Places Known For

centuries including


the oldest Sultanate (Warsangali Sultanate) amongst the Somali clans who inhabit the area comprising the former British Somaliland. thumb right 200px Mohamoud Ali Shire (File:Sultan Mohamoud Ali Shire 2.jpg), the 20th Sultan of the Warsangali Sultanate. The Darod clan has produced numerous noble (nobility) Somali men and women over the centuries, including many Sultans. Traditionally, the Darod population was mostly concentrated in the northern and northeastern cities on the Gulf


centuries, including examples from Kibéd (Chibed), Csejd (Cotuş), Makfalva (Ghindari), Szokolma, Marosvásárhely (Târgu Mureş), Csíkrákos (Racu), Mezőkeresztes, Nagybánya (Baia Mare), Torda (Turda), Felsőszemeréd Kecskemét and Kiskunhalas. The 11th-century settlements in Transylvania are characterized by small huts (Hut (dwelling)) with ceramic assemblages marked by clay cauldrons.<

Baia Mare

polluted. * The cities of Baia Mare and Sighetu Marmației. * The villages on the Iza, Mara, and Vișeu Valleys. There are a number of inscriptions ranging from the 17th to the early 19th centuries, including examples from Kibéd (Chibed), Csejd (Cotuş), Makfalva (Ghindari), Szokolma, Marosvásárhely (Târgu Mureş), Csíkrákos (Racu), Mezőkeresztes, Nagybánya (Baia Mare), Torda (Turda), Felsőszemeréd


and Antarctic expeditions of the 19th and 20th centuries, including that of Admiral Peary of the US, wore furs supplied by Hermansons, whose shop still stands in Haparanda, albeit closed now. Haparanda was the only open railway border crossing at the border to Russia during the World War I. Sports Haparanda Tornio play in the second tier bandy division in Sweden, allsvenskan (allsvenskan (bandy)). Haparanda hosted matches in the Bandy World Championship 2001. Other sports clubs located in Haparanda include: * Haparanda FF * Asplöven HC The impact of the Border thumb left 230px Memorial at Haparanda commemorating Finnish children evacuated to Sweden in World War II. The buildings on the right are in Tornio, Finland. (Image:Evacuation Memorial Haparanda.JPG) Relations between the neighbouring towns have always been friendly. A large portion of Haparanda's population speak both Swedish (Swedish language) and Finnish (Finnish language). Today the two towns are closely interconnected economically and socially; they constitute a transborder conurbation marketed as "EuroCity". Since Sweden and Finland are in different time zones, Haparanda is one hour behind Tornio. This allows a unique spectacle on New Years Eve, when people can welcome in the new year twice. Since 2005 the cities have rebranded themselves as "Haparanda-Tornio" in Sweden, and "Tornio-Haparanda" in Finland. Haparanda has a railway station, but the line is now only used for freight. The station buildings are used by a youth club, and occasionally for concerts. They include what were originally customs and border control posts. This was the only route open between Russia and Germany in World War I, and during World War II many of the approximately 80,000 Finnish children evacuated to Sweden entered the country here. Rail gauge thumb left The bridge over Torne river (File:Haparanda-Tornio rail bridge Sep2008.jpg) with dual gauge tracks (Gauntlet track). Haparanda is connected to the Swedish national network by the Haparandabanan (Haparanda railway). The bridge between Haparanda and Tornio is the only direct connection between the Swedish and Finnish rail systems. The two networks use different track gauges, requiring all freight wagons crossing the border to have their cargo reloaded or their bogies exchanged (Bogie exchange). There is a dual gauge track, in a Wikipedia:Haparanda Dmoz:Regional Europe Sweden Norrbotten County Localities Haparanda Commons:Category:Haparanda

Chinatown, Los Angeles

as 99 Price Market, it was a popular shopping area in the late 1980s but is now a largely abandoned building with only a few restaurants remaining Cultural institutions San Francisco's Chinatown is home to the Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association (known as the Chinese Six Companies), which is the umbrella organization for local Chinese family and regional associations in Chinatown. It has spawned lodges in other Chinatowns in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, including Chinatown

Colonial Brazil

Lisbon during the 15th to 17th centuries, including Vasco da Gama's expedition to India in 1497. In 1506, 3000 Jews (Sephardi Jews) were massacred in Lisbon. The 16th century was Lisbon's golden era: the city

Chinatown, San Francisco

Suspect was at scene but didn't fire gun, cops say publisher San Francisco Chronicle date June 20, 1998 accessdate September 16, 2012 Culture Cultural institutions San Francisco's Chinatown is home to the Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association (known as the Chinese Six Companies), which is the umbrella organization for local Chinese family and regional associations in Chinatown. It has spawned lodges in other Chinatowns in the late 19th and early 20th centuries

, including Chinatown, Los Angeles and Chinatown, Portland (Old Town Chinatown, Portland, Oregon). The Chinese Culture Center is a community based non-profit organization located on the third floor of a Holiday Inn. The Center promotes exhibitions about Chinese life in the United States and organizes tours of the area. The Chinese Historical Society of America is located on Clay. Autumn Moon Festival San Francisco Chinatown's annual Autumn Moon Festival celebrates seasonal


is an abbreviation of Bai-Yue (百越 or 百粵, literally hundred Yue's)." The form "Vietnam" ( WikiPedia:Hai Phong


WikiPedia:Miskolc Commons:Category:Miskolc


Roman Valentia Valencia is one of the oldest cities in Spain, founded in the Roman period under the name "Valentia Edetanorum" on the site of a former Iberian (Iberians) town, by the river Turia (Turia (river)) in the province of Edetania. 150px thumb left Roman Cornucopia, symbol of Valentia, found on the floor of a Roman building excavated in the Plaza de la Virgen. (File:Sello plaza de la virgen valencia.jpg) About two thousand Roman colonists were settled there in 138 BC during the rule of consul Decimus Junius Brutus Galaico (Junius Brutus). The Roman historian Florus says that Brutus transferred the soldiers who had fought under him to that province. This was a typical Roman city in its conception, as it was located in a strategic location near the sea on a river island crossed by the Via Augusta, the imperial road that connected the province to Rome, the capital of the empire. The centre of the city was located in the present-day neighbourhood of the Plaza de la Virgen. Here was the forum and the crossing of the Cardo Maximus and the Decumanus Maximus, which remain the two main axes of the city. The Cardo corresponds to the existing Calle de Salvador, Almoina and the Decumanus correspond to Calle de los Caballeros. Pompey razed Valentia to the ground in 75 BC to punish it for its loyalty to Sertorius (Quintus Sertorius). It was rebuilt around fifty years later with large infrastructure projects, and by the mid-first century, experienced rapid urban growth. Pomponius Mela called it one of the principal cities of the Tarraconensis (Hispania Tarraconensis) province. Valencia suffered a new period of decline in the third century, but an early Christian community arose there during the latter years of the Roman Empire, in the fourth century. Middle Ages ; Visigothic Period A few centuries later, coinciding with the first waves of the invading Germanic peoples (Suevi, Vandals and Alans, and later the Visigoths) and the power vacuum left by the demise of the Roman imperial administration, the church assumed the reins of power in the city and replaced the old Roman temples with religious buildings. With the Byzantine invasion of the southwestern Iberian peninsula in 554 the city acquired strategic importance. After the expulsion of the Byzantines in 625, Visigothic military contingents were posted there and the ancient Roman amphitheatre was fortified. Little is known of its history for nearly a hundred years; although this period is only scarcely documented by archeology, excavations suggest that there was little development of the city. During Visigothic times Valencia was an episcopal See of the Catholic Church, albeit a suffragan diocese subordinate to the archdiocese of Toledo, comprising the ancient Roman province of Carthaginensis in Hispania. ; Muslim Balansiya thumb Towers of Serranos (File:Puerta de los Serranos, Valencia, España, 2014-06-30, DD 86.JPG) The city surrendered without a fight to the invading Moors (Berbers and Arabs) in 714 AD, and the cathedral of Saint Vincent (Saint Vincent of Saragossa) was turned into a mosque. Abd al-Rahman I, the first emir of Cordoba, ordered the city destroyed, but several years later his son, Abdullah, had a form of autonomous rule over the province of Valencia. Among his administrative acts he ordered the building of a luxurious palace, the Russafa, on the outskirts of the city in the neighbourhood of the same name. So far no remains have been found. Also at this time Valencia received the name ''Medina al-Turab'' (City of Sand). When Islamic culture settled in, Valencia, then called ''Balansiyya'', prospered from the 10th century, due to a booming trade in paper, silk, leather, ceramics, glass and silver-work. The architectural legacy of this period is abundant in Valencia and can still be appreciated today in the remnants of the old walls, the ''Baños del Almirante'' bath house, Portal de Valldigna street and even the Cathedral and the tower, ''El Micalet'' ''(El Miguelete)'', which was the minaret of the old mosque. After the death of Almanzor (Al-Mansur Ibn Abi Aamir) and the unrest that followed, Muslim Al-Andalus disintegrated into numerous small states known as taifas, one of which was the Taifa of Valencia, which existed for four distinct periods: 1010 – 1065, 1075 – 1099, 1145 – 1147, and 1229 – 1238. thumb 200px left ''El Micalet'' or ''El Miguelete'' (File:Micalet1.jpg) Balansiyya had a rebirth of sorts with the beginning of the Taifa of Valencia kingdom in the 11th century. The town grew, and during the reign of Abd al-Aziz a new city wall was built, remains of which are preserved throughout the Old City ''(Ciutat Vella)'' today. The Castilian nobleman Rodrigo Diaz de Vivar, known as ''El Cid'', who was intent on possessing his own principality on the Mediterranean, entered the province in command of a combined Christian and Moorish army and besieged the city beginning in 1092. By the time the siege ended in May 1094, he had carved out his own fiefdom—which he ruled from 15 June 1094 to July 1099. This victory was immortalised in the ''Lay of the Cid (Cantar de Mio Cid)''. During his rule, he converted nine mosques into churches and installed the French monk Jérôme as bishop of the See of Valencia. He was killed in July 1099 while defending the city from an Almoravid siege, whereupon his wife Ximena Díaz (Jimena Díaz) ruled in his place for two years. The city remained in the hands of Christian troops until 1102, when the Almoravids (Almoravid dynasty) retook the city and restored the Muslim religion. Although the self-styled 'Emperor of All Spain', Alfonso VI of León and Castile, drove them from the city, he was not strong enough to hold it. The Christians set it afire before abandoning it, and the Almoravid Masdali took possession on 5 May 1109. The event was commemorated in a poem by Ibn Khafaja in which he thanked Yusuf ibn Tashfin for the city's liberation.The declining power of the Almoravids coincided with the rise of a new dynasty in North Africa, the Almohads (Almohad Caliphate), who seized control of the peninsula from the year 1145, although their entry into Valencia was deterred by Ibn Mardanis, King of Valencia and Murcia until 1171, at which time the city finally fell to the North Africans. The two Muslim dynasties would rule Valencia for more than a century. right thumb 150px Pennon of the Conquest (File:Peno de la conquesta.jpg), the flag raised by the Moors of Valencia on 1238 to indicate their surrender to the troops of king James I of Aragon. ;Christian Reconquest thumb right 210px James I of Aragon James I the Conqueror (File:Chaime I d'Aragón.jpg), King of Aragon In 1238, King James I

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