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Wuwei, Gansu

and attacked the Jin vassal Former Liang, crushing all bases that Former Liang had east of the Yellow River. He declared that he would next cross the Yellow River and head for the Former Liang capital Guzang (姑臧, in modern Wuwei (Wuwei, Gansu), Gansu), but instead was intending to intimidate the Former Liang leader Zhang Mao (then carrying the Jin-created title Duke of Xiping) into submission. Zhang was indeed intimidated and submitted to Han Zhao suzerainty. Liu Yao created him the Prince of Liang. However, in 323, after the Han Zhao emperor Liu Yao defeated Chen An, he continued on and reached the Yellow River, claiming to be ready to cross it. Zhang went into a battle posture, but negotiated peace, agreeing to submit to Han Zhao authority and offering tributes of horses, livestock, and jewels. Liu Yao created him the Prince of Liang and granted him the nine bestowments. With the Han conquest of the Hexi Corridor in 121 BC, the city-states at the Tarim Basin were caught in between the onslaught of the war, with much shifting of allegiance. Millward (2006), 21. There were several Han military expeditions undertaken to secure the submission of the local kings to the Han empire; the Han took control of the regions for strategic purposes while the Xiongnu needed the regions as a source of revenue. Due to the ensuing war with the Han empire, the Xiongnu were forced to extract more crafts and agricultural foodstuffs from the Tarim Basin urban centers. Cosmo (2002), 250–251. By 115 BC, the Han had set up commanderies (Commandery (China)) at Jiuquan and Wuwei (Wuwei, Gansu), while extending the old Qin (Qin Dynasty) fortifications from Lingju to the area west of Dunhuang. From 115 to 60 BC, the Han and Xiongnu battled for control and influence over these states, Yü (1986), 390–391. which saw the rise of power of the Han empire over eastern Central Asia with the decline of that of the Xiongnu's. Lewis (2007), 137–138. The Han empire brought the states of Loulan (Loulan Kingdom), Jushi (Turpan), Luntai (Bügür), Dayuan (Ferghana), and Kangju (Soghdiana) into tributary submission (List of tributaries of Imperial China) between 108 to 101 BC. Chang (2007b), 174; Yü (1986), 409–411. The farthest-reaching invasion was Li Guangli's four-year campaign (War of the Heavenly Horses) towards Ferghana (Fergana Valley) in the Syr Darya and Amu Darya valleys (present-day Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan). Yü (1986), 409–411. The long walled defense line that now stretched all the way to Dunhuang protected the people, guided caravans and troops to and from Central Asia, and served to separate the Xiongnu from their allies, the Qiang people. Loewe (2009), 71. However, the jailer Huyan Ping (呼延平) was a former subordinate of Murong De's, and he took Lady Gongsun and Lady Duan and escaped to the lands of the Qiang (Qiang people) tribes, where Lady Duan gave birth to Murong Chao. After Lady Gongsun died in 394, Huyan Ping took Lady Duan and Murong Chao to Later Liang. Later, after Later Liang surrendered to Later Qin in 403, Huyan Ping, Lady Duan, and Murong Chao were among the populace of the Later Liang capital Guzang (姑臧, in modern Wuwei (Wuwei, Gansu), Gansu) forcibly relocated to the Later Qin capital Chang'an. There, Huyan Ping died, and Lady Duan had Murong Chao take Huyan Ping's daughter (Empress Huyan (Murong Chao)) as his wife. However, Huyan Ping was then the jailer, and took Murong Na and Murong De's mother Lady Gongsun and Lady Duan and escaped to the lands of the Qiang (Qiang people) tribes, where Lady Duan gave birth to Murong Chao. After Lady Gongsun died in 394, Huyan Ping took Lady Duan and Murong Chao to Later Liang. Later, after Later Liang surrendered to Later Qin in 403, Huyan Ping, Lady Duan, and Murong Chao were among the populace of the Later Liang capital Guzang (姑臧, in modern Wuwei (Wuwei, Gansu), Gansu) forcibly relocated to the Later Qin capital Chang'an. There, Huyan Ping died, and Lady Duan had Murong Chao take Huyan Ping's daughter as his wife. '''Lü Long''' (呂隆) (died 416), courtesy name '''Yongji''' (永基), was the last emperor of the Chinese (History of China) Di (Di (ethnic group)) state Later Liang. He was the nephew of the founding emperor Lü Guang (Emperor Yiwu), and he took the throne after his brother Lü Chao (呂超) assassinated the emperor Lü Zuan (Emperor Ling) in 401 and offered the throne to him. During his reign, Later Liang was under constant attacks by Northern Liang and Southern Liang and reduced largely to its capital Guzang (姑臧, in modern Wuwei (Wuwei, Gansu), Gansu). In 403, Lü Long decided to end the state by surrendering Guzang to Later Qin's emperor Yao Xing. He became a Later Qin official, but after aligning himself with Yao Xing's son Yao Bi (姚弼), who made unsuccessful attempts to seize the crown prince position from Yao Hong, was executed by Yao Hong after Yao Xing's death in 416. Early reign Juqu Mengxun, having taken the ducal title, promoted a number of officials who were considered capable, and it was said that the people of his state were pleased. He also nominally submitted to the Later Qin emperor Yao Xing as a vassal, although remaining in reality independent. However, he immediately faced the crisis that his Jiuquan (酒泉) and Liangning (涼寧) Commanderies (roughly modern Jiuquan, Gansu) rebelled against him and joined Western Liang. He became fearful, and he sent his brother Juqu Ru (沮渠挐) the Marquess of Dugu and official Zhang Qian (張潜) to meet Yao Xing's uncle Yao Shuode (姚碩德), who had just recently sieged Later Liang's capital Guzang (姑臧, in modern Wuwei (Wuwei, Gansu), Gansu) and forced the Later Liang emperor Lü Long to submit, offering to surrender his state to Later Qin. Yao Shuode was pleased, but upon return to Northern Liang, while Zhang recommended such surrender, Juqu Ru argued against it, and Juqu Mengxun, while remaining nominally a Later Qin vassal, executed Zhang and never actually surrendered his state. He also tried to make peace with Southern Liang's prince Tufa Lilugu, initially sending his son Juqu Xi'nian (沮渠奚念) as a hostage to Southern Liang, but Tufa Lilugu rejected Juqu Xi'nian, stating that he was too young to be a meaningful hostage and demanding Juqu Ru instead. After initially refusing, Juqu Mengxun gave in to Southern Liang demands after Tufa Lilugu defeated him in battle. Very little is known about Princess Meng. She was mentioned as Juqu Mengxun's wife in 413, when she thwarted an assassination attempt against him by the eunuch Wang Huaizu (王懷祖) and captured Wang. She was probably the mother of his first two heirs apparent (heir apparent) Juqu Xingguo (沮渠興國) and Juqu Puti (沮渠菩提), although this is not completely clear. It appears unlikely that she was the mother of his actual successor Juqu Mujian. During Juqu Mujian's reign, a princess dowager was mentioned, without any names, and it could have been Princess Meng or Juqu Mujian's birth mother. If it was Princess Meng, then she died in the Northern Wei capital Pingcheng (平城, in modern Datong, Shanxi) after Juqu Mujian's capital Guzang (姑臧, in modern Wuwei (Wuwei, Gansu), Gansu) had fallen to Northern Wei forces and he had been taken captive, but she was still buried with honors due a princess. The succession table below assumes that she survived to Juqu Mengxun's death in 433, but that is obviously conjecture. In 439, aggravated that Juqu Mujian's sister and sister-in-law Lady Li (with whom Juqu Mujian was having an affair) had tried to poison Princess Wuwei, and also unhappy that Juqu Mujian had friendly relations with Rouran, decided to launch a major attack on Northern Liang. Li Shun, who had previously advised him to attack Northern Liang, by this point had somehow switched positions and, along with Tuxi Bi, opposed such military actions, stating falsely that there was so little water and grass for grazing in Northern Liang that Northern Wei troops would suffer from thirst and hunger. At Cui Hao's insistence, however, Emperor Taiwu believed that he could conquer Northern Liang, and he launched the campaign. He quickly reached the Northern Liang capital Guzang (姑臧, in modern Wuwei (Wuwei, Gansu), Gansu) in the fall, capturing it after a short siege. Meanwhile, Yujiulü Wuti had launched a surprise attack on Pingcheng to try to save Northern Liang, but was repelled. (Cui Hao, who was a political enemy of Li Shun's, would attribute Li's switch in position to bribes by Juqu Mujian, and later Emperor Taiwu would force Li to commit suicide.) Northern Liang territory was largely in Northern Wei's control, and although both Juqu Mujian's brother Juqu Wuhui and Tufa Baozhou (禿髮保周), a son of Southern Liang's last prince Tufa Rutan, would try to hold various parts of Northern Liang territory, by 440 Tufa Baozhou would be dead by suicide after failures, and by 441 Juqu Wuhui had fled to Gaochang. Northern China was now united under Emperor Taiwu's reign, ending the Sixteen Kingdoms era and starting the Southern and Northern Dynasties era. He continued to treat Juqu Mujian as a brother-in-law, and Juqu Mujian was allowed to continue carry the title of Prince of Hexi. In 439, Emperor Taiwu, even though by this point he had taken Juqu Mengxun's daughter as a concubine and had married his sister Princess Wuwei (Princess Tuoba) to Juqu Mengxun's son and successor Juqu Mujian, became resolved to conquer Northern Liang, and Cui greatly encouraged him, despite opposition from other key officials, including Li Shun, Daxin Jin (達奚斤), and Tuxi Bi (吐奚弼). (Why Li switched his position from supporting a campaign to opposing it at this point was unclear, but Cui would later accuse him of having accepted bribes from Juqu Mengxun and Juqu Mujian.) Li and Tuxi argued that Northern Liang's territory was desolate, and that the Northern Wei army would run out of food and water. Emperor Taiwu followed Cui's suggestion, and was able to quickly conquer Northern Liang and force Juqu Mujian's surrender—and when he saw that the region around Northern Liang's capital Guzang (姑臧, in modern Wuwei (Wuwei, Gansu), Gansu) was exceptionally fertile, he became very resentful of Li, and would eventually force Li to commit suicide in 442. Meanwhile, after the conquest of Northern Liang, at Cui's request, Juqu Mujian's officials Yin Zhongda (陰仲達) and Duan Chenggen (段承根) were added to Cui's staff of historians. He also added Gao Yun (Gao Yun (Northern Wei)) to his staff around this time.


Handan

(鄴城, in modern Handan, Hebei). Ran Wei's crown prince Ran Zhi, Empress Dong (Empress Dong (Ran Min)), and key officials sought assistance from Jin. During Murong Jun's reign In 348, Murong Huang died, and was succeeded by his son Murong Jun, who was then still using the Jin-created title Prince of Yan. In 349, Later Zhao's emperor Shi Hu died, and his state soon fell into internectine wars between his sons and his adoptive grandson Shi Min. Murong Jun therefore decided to advance south. In Murong Jun's campaigns over the next few years, which saw him seize much of Later Zhao's territory and capture Shi Min (who had by then changed him name to Ran Min, to the family name that his father had before his adoption by Shi Hu) and destroy his short-lived state Ran Wei, Murong Ping served as a major general. Murong Ping led the army that sieged Ran Wei's capital Yecheng (鄴城, in modern Handan, Hebei), after Ran Min's capture, in 352, against Ran Min's wife Empress Dong (Empress Dong (Ran Min)) and son Ran Zhi, and the city fell to him, formally ending Ran Wei. He was put in charge of Yecheng's defenses. In 354, Murong Jun, who had by now completely broken from Jin and claimed imperial title, put him in charge of military operations in the Luoyang region (although Former Yan would not be able to capture Luoyang at this time) and also created him the Prince of Shangyong. Over the next few years, Murong Ping would be involved in leading armies against various former Later Zhao generals who were still trying to maintain independence and vacillating between Former Yan, Former Qin, and Jin. His campaigns were of mixed successes and failures. She was already Fu Pi's wife and duchess at least by 380, when her brother Yang Ying (楊膺) was described as one of the Di officers who commanded soldiers distributed to Fu Pi, then serving as viceroy over the six eastern provinces formerly ruled by Former Yan, as part of Fu Jiān (Emperor Xuanzhao)'s plan to distribute his Di people around the empire to serve as a stabilizing force. When the empire subsequently began collapsing in 384 following the failure to conquer Jin and defeat at the Battle of Fei River in 383, Yang Ying suggested to Fu Pi, whose headquarters of Yecheng (鄴城, in modern Handan, Hebei) was the only city in the eastern empire that had not fallen either to Jin or to the new state Later Yan, established by the rebel general Murong Chui, that he should surrender to Jin. When Fu Pi refused, Yang Ying conspired with another official, Jiang Rang (姜讓), to forcibly seize Fu Pi and surrender to Jin, but was discovered and killed. Despite this, Duchess Yang remained Fu Pi's wife. However, Murong Jun continued to be jealous of Murong Chui's talents. He briefly made Murong Chui the defender of the important city and former capital Longcheng (龍城, in modern Jinzhou, Liaoning), but after it became clear that Murong Chui was ruling the region successfully and garnered the support of the people, Murong Jun became fearful and recalled him to the new capital Yecheng (鄴城, in modern Handan, Hebei). In winter 393, Murong Chui turned his attention to Western Yan. After leading Murong Yong to believe that he would attack Western Yan's capital Zhangzi (長子, in modern Changzhi, Shanxi) through Taihang Pass (太行, in modern Jiaozuo, Henan), he instead surprised Western Yan by attacking through Tianjing Pass (天井關, in modern Handan, Henan), quickly advancing on Zhangzi and began besieging it. Murong Yong sought aid from Jin and Northern Wei, but before Jin and Northern Wei forces could arrive, Murong Chui captured Zhangzi, killing Murong Yong and annexing Western Yan territory into Later Yan. Before Later Yan's founding The first reference to Murong Lin in history was in 369, when Murong Chui, then a Former Yan prince, fled to Former Qin after he came after suspicion of the emperor Murong Wei's mother Empress Dowager Kezuhun (Empress Kezuhun (Jingzhao)) and the regent Murong Ping. Previously, Murong Chui's plan was to flee to the old capital Longcheng (龍城, in modern Jinzhou, Liaoning) and occupy it, and then seek reconciliation with Empress Dowager Kezuhun, but on the way, Murong Lin, who was then unfavored by Murong Chui, fled back to the capital Yecheng (鄴城, in modern Handan, Hebei) and revealed his father's plans, forcing his father to readjust his plan and flee to Former Qin instead. In fall 396, Tuoba Gui led his Northern Wei troops and made a surprise attack on Bing Province (并州, modern central and northern Shanxi), defeating Murong Nong and forcing him to flee back to Zhongshan. Tuoba Gui then advanced east, ready to attack Zhongshan. Accepting Murong Lin's suggestion, Murong Bao prepared to defend Zhongshan, leaving the Northern Wei forces free to roam over his territory, believing that Northern Wei would retreat once its forces are worn out. However, this had the effect that all of the cities' garrisons in modern Hebei abandoned them, except for Zhongshan and two other important cities—Yecheng (in modern Handan, Hebei) and Xindu (信都, in modern Hengshui, Hebei). After making an initial attack against Zhongshan and failing, Tuoba Gui changed his tactic to establishing his rule over the other cities while leaving Zhongshan alone. In spring 397, Xindu fell. Meanwhile, however, Tuoba Gui had received news of a rebellion near his capital Shengle and offered peace—which Murong Bao rejected, and Murong Bao attacked Northern Wei forces as Tuoba Gui prepared to retreat, but instead was defeated by Tuoba Gui at great loss. At this time, concerned about a coup attempt by Murong Lin, Murong Bao abandoned Zhongshan and fled to the old Former Yan capital Longcheng (龍城, in modern Jinzhou, Hebei). However, the remaining garrison at Zhongshan supported Murong Bao's nephew Murong Xiang (慕容詳) the Duke of Kaifeng as their leader, and Tuoba Gui was unable to take Zhongshan immediately. Realizing that he had alienated the Later Yan people by having slaughtered the captives at Canhe Slope, Tuoba Gui changed his policy and tried to be gentle with the conquered Later Yan territory, and while time would be required, the territories began to abide by his rule. As of 2009, D-series trains provide fast frequent service between main cities in China. For example: *Beijing - Shijiazhuang (2 hours travel time), Taiyuan(3 hours travel time), Handan (3-3.5 hours travel time), Zhengzhou(5 hours travel time). *Guangzhou - Shenzhen(1 hour travel time) In 354, after Murong De's older brother Murong Jun (Emperor Jingzhao) formally broke from Jin and claimed imperial title, he created Murong De the Duke of Liang. Sometime after Murong Jun died in 360 and was succeeded by his son Murong Wei, Murong De was created the Prince of Fanyang. By 368, he was the mayor of the capital Yecheng (鄴城, in modern Handan, Hebei) when four dukes of the rival Former Qin rebelled against Former Qin's emperor Fu Jiān. Murong De suggested to the regent, his uncle Murong Ping, that Former Yan activate its troops to aid one of them, Fu Sou (苻廋) the Duke of Wei and further take the chance to conquer Former Qin, but his strategy was rejected by Murong Ping. After the Battle of Guandu, Ju Hu was ordered to defend Handan when Cao Cao attacked Ji Province, which was governed by Yuan Shao's son Yuan Shang. In 415, the northern regions of Northern Wei suffered a major famine, causing Emperor Mingyuan to consider moving the capital southward to Yecheng (鄴城, in modern Handan, Hebei), but at the advice of Cui Hao and the official Zhou Dan (周澹), who believed that such a move would quickly expose the actual numerical inferiority of the Xianbei to the Han, he kept the capital at Pingcheng, but also pursuant to Cui and Zhou's suggestion, moved a number of impoverished Xianbei to the modern Hebei region. WikiPedia:Handan


Luoyang

Emperor Min was also captured in Chang'an in 316. In 220, Cao Pi, son of Cao Cao, seized the throne and proclaimed himself to be the Emperor of China, ending and succeeding the nominal rule of the Han Dynasty. At first Sun Quan nominally served as a Wei vassal with the Wei-created title of King of Wu, but after Cao Pi demanded that he send his son Sun Deng as a hostage to the Wei capital Luoyang and he refused, in 222, he declared himself independent by changing his

using the Jin-created title Prince of Yan. In 349, Later Zhao's emperor Shi Hu died, and his state soon fell into internectine wars between his sons and his adoptive grandson Shi Min. Murong Jun therefore decided to advance south. In Murong Jun's campaigns over the next few years, which saw him seize much of Later Zhao's territory and capture Shi Min (who had by then changed him name to Ran Min, to the family name that his father had before his adoption by Shi Hu) and destroy his short-lived state Ran Wei, Murong Ping served as a major general. Murong Ping led the army that sieged Ran Wei's capital Yecheng (鄴城, in modern Handan, Hebei), after Ran Min's capture, in 352, against Ran Min's wife Empress Dong (Empress Dong (Ran Min)) and son Ran Zhi, and the city fell to him, formally ending Ran Wei. He was put in charge of Yecheng's defenses. In 354, Murong Jun, who had by now completely broken from Jin and claimed imperial title, put him in charge of military operations in the Luoyang region (although Former Yan would not be able to capture Luoyang at this time) and also created him the Prince of Shangyong. Over the next few years, Murong Ping would be involved in leading armies against various former Later Zhao generals who were still trying to maintain independence and vacillating between Former Yan, Former Qin, and Jin. His campaigns were of mixed successes and failures. Temporary rapprochement with the imperial government Meanwhile, though, at this point, with Wang Jian continuing to pressure Gu Yanhui and Li Maozhen's being unable to face Wang on one side and the imperial government on the other, and with Zhu Quanzhong (Emperor Taizu of Later Liang) the military governor of Xuanwu Circuit (宣武, headquartered in modern Kaifeng, Henan) repairing the palace at Luoyang and repeatedly requesting Emperor Zhaozong to move the capital there, he and Han Jian decided to have their soldiers jointly repair the palace and the imperial offices at Chang'an to beg Emperor Zhaozong for forgiveness. Emperor Zhaozong, in response, issued an edict ending the campaign against Li Maozhen in spring 898 and restoring his imperially-bestowed name of Li Maozhen and his title as military governor of Fengxiang, and later in the year making him additionally the military governor of Zhangyi. Emperor Zhaozong subsequently returned to Chang'an. In fiction The historical novel ''Romance of the Three Kingdoms'', is a dramatic novelization of the events of the Three Kingdoms era. In it, after Dong Zhuo moved his capital from Luoyang to Chang'an, Cao Cao set off in pursuit of Dong Zhuo's forces. According to the story, Xu Rong intercepted Cao Cao's army but Cao Cao's trusted general Xiahou Dun impaled him with a spear. In recorded history, Xu Rong's ambush of Cao Cao was successful, and Cao Cao would have been killed if he had not been rescued by his cousin, Cao Hong. Fu Pi was not involved in the crushing defeat that Former Qin foces suffered at the Battle of Fei River, as he remained at Yecheng. In the aftermaths of the battle, however, the Xianbei general Murong Chui, a Former Yan prince, plotted a rebellion to reestablish Yan. In late 383, after persuading Fu Jiān to allow him to visit the eastern provinces to try to calm the people in light of the defeat at Fei River, Murong Chui arrived at Yecheng, where Murong Chui continued plotting, and where Murong Chui and Fu Pi considered ambushing each other but each decided not to do so. When, subsequently, the Dingling chieftain Zhai Bin (翟斌) rebelled and attacked Luoyang, defended by Fu Pi's brother Fu Hui (苻暉) the Duke of Pingyuan, Fu Jiān ordered Murong Chui to put down Zhai's rebellion, and Fu Pi sent his assistant Fu Feilong (苻飛龍) to serve as Murong Chui's assistant. On the way to Luoyang, however, Murong Chui killed Fu Feilong and his Di soldiers and prepared to openly rebel. Meanwhile, despite his suspicions of Murong Chui, Fu Pi did not put Murong Chui's son Murong Nong and nephews Murong Kai (慕容楷) and Murong Shao (慕容紹) under surveillance, and the three fled out of Yecheng and started a rebellion of their own. In 97 AD, the Chinese general Ban Chao, the Protector-General of the Western Regions (Protectorate of the Western Regions), sent his emissary Gan Ying on a diplomatic mission to reach the Roman Empire. Gan visited the court of Pacorus II of Parthia at Hecatompylos before departing towards Rome. Wikipedia:Luoyang


Guangzhou

WikiPedia:Guangzhou Dmoz:Regional Asia China Guangdong Guangzhou


Kazakhstan

and from 1972 to 1999 was a career Foreign Service Officer. He is a member of the Council, the American Academy of Diplomacy, and the board of directors of the World Affairs Council of Washington, DC.


Memphis, Tennessee

the Texas vs Tennessee feud. She was later involved in a feud with the Dirty White Girl Kim Anthony and was involved in a Mudpit Match and a Hair vs Hair match which Anthony won and in the latter Moore had her hair shaved off. She was the first ever USWA Women's Champion (USWA Women's Championship), winning the newly created title in a tournament on March 2, 1992. Between March 1992 and August 1996, Moore held the title a total of eight times, swapping it with Lauren Davenport, Luna Vachon, and Debbie Combs. Six people, including two children, were found dead in a Memphis (w:Memphis, Tennessee), Tennessee home in the United States on Monday. Three wounded children were also found at the scene, a 7-year-old boy, a 10-month-old girl and a 4-year-old whose gender was not reported, were sent to Le Bonheur Children's Medical Center (w:Le Bonheur Children's Medical Center). Two were last reported in very critical condition, while the other was in serious condition.


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