century. Based on the coin finds, the city seems to have silenced around 960. Lindqvist, Herman. ''Historien om Sverige. Islossning till kungarike.'' 1996. See page 165. Roughly around the same time, the near-by settlement of Sigtuna supplanted Birka as the main trading centre in the Mälaren area. She attends SSHL, a school in Sigtuna, Sweden, and is an ex-pupil of the prestigious St Paul's Girls' School in London, United Kingdom. She is good friends with AnnaSophia Robb, the young actress that played Violet Beauregarde in ''Charlie and the Chocolate Factory''. practice Wingårdh arkitektkontor AB (Wingårdh arkitektkontor) significant_buildings Öijared Executive Country Club, Lerum, 1988, Astra Zeneca R&D Site, Mölndal, 1993-, Swedish Embassy, Berlin, 1999, Universeum Science Centre, Gothenburg, 2001, Auditorium and Student Union at Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, 2001, Housing at Bo01, Malmö, 2001, Arlanda flight control tower Arlanda (Stockholm-Arlanda Airport), Sigtuna, 2001, Aranäs Senior High School, Kungsbacka, 2006, House of Sweden, Washington, D.C., 2003-06, Vällingby shopping centre, 2008, Stockholm, Müritzeum visitors centre, Mecklenburg, 2008, Citadellbadet swimming baths, Landskrona, 2005-07, Malmö Arena, Malmö, 2008, Building 10, Kista, 2010, Sven-Harry's Art Museum, Stockholm, 2005-11, Emporia shopping center, Malmö, 2007-11, Spira Concert hall and theatre, Jönköping, 2006-11, Naturum Tåkern, Mjölby, 2008-2011, Victoria Tower, Stockholm, 2008-12, Aula at Karolinska Institutet, Solna (Solna Municipality), 2006-13, Naturum Laponia, Gällivare, 2009-13, Kuggen at Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, 2011 significant_projects Victoria Olympia Stadium, Stockholm, 1996, Scandinavian Tower, Malmö, 1997, Dalsland Lodge, 2002, Breath of Life, Östersund, 2003, Glaskasten in Marl, North Rhine-Westphalia, 2005 It is also claimed that Novgorodians and their Karelian allies launched pirate raids against mainland Sweden during the 12th century. Article about Sigtuna raid by ''Vokrug Sveta''. In Russian During one of such raid, as a legend has it, they brought to Novgorod the doors (Saint Sophia Cathedral in Novgorod) of the Sigtuna cathedral as a prize. However, there is no certainty on the background of the destroyers of Sigtuna. Swedish sources call them just "heathens" and Novgorodian sources say no word about the event, which would be least expected had they conducted it. The only source that claims the attackers to have been Karelians is the Eric's Chronicle written in early 14th century as anti-Novgorod propaganda. Most historians consider the attackers to have come from the Baltic (Baltic Sea) coasts. Swedish sources also claim that Jon jarl spent nine years fighting against Novgorodians and Ingrians at the end of the 12th century. ''Suomen museo 2002''. See page 65. These expeditions are not documented in Russian sources.
details, p. 124. ISBN 3-520-37105-7. Ditmarsians had established trade with Livonia and neighbouring Baltic (Baltic Sea) destinations since the 15th century, based on the Hanseatic obligations and privileges since the pact with Lübeck. Both parties renewed their alliance several times and it thus lasted until Dithmarschen's final defeat and Dano-Holsatian annexation in 1559. The success of the settlement challenged the powerful Free City of Lübeck, which burnt Stralsund down in 1249. Afterwards the town was rebuilt with a massive town wall having 11 town gates and 30 watchtowers. The ''Neustadt'', a town-like suburb, was merged to Stralsund by 1361. ''Schadegard'', a twin town to Stralsund also founded by Wizlaw I nearby, but was not granted German law, served as the principal stronghold and enclosed a fort. It was given up and torn down by 1269 under the pressure of the Stralsund ''Bürger (bourgeoisie)''. Within the transalpine part of the Holy Roman Empire the Free Imperial Cities (Free imperial city) enjoyed a considerable autonomy, buttressed legally by the Lübeck law which was emulated by many other cities. Some cities — though also members of different confederacies (confederation) at that time — officially became sovereign city-states in the 19th century — such as the Canton of Basel City (Basel-Stadt) (1833–48), the Free Hanseatic City of Bremen (Bremen (state)) (1806–11 and again 1813–71), the Free City of Frankfurt upon Main (Free City of Frankfurt) (1815–66), the Canton of Geneva (1813–48), the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg (Hamburg) (1806–11 and again 1814–71) and the Free and Hanseatic City of Lübeck (Free City of Lübeck) (1806–11 and again 1813–71). Another city-state, though lacking sovereignty, was West Berlin (1948–90), being a state legally not belonging to any other state, but ruled by the Western Allies. They allowed — notwithstanding their overlordship as occupant powers — its internal organisation as one state simultaneously being a city, officially called Berlin (West). Though West Berlin held close ties to the West German Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany), it was legally never part of it. A number of the aforementioned city-states — though partly with altered borders — continue to exist as city-states within today's Federal Republic of Germany (Germany) and today's Swiss Confederation (Switzerland#Federal state) (see below: 'Cities that are component states of federations'). birth_date 1630s birth_place Free City of Lübeck, Holy Roman Empire death_date July 24, 1663 DATE OF BIRTH PLACE OF BIRTH Free City of Lübeck, Holy Roman Empire DATE OF DEATH July 24, 1663 From this time onward Haakon’s reign was marked by internal peace and more prosperity than Norway had known for many years. This was the start of what has traditionally been known as the ''golden age'' of the Norwegian medieval kingdom. In 1240, a group of Bjarmians told Haakon that they were refugees from the Mongols. He gave them land in Malangen. although there was also a need to compensate Prussia for its losses to Hamburg. Besides Lübeck, which was incorporated into the Prussian Province of Schleswig-Holstein (Schleswig-Holstein Province), Hamburg had to cede its possessions of Geesthacht, which went to Schleswig-Holstein as well, and Ritzebüttel (which included Cuxhaven), which went to the Province of Hanover. From the possessions Prussia gave up to Hamburg, Altona (Altona, Hamburg) and Wandsbek had belonged to Schleswig-Holstein, while Harburg-Wilhelmsburg (Harburg, Hamburg) had been a part of Hanover. By this ceremony, the North German Confederation ('''''Norddeutscher Bund''''') was transformed into the German Empire ('''''Deutsches Kaiserreich'''''). This empire was a federal state (Federation); the emperor was head of state and president of the federated monarchs (the kings of Bavaria (Kingdom of Bavaria), Württemberg (Kingdom of Württemberg), Saxony (Kingdom of Saxony), the grand dukes of Baden (Grand Duchy of Baden), Mecklenburg, Hesse (Grand Duchy of Hesse), as well as other principalities, duchies and of the free cities (free city) of Hamburg (Free City of Hamburg), Lübeck (Free City of Lübeck) and Bremen (Bremen (state))). The (second) '''Battle of Bornhöved''' took place on 22 July 1227 near Bornhöved in Holstein. Count Adolf IV (Adolf IV of Holstein) of Schauenburg and Holstein (Counts of Schauenburg and Holstein) — leading an army consisting of troops from the cities of Lübeck (Free City of Lübeck) and Hamburg, about 1000 Dithmarsians (Dithmarschen) and combined troops of Holstein next to various north German nobles — defeated King Valdemar II of Denmark. Saxe-Lauenburg ceded Bleckede - with toll and castle - to Margrave Waldemar of Brandenburg-Stendal (Waldemar, Margrave of Brandenburg-Stendal), who quickly sold his new acquisition in 1308 to the Welf duke Otto the Strict, ruling the branch Principality of Lunenburg (Lüneburg) (Lüneburg-Celle). Two years later the duke granted Bleckede town privileges, comprising the obligation to fortify the town. In 1379 Duke Albert of Lunenburg-Celle (Albert of Saxe-Wittenberg, Duke of Lüneburg) pawned Bleckede castle to his creditors Hamburg, Lübeck (Free City of Lübeck), Hanover and Lunenburg (Lüneburg) (Lüneburg). The latter managed to hold Bleckede by way of pawn until 1600. Every Protestant sovereign hereafter claimed and exercised the so-called ''jus reformandi religionem'', and decided the church question according to his own faith and that of the majority of his subjects. Saxony, Hesse, Prussia (Duchy of Prussia), Anhalt, Lüneburg, East Friesland, Schleswig-Holstein, Silesia, and the cities of Nuremberg, Augsburg, Frankfurt, Ulm, Strasburg (Strasbourg), Bremen, Hamburg, and Lübeck (Free City of Lübeck), adopted Protestantism. The princes of the territories and the magistrates of the cities consulted the theologians and preachers. The powerful house of Austria, with the Emperor, and the Dukes of Bavaria, adhered to the old faith, and hotly contested the principle of independent state action on the church question, as being contrary to all the traditions of the Empire and of the Roman Church. 1934 Formed from the Prussian Province of Schleswig-Holstein, the Free City of Lübeck and territory belonging to the Free State of Oldenburg -
- ! ! 35px (File:Escudo de Santiago de Compostela.svg) ! ! style "background:lemonchiffon;" ''' Santiago de Compostela
the Ottoman Empire. Because of this invitation, there was a mass emigration of Serbs in 1690 to the Szenendre region. These Serbs left enduring traces on the townscape and its culture. The buildings in the city center have tried to preserve this Serbian influence in their architecture, but these buildings do not in fact date to the 17th century. Based on maps from the end of the century, the city center actually boasted other buildings at that time. There was also considerable Dalmatian immigration
Wikipedia:Bukhara Commons:Category:Bukhara Dmoz:Regional Asia Uzbekistan Localities Bukhara
of the Army Museum. * Puerta de Bisagra Nueva. The main entrance and face of Toledo. * Puerta de Bisagra The main entrance to the city in Andalusian times. * Puerta del Sol (Puerta del Sol, Toledo). Mudejar style and built by the Knights Hospitallers in the fourteenth century. * Puerta Bab al-Mardum, the oldest city gate of Toledo. * New Gate of Hinge, by Alonso de Covarrubias (16th century, based on Arabic structures). * Old door hinge or Puerta de Alfonso VI. * Cambrón gate, of Muslim
, and townsmen. Some had abandoned their nomadic way of life altogether. was not written earlier than the 15th century. Cemal Kafadar(1995), “in Between Two Worlds: Construction of the Ottoman states”, University of California Press, 1995. Excerpt: "It was not earlier than the fifteenth century. Based on the fact that the author is buttering up both the Akkoyunlu and Ottoman rulers, it has been suggested that the composition belongs to someone living in the undefined border region lands between the two states during the reign of Uzun Hassan (1466–78). G. Lewis on the hand dates the composition “fairly early in the 15th century at least”." İlker Evrım Bınbaş,Encyclopaedia Iranica, "Oguz Khan Narratives" Encyclopædia Iranica Articles, accessed October, 2010. "The Ketāb-e Dede Qorqut, which is a collection of twelve stories reflecting the oral traditions of the Turkmens in the 15th-century eastern Anatolia, is also called Oḡuz-nāma" It is a collection of 12 stories reflecting the oral tradition of Oghuz nomads. Since the author is buttering up both the Akkoyunlu and Ottoman rulers, it has been suggested that the composition belongs to someone living between the Akkoyunlu and Ottoman empires. The 16th century poet, Muhammed Fuzuli produced his timeless philosophical and lyrical ''Qazals'' in Arabic (Arabic language), Persian (Persian language), and Azeri (Azeri language). Benefiting immensely from the fine literary traditions of his environment, and building upon the legacy of his predecessors, Fizuli was destined to become the leading literary figure of his society. His major works include ''The Divan of Ghazals'' and ''The Qasidas''. In the same century, Azerbaijani literature further flourished with the development of Ashik ( Later additions were made, the last being during the late Safavid era (Safavid dynasty). The double layered main dome of the mosque is from the Seljuk era (Great Seljuk Empire), and is locked to the public. It houses some precious examples of relief calligraphy from medieval times. Renovations have also been carried out on many sections of the mosque.
College in 1563 he was appointed as its first schoolmaster. Later history The livre had also been used as the legal currency of the Channel Islands. The Jersey livre remained legal currency in Jersey until 1834 when dwindling supplies of no-longer minted coins obliged the adoption of the pound (Jersey pound) as legal tender. History The business has been established since the mid-18th century based on apple trees introduced from Jersey initially for the use
(الجهاد البحري), were Muslim pirates and privateers that operated from North Africa, from the time of the Crusades until the early 19th century. Based in North African ports such as Tunis in Tunisia, Tripoli in Libya and Algiers in Algeria, they preyed on Christian and other non-Islamic shipping in the western Mediterranean Sea. *1800 – The Act of Union 1800 is passed in which merges the Kingdom of Great Britain
traces its lineage from the medieval Diocese of Turku which more or less coincides geographically with present-day Finland. The table of Bishops and Archbishops of Turku Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland. Retrieved 10-11-2007. Christianity was introduced to Finland slowly. The first sign of Christianity can be found in prehistorial burial sites dated to the 11th century. Based on etymological evidence, it seems