by ban Josip Jelačić in 1848. Early military career Obrenović's first assignment was a tank platoon command at the Jastrebarsko garrison in the SFR Yugoslav (Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia) republic of Croatia. After six months he was promoted to tank company commander in the same brigade. This post he held until 1990 when he was promoted to deputy command of the armored battalion. In October 1991, during the Croatian War of Independence, the JNA started its withdrawal from Croatia and Obrenović's unit was relocated to the Dubrava Airport in Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina, where he was promoted to acting commander of the armored battalion. On February 28, 1992, his battalion was relocated to Mali Zvornik and Zvornik when the situation in Bosnia and Herzegovina began to deteriorate as well.
and Orang Asli (Peninsular Malaysia's indigenous people) living in Gopeng. Gopeng is well known nationwide for its Rawa (Rawa (tribe)) community which is believed to be the center of the Rawa in Malaysia. There are a significant number of Rawa (Rawa (tribe)) descendants reside in Gopeng. From Kampung Gunung Mesah Hulu and Kampung Gunung Mesah Hilir to Kampong Rawa, Kampung Jelintoh to Kota Baru Estate, the Rawa (Rawa (tribe)) people resides here for centuries
, long before the tin mines were established. Gopeng is actually the name of the town center, not the entire area. Earlier settlements such as Sungai Itik, Jahang, Kampong Pulai, Gunong Mesah, Gunong Panjang, Culik and dozens of other settlements were opened by Rawa and Mandailing settlers centuries earlier. The Rawa (Rawa (tribe)) people are sub-ethnic from the larger group of the Malay Race (bangsa Nusantara) who speaks with a noticeable different form of language from the standard Bahasa Melayu (Malay Peninsula Standard), similar to the other variations of Bahasa Melayu dialects around Malaysia like the Northern, Perakian, Sarawakian, Kelantanese and the Minang (Negeri Sembilan). The Rawa (Rawa (tribe)) dialect is well preserved in Gopeng for many of its Rawa residents is very concern for conserving the Rawa dialect. The Rawa (Rawa (tribe)) people speaks Rao Language with a certain words and dialect resembles the Negeri Sembilan's Minangkabau (Minangkabau people) community. Many would generally presumed that the Rawa (Rawa (tribe)) people is the Jawa, apparently these two community are essentially different, culturally. The Rawa (Rawa (tribe)) people and the Rawa (Rawa (tribe)) dialect are thriving in almost every Rawa settlements in Gopeng, very genuine and exclusive Rawa dialect could be found in villages neighboring the Gopeng town area. Famous cuisine associated with the Rawa (Rawa (tribe)) is Kelamai, Gulei Lomak Nangko (Gulai Nangka) and Rondang Atok (Rendang Tok) are still available in Gopeng particularly during wedding ceremonies and festive seasons. Among the best known tradition of the Rawa (Rawa (tribe)) is Adet Berjojak (Adat Berjejak). Cuisines '''Durian''' is the most anticipated fruit season in Gopeng, dozens of stalls erected in various parts of Gopeng town and numerous Malay villages around Gopeng. The rambutan, langsat and nangka are also popular during the fruit season. People will usually stop and buy these local fruits along their way from Ipoh to Kampar. Self erected fruit stalls will be visible from the trunk road along the areas from the Gopeng Exit PLUS Expressway Toll to Gunong Mesah. '''Gopeng Lai Fun''' or rice noodles is a well known dish locally, particularly among the Chinese community in Gopeng and surrounding towns. It is best served with laksa and homemade tauhu. Gopeng tauhu is distinguished with its darker top rather than ordinary tauhu which is light brown. During Aidilfitri holidays, the '''Kelamai''' becomes the highlight of the day and it became the signature cuisine of the Malays in Gopeng. The Kelamai partly resembles the Lemang but Kelamai is treated with tedious care and complicated procedures of preparing the bamboo and its contents. Above all, it tastes sweeter than Lemang with the addition of red sugar, and the Kelamai is in dark brown in colour. People will have to crack open the bamboo just like the Lemang itself to have its contents to be served for the guests. In other variations, coconut floss are also served on top of the sliced Kelamai to add the sweetness. Besides the Kelamai, '''Gulai Nangka''' is also well known as local Malay favorites, it is usually served in most of local Malay wedding ceremonies in which it became almost compulsory to distinct the Gopeng Malay wedding cuisines. Gulai, also known as Masak Lemak is a yellowish gravy cuisine with numerous variation in its contents. The Gopeng Malays used the jackfruit or Nangka (in Malay) instead of meat or vegetables. The Gulai Nangka is an all time favorite in which it sustains the popularity for an extended period of time among both the youngsters and the senior citizens. Gulai Nangka is best served hot, together with white rice, belacan and ulam. Religious congregational buildings Mosques, Madrasahs and Surau thumb 300px The Gopeng new Mosque or Masjid Baru Gopeng at Gopeng Road Weekly Friday Prayers are held here. (File:Gopengnewmosque.JPG) There are dozens of mosques in Gopeng and its outskirts, mainly in the Malay concentrated neighborhood including those remotely located. There are mosques, madrasahs and a handful of surau as well. Most of the local Muslims attend their Friday Prayers weekly at the major town mosques such as the Masjid Baru Gopeng and Masjid Ar-Rahman located in Gunung Mesah Hilir area. These mosques were also used for small community services for the local Muslims of all races. * Masjid Al-Azim Kampung Gunung Panjang * Masjid Al-Mardhiah Kampung Sungai Itek * Masjid Ar-Rahman Kampung Gunung Mesah Hilir * Masjid Jamek Gopeng * Masjid Baru Gopeng * Masjid Jamek Kota Baru Kota Baru * Masjid Kampung Changkat Legong Kota Baru * Masjid Kampung Changkat Tualang Kota Baru * Masjid Kampung Redang Sawa Kota Baru * Madrasah Ihsaniah Kampung Tersusun Kampung Pulai, Kampung Tersusun Kampung Pulai * Madrasah Al-Muttaqin Taman Gopeng Baru, Taman Gopeng Baru * Madrasah Lama Kampung Lawan Kuda, Kampung Lawan Kuda Buddhist temples thumb 300px The Kuan Yin Temple of Gopeng as seen from the opposite side of the road, next to the Chinese Opera building. (File:Gopengkuanyintemple.JPG) The Gopeng Kuan Yin Temple which is located next to the Gopeng Fire Station is believed to be 137 years old since used by the local Buddhist for prayers and religious activities. It was recently refurbished to enhance its charm and glory. There is also another one located in Kopisan. Hindu temples There are many Hindu temples in Gopeng and the most prominent located at the entrance of the Gopeng town, just to the right of the Gopeng Road uphill, next to the Sikh Temple. It is called the Sri Maha Mariamman Temple of Gopeng. There is also another Hindu temple in Kopisan which is called Arulmigu Maha Muthu Mariamman Thevasthanam. Sikh temple The Sikh Temple of Gopeng or the Gudwara Sahib Gopeng is located next to the Hindu temple at the entrance of Gopeng town centre, near to the Taman Changkat Golf and a row of shop houses. Churches The St. Jude's Church (St. Jude's Church, Gopeng) is located in Kopisan Baru, it is clearly visible from the main road uphill with a kindergarten next to it. Education thumb 300px This is the SMK Idris Shah Gopeng, one of the two secondary schools available in Gopeng. (File:Smkidrisshahgopeng.JPG) Gopeng has several schools such as: * SK Gunung Panjang, Kampung Gunung Panjang, Gopeng * SRK Gopeng Jalan Ilmu (''Sekolah Rendah Kebangsaan Gopeng Jalan Ilmu'') * SK Gopeng (''Sekolah Kebangsaan Gopeng'') * SRK Sungai Itek (''Sekolah Rendah Kebangsaan Sungai Itek'') * SRJK(C) Man Ming Gopeng (''Sekolah Rendah Jenis Kebangsaan Cina Man Ming Gopeng'') * SRJK(C) New Kopisan Gopeng (''Sekolah Rendah Jenis Kebangsaan Cina New Kopisan Gopeng'') * SRJK(T) Gopeng (''Sekolah Rendah Jenis Kebangsaan Tamil Gopeng'') * SMK Idris Shah Gopeng (''Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Idris Shah Gopeng'') * SMK Seri Teja Gopeng (''Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Seri Teja Gopeng'') * SBPI Gopeng (''Sekolah Berasrama Penuh Intergrasi Gopeng'') There is a matriculation college, Kolej Matrikulasi Perak (KMP), located near the small town of Kota Baru Station, in the outskirt of central Gopeng. Located on a small hill in an oil palm estate, KMP is well known for its breathtaking scenery overlooking the Titiwangsa Mountains and numerous limestone hills especially on a clear day. Famous residents * Datuk Mohammad Nor Khalid, also known as Lat, is a famous Malaysian cartoonist. He was born in the small village of Kota Baru, (''not the state capital of Kelantan'') on 5 March 1951. Most of his cartoons portray the daily life of Malaysians in various perspectives and are published in mainstream newspapers such as the New Straits Times. One of his famous Kampung Boy books was published by the French. Kampung Boy was also adapted into an animated series on local and international television. * Datuk Abdul Aziz Shamsuddin (Abdul Aziz Shamsuddin) is the former Minister of Rural & Regional Development (31 March 2004 – 17 March 2008), a Rawa descendant of Gopeng, also the UMNO Gopeng Division Chief. * Amir Sofea, ex-singer rock band (Sofea) originally from Kampung Gunung Panjang. * The grandparents of the Malaysian rap trio KRU are the resident of Kampung Tersusun Kopisan Baru. Their grandfather named Abdul Wahab Fenner @ James Thomas Fenner died in 2006. * Dr Sun Yat Sen, the leader of the historic Chinese revolutionary leader, stayed in Gopeng briefly during the period 1909-1911. * Akil Hayy famous "Ustaz Rock" ex-singer for rock band (D'Riyadh) originally from Kampung Gunung Mesah Hilir. * Mr. Eu Kong Pui (1853–1892), founder of the traditional Chinese herbal medicine under the title of "Eu Yan Sang" * Rashid Maidin was born on October 10, 1917 in Kampung Gunung Mesah Hilir, Gopeng. He was one of the senior leaders in the Malayan Communist Party during the Second World War. He died at the age of 89 on September 1, 2006 in Sisakoin, Narathiwat, Thailand. * The grandfather of the champions of Akademi Fantasia, Season 8 finale concert, Shahir AF8 is the resident of Gopeng, Perak. 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of 7,500 and won a crucial battle against the Turks (army of between 7,000 to 13,000) at Grahovac (Grahovac, Montenegro) on 1 May 1858. The Turkish (Ottoman Empire) forces were routed. This victory forced the Great Powers to officially demarcate the borders between Montenegro and Ottoman Turkey (Ottoman Empire), de facto recognizing Montenegro's centuries-long independence. Montenegro gained Grahovo (Grahovac, Montenegro), Rudine (Rudine, Nikšić), Nikšić's Župa (Nikšićka Župa), more
territories had their borders formally established on request of Portugal in order to protect the centuries-long Portuguese interests in the continent from rivalries enticed by the Scramble for Africa. Portuguese Africa's cities and towns like Nova Lisboa, Sá da Bandeira (Lubango), Silva Porto (Kuito), Malanje, Tete, Vila Junqueiro, Vila Pery and Vila Cabral were founded or redeveloped inland during this period and beyond. New coastal towns like Beira, Mozambique Beira
and identification of its ruins remains open due largely to the centuries-long geomorphologic processes of the area as the lower reaches of the Rioni are prone to changes of course across the wetland. Phasis appears to have been an important center of trade and culture in Colchis throughout the Classical period. Lordkipanidze (2000), p. 50. Richard J. A. Talbert et al. (2000), p. 1227. The section along the river Phasis was a vital component of the presumed
of Roussillon. But his rule only extended over the eastern part of what became the later province. The western part, the Cerdanya (French, Cerdagne), was ruled in 900 by Miró as first count, and one of his grandsons, Bernat, became the first hereditary count of the middle portion, or Besalú. The Counts of Roussillon were allied to their cousins the Counts of Empúries in a centuries-long conflict with the surrounding great nobles. Count Girard I participated in the First Crusade in the following of Raymond IV of Toulouse, and was one of the first to set foot in Jerusalem when it was stormed by the Crusaders in 1099. At the beginning of the 12th century, the prestige of the Counts of Barcelona began to rise to such a height that the Counts of Roussillon had no choice but to swear fealty to them. In 1111, Ramon Berenguer III, Count of Barcelona, inherited the fief of Besalú, to which was added in 1117 Cerdanya. The possession of Roussillon by its last count, Girard II (Girard II of Roussillon), was challenged by his illegitimate brothers. To ensure that his brothers would not inherit his territories, in his will Girard II left all his lands to Alfonso II of Aragon, who took possession in 1172. Under the Aragonese monarchs (Crown of Aragon), economic and demographic growth of the region continued, and Collioure ( '''Gausfred I''' (died 991) was the count of Empúries and Rosselló (counts of Rosselló) from 931 until his death. He was the son and successor of Gausbert. He spent his whole life consolidating his authority in his counties, but he divided the realm amongst his sons. By his testament of 989, Empúries and Perelada went to Hugh (Hug I of Empúries) and Roussillon went to Giselbert (Giselbert I). Cornut initially worked as an architect for military fortifications in Roussillon. He then entered the service of the English Crown (United Kingdom), and participated to the Seven Years War. Later, based in Gibraltar, he was invited by Sidi Mohamed ben Abdallah (Mohammed ben Abdallah), an Alaouite Sultan, to build the city of Mogador (modern Essaouira) in 1766. The village produces Côtes du Luberon AOC wines - AOC stands for ''Appellation d'origine contrôlée'' (controlled designation of origin). Wines which are not AOC can be labelled, after approval, ''vin de pays d'Aigues''. The label ''vin de pays d'Aigues'' relates to the following village and towns in the Vaucluse department: Ansouis, Apt (Apt, Vaucluse), Auribeau, La Bastide-des-Jourdans, La Bastidonne, Beaumettes, Beaumont-de-Pertuis, Bonnieux, Buoux, Cabrières-d'Aigues, Cabrières-d'Avignon, Cadenet, Caseneuve, Castellet, Cavaillon, Cheval-Blanc, Cucuron, Gargas (Gargas, Vaucluse), Gignac (Gignac, Vaucluse), Gordes, Goult, Grambois, L'Isle-sur-la-Sorgue, Joucas, Lacoste, Lagarde-d'Apt, Lagnes, Lauris, Lioux, Lourmarin, Maubec (Maubec, Vaucluse), Ménerbes, Mérindol, Mirabeau (Mirabeau, Vaucluse), La Motte-d'Aigues, Murs (Murs, Vaucluse), Oppède, Pertuis, Peypin-d'Aigues, Puget, Puyvert, Robion, Roussillon, Rustrel, Saignon, Saint-Martin-de-Castillon, Saint-Martin-de-la-Brasque, Saint-Pantaléon (Saint-Pantaléon, Vaucluse), Saint-Saturnin-lès-Apt, Sannes, Saumane (Saumane-de-Vaucluse), Sivergues, Taillades, La Tour-d'Aigues, Vaugines, Viens (Viens, Vaucluse), Villars (Villars, Vaucluse), Villelaure, Vitrolles-en-Luberon. right 300px thumb A vineyard in Villeneuve-lès-Maguelone (File:Languedoc vineyard.jpg) bordering the Gulf of Lion. The history of Languedoc wines can be traced to the first vineyards planted along the coast near Narbonne by the early Greeks in the fifth century BC. Along with parts of Provence, these are the oldest planted vineyards in France. The region of Languedoc has belonged to France since the thirteenth century and the Roussillon was acquired from Spain in the mid-seventeenth century. The two regions were joined as one administrative region in the late 1980s.
for 'strawberry' - ''Jagoda''. From 1946 to 1992 the town was renamed '''''Svetozarevo''''' (Светозарево, ) after the 19th-century Serbian socialist Svetozar Marković. During the Serbian Revolution (1804–1817), when Serbs began their uprising against the centuries-long Ottoman rule, Jagodina was a scene of numerous battles, given the town's strategic importance within Serbia proper. Following the Ottoman defeat and re-establishment of the Kingdom of Serbia
century history 1912 saw an end to centuries long Ottoman rule as a result of the First Balkan War. Vučitrn and the entire surrounding area joined the Kingdom of Serbia that year in an event that would be internationally recognised the following year. However, by 1914, World War I had broken out and Vučitrn was occupied by Austria-Hungary; after the war when which the Central European powers had been driven out, Serbia joined the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes.
troops increased; on the eve of the military coup of 25 April 1974 (Carnation Revolution), Africans accounted for more than 50 percent of Portuguese forces fighting the war. Due to both the technological gap between civilisations and the centuries-long colonial era (Portuguese Empire), Portugal was a driving force in the development and shaping of all Portuguese Africa since the 15th century. In the 1960s and early 1970s, to counter the increasing insurgency of the nationalistic