Places Known For

concentration


SS-Totenkopfverbände

seal_width 100px seal_caption ''Totenkopf'' (Death's head) collar insignia, 13th ''Standarte'' of the SS-Totenkopfverbände picture Bundesarchiv Bild 192-206, KZ Mauthausen, SS-Männer vor Gefangenen.jpg picture_width 250px picture_caption SS-TV officers standing in front of prisoners at KZ Gusen (Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp) in October 1941. formed June 1934 preceding1 preceding2 dissolved 8 May 1945 superseding jurisdiction

and 3rd SS Division Totenkopf SS Division

23px (Image:Flag Schutzstaffel.svg) ''Schutzstaffel'' child1_agency child2_agency website footnotes '''''SS-Totenkopfverbände''''' ('''SS-TV'''), rendered in English as "Death's-Head (Totenkopf) Units," McNab, Chris. ''The SS: 1923–1945'', p. 137. was the SS (Schutzstaffel) organization responsible for administering the Nazi concentration camps for the Third Reich (Nazi Germany). The SS-TV was an independent unit within the SS


Schutzstaffel

Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression volume II pages 173–237 publisher USGPO place Washington, D.C. year 1946 contribution-url http: www.ess.uwe.ac.uk genocide ssnur1.htm As a part of its race-centric functions, the SS oversaw the isolation and displacement of Jews from the populations of the conquered territories, seizing their assets and transporting them to concentration camps (Nazi concentration camps) and ghettos (Ghettos#Jewish ghettos) where

wished to transform the world by forming something new and dynamic. Allen (2002). ''The Business of Genocide: The SS, Slave Labor, and the Concentration Camps'', p. 22. Creating elite police and military units such as the ''Waffen-SS'', Adolf Hitler used the SS to form an order of men claimed to be superior in racial purity and ability to other Germans and national groups, a model for the Nazi vision of a master race. Burleigh & Wippermann (1991

and Rotary Club (Rotary International) members. To that end, the SS was a key player to Nazi genocide which included the “murder of hostages, reprisal raids, forced labour, ‘euthanasia’, starvation, exposure, medical experiments, and terror bombings, and in the concentration and death camps, the Nazis murdered from 15,003,000 to 31,595,000 people …and none of these monstrous figures even include civilian and military combat or war deaths.” See: Rummel, Rudolph (1992). ''Democide: Nazi


Allgemeine SS

) and the SS-Totenkopfverbände (concentration camp guards (Nazi concentration camps)). Starting in 1939, foreign units of the Allgemeine SS were raised in occupied countries. They were later consolidated into the ''Leitstelle der germanischen SS'' ( ) from 1940. Early years The SS was created on April 4, 1925 and subordinated to the SA (Sturmabteilung) on November 1, 1926. It was thus a subunit of the SA and the National Socialist German

was administratively divided into these main sections: * Full-time officers and members of the main SS departments, including the RSHA * Part-time volunteer members of SS regional units * SS security forces, e.g., the Gestapo and Sicherheitsdienst (SD) * Concentration Camp staffs of the Totenkopfverbände * Reserve, honorary or otherwise inactive SS members After World War II began in 1939, the lines between the Allgemeine-SS and the Waffen-SS became increasingly blurred, due

to the nature of the Nazi regime, there was a constant need for security personnel up until the very end of the Third Reich. For this reason, many Gestapo, SD, and Kripo members who served as reservists never saw combat until the very last days of the war, if at all. Concentration camp personnel All Concentration Camp staffs were originally part of the Allgemeine-SS under the office of the Concentration Camps Inspectorate (Inspektion der Konzentrationslager or IKL). First headed by Theodor


Gestapo

and later to Flossenbürg concentration camp where he was executed. Burleigh (2001). ''The Third Reich: A New History'', p. 727. In an effort to counter the strength and influence of spiritual resistance, Nazi records reveal that the Gestapo's Referat B1 monitored the activities of bishops very closely – instructing that agents be set up in every diocese, that the bishops' reports to the Vatican should be obtained and that the bishops' areas of activity must be found out. Deans

, and frequently denounced, arrested and sent to concentration camps: "One priest was imprisoned in Dachau for having stated that there were good folk in England too; another suffered the same fate for warning a girl who wanted to marry an S.S. man after abjuring the Catholic faith; yet another because he conduced a service for a deceased communist". Other were arrested simply on the basis of being "suspected of activities hostile to the State" or that there was reason to "suppose

the Gestapo. Fearful of an internal overthrow, the forces of the Gestapo were unleashed on the opposition. Retaliation did come in response to protests, as groups like the White Rose and others such as the (Edelweiss Pirates, Swing Youth), were placed under strict Gestapo observation. Some participants were sent to concentration camps. Leading members of the most famous of these groups, the White Rose, were arrested by the police and turned over to the Gestapo. For several


Sicherheitspolizei

the Dachau Concentration Camp in 1936. On 17 June 1936 all police forces throughout Germany were united, with Himmler as the chief. On 26 June, Himmler reorganised the police into two groups: the Ordnungspolizei (Orpo), consisting of both the national uniformed police and the municipal police, and the Sicherheitspolizei (SiPo), consisting of the Gestapo and the Kripo or Kriminalpolizei (criminal police). At that point, Heydrich was head of the SiPo and SD

maintained a presence at all concentration camps and supplied personnel, on an as-needed basis, to such special action troops as the ''Einsatzgruppen''. The SD-SiPo was also the primary agency, in conjunction with the ''Ordnungspolizei'', assigned to maintain order and security in the Jewish Ghettos established by the Germans on the territory of occupied Eastern Europe. The implementation of the order was entrusted to Sonderkommando 4a, commanded by Blobel, under the general

Jews, who are not too old," for eventual transfer to concentration camps. Heydrich's secret instructions regarding the riots in November 1938 (Simon Wiesenthal Center) Before they were sent as guards to the concentration camps, most of the Soviet POWs underwent special training in Trawniki, which originally was a holding center for those refugees and Soviet POWs, whom


SS-Reichssicherheitshauptamt

." ''Nürnberger Dokumente'', NG-3104, as found in Bracher (1970), ''The German Dictatorship: The Origins, Structure, and Effects of National Socialism'', p. 426. Besides blocking emigration, the RSHA, working with Adolf Eichmann's Reich Association of Jews in Germany, deliberately deceived Jews still living in Germany and those of other countries by promising them good living quarters, medical care, and food in Theresienstadt (a concentration camp which was a way

opinion and monitoring of Nazi indoctrination by the public. Amt IV, the Gestapo, and Amt V, the Kripo, together constituted the ''Sicherheitspolizei'' (Security Police) or SiPo. It was the SiPo that did most of the work in rounding up Jews, Romani People and other people deemed to be enemies of the Reich and deporting them to the concentration and extermination camps in German Occupied Poland and Ukraine. The RSHA also supplied security forces on an "as needed" basis to local SS

Brigade , were formed from former ''Standarten'' of the ''Totenkopfverbände'' or concentration camp service. Their role was not to serve in combat, except in emergencies, but to carry out "police and security operations" in occupied territories like the ''Einsatzgruppen''. thumb left 300px Jews being rounded up in Krakow (File:Krakow Ghetto 06694.jpg) in March 1943. File:Bundesarchiv B 145 Bild-F016206-0004, Russland, Deportation von Juden.jpg center thumb 300px Jews


Alderney

rocks, its access causeway and bridge having been swept away long ago. Houmet Herbé resembles a Crusader castle (List of Crusader castles) with its squat round towers. Like many of the forts it included such apparently anachronistic features as a drawbridge and machicolation, which were still common in military architecture of the period. World War II thumb left Alderney concentration camps (File:Lageplan Konzentrationslager Aldeney B.jpg) memorial plaque In June 1940

the German Army (German Army (1935–46)) arrived, on the basis it was best for their personal safety. During the Second World War (World War II), the Channel Islands was the only part of the British Commonwealth (Commonwealth of Nations) occupied by Germany (Occupation of the Channel Islands). The Germans arrived to a deserted island and began to follow the orders to fortify Alderney as part of Hitler's Atlantic Wall. The Germans built four Alderney concentration camps concentration camps

in Alderney, subcamps of the Neuengamme concentration camp. Lager Helgoland and Lager Borkum were used by the Nazi Organisation Todt and used forced labour to build bunkers, gun emplacements, air-raid shelters and concrete fortifications. In 1942, the Lager Norderney camp, containing Russian and Polish POWs, and the Lager Sylt camp, a concentration camp holding Jewish slave labourers (unfree labour), were placed under the control


Ordnungspolizei

(and elsewhere in occupied Europe) to the concentration and extermination camps, as well as operations to hunt down and kill Jews outside the ghettos. Goldhagen, p 195. Operating both independently and in conjunction with the ''Einsatzgruppen'', Police Battalions were also an integral part of the "Final Solution" in Operation Barbarossa, the invasion of the Soviet Union which began on 22 June 1941. Police Battalions, whether as part of Police Regiments

. ''A Collector's Guide To: The Allgemeine – SS'', p. 83. * The Inspectorate of Concentration Camps under ''Gruppenführer'' Theodor Eicke which fielded four infantry and one cavalry Death's-Head ''Standarten'' (3rd SS Division Totenkopf), comprising camp guards of the ''SS-Totenkopfverbände''. These troops wore the SS-TV skull and crossbones rather than the SS-VT "SS" runes. * Combat-trained non-SS units of ''Obergruppenführer und General der Polizei'' Kurt Daluege's

SiPo were the main sources of officers for the security forces in occupied territories. SD-SiPo led battalions were typically placed under the command of the SS and Police Leaders, reporting directly to the RSHA in Berlin. The SD also maintained a presence at all concentration camps and supplied personnel, on an as-needed basis, to such special action troops as the ''Einsatzgruppen''. The SD-SiPo was also the primary agency, in conjunction with the ''Ordnungspolizei'', assigned


Jastrebarsko

of a concentration camp for Serb children (Jastrebarsko concentration camp) operated by the authorities of the Independent State of Croatia during World War II. http: www.jusp-jasenovac.hr Default.aspx?sid 7384 thumb right Erdödy Castle (File:Dvorac Erdödy Jastrebarsko.jpg) in Jastrebarsko, originally built by Croatian ban Matija Gereb. Geography

Concentration Camp * Kerestinec prison near Zagreb - Jastrebarsko Zagreb County align "

;right" Numerous concentration camps were built in Croatia (Independent State of Croatia), most notably Jasenovac (Jasenovac concentration camp) (in Croatian: Logor Jasenovac in Serbian: Логор Јасеновац Logor Jasenovac), the largest, where hundreds of thousands of Serbs, Gypsies (Romani people) (Roma), Jews and Croatian dissidents died. It was established


Sicherheitsdienst

;Shirer (1990). ''The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich'', pp. 191-194. Wasting no time, Himmler set the SD in motion as they began creating an extensive card index of the Nazi regime's political opponents, arresting labor organizers, socialists, Jewish leaders, journalists, and communists in the process, sending them to their new prison facility near Munich, Dachau. Distel & Jakusch (1978). ''Concentration Camp Dachau, 1933-1945'', p. 46. Himmler's SS and SD made

the two German-speaking nations - organized demonstrations, conducted clandestine operations, ordered terror attacks, distributed propaganda materials, encouraged the intimidation of opponents, and had his SS and SD personnel round-up prominent anti-Nazis, most of whom ended up in Mauthausen concentration camp. Blandford (2001). ''SS Intelligence: The Nazi Secret Service'', pp. 134-140. Once the ''Anschluß'' was official, the Austrian police was immediately subordinated

in Austria, again in Czechoslovakia, and then by helping provoke the 'reactive' war against Poland. Code-named "Operation Himmler" and part of Hitler's plan to justify an attack upon Poland, the SD's clandestine activity for this mission included faking a Polish attack against 'innocent Germans' at a German radio station in Gleiwitz. Weinberg (2005). ''Hitler’s Foreign Policy 1933-1939: The Road to World War II'', p. 748 Using concentration camp inmates


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