. Heydrich viewed the SD as spiritual-elite leaders within the SS and the "cream of the cream of the NSDAP." Dederichs (2006). ''Heydrich: The Face of Evil'', p. 53. According to historian George C. Browder, "SD men represented no pathological or psychically susceptible group. Few were wild or extreme Nazi fanatics. In those respects they were 'ordinary men'. Yet in most other respects, they were an extraordinary mix of men, drawn together by a unique mix of missions." Browder (1996). ''Hitler's Enforcers: The Gestapo and the SS Security Service in the Nazi Revolution'', p. 174. Along with members of the Gestapo, SD personnel were "regarded with a mixture of fear and foreboding," and people wanted as little to do with them as possible. Gellately (1992). ''The Gestapo and German Society: Enforcing Racial Policy, 1933-1945'', p. 143. Belonging to the security apparatus of the Third Reich obviously had its advantages but it was also fraught with occupationally related social disadvantages as well, and if post-war descriptions of the SD by historians are any indication, membership therein implied being a part of a "ubiquitous secret society" which was "sinister" and a "messenger of terror" not just for the German population


Fallujah

p4013coll13%26CISOPTR%3D117+ltc+gubler+503+iraq&hl en&gl us&ct clnk&cd 9 Interview with LTC James Raymer Combat Studies Institute 24 February 2006 , as of February 2006, insurgent activity is markedly lowered from the year that 1-503rd conducted operations in Ramadi. Additionally, the 503rd played a critical role in the 2005 elections in Iraq in Ramadi. "U.S. Troops Fortify Iraqi Polling Stations", ''Stars and Stripes (Stars and Stripes (newspaper))'', 28 January 2005 Career Fitch's place of birth has long been a mystery but recent research indicates that he was most likely born in All Saints' parish, Derby. The Leathersellers' Review, 2007-08, pp 16-18: "An Elizabethan in Asia: Ralph Fitch, our most adventurous Leatherseller" by Jerome Farrell The first known documentary reference to him is in the archives of the Worshipful Company of Leathersellers, of which he was a Freeman and from which Company he received a loan of £50 for two years, 1575-77. The Leathersellers' Review, 2007-08, pp 16-18: "An Elizabethan in Asia: Ralph Fitch, our most adventurous Leatherseller" by Jerome Farrell In February 1583 he embarked in the ''Tyger'' for Tripoli and Aleppo in Syria, together with merchants John Newberry and John Eldred, a jeweller named William Leedes and a painter, James Story, all financed by the Levant Company. This was the latest in a series of English attempts to penetrate the trade of the Indian Ocean and Far East, going back to Anthony Jenkinson's travels in Central Asia in the 1550s. From Aleppo they reached the Euphrates, descended the river from Bir (Birecik) to Fallujah, crossed southern Mesopotamia to Baghdad, and dropped down the Tigris to Basra (May to July 1583). Here Eldred stayed behind to trade, while Fitch and the others sailed down the Persian Gulf to the Portuguese fortress and trading station at Ormuz, where they were promptly arrested as spies (at Venetian instigation, as they believed, but the Portuguese were always jealous of their commercial monopoly in the Indian Ocean) and sent as prisoners to the Portuguese viceroy at Goa (September to October). map_size 220 location wikipedia:Fallujah


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