started in the late 1800s when Sam Wright came from Kemptville and opened a bakery business on Strachan Street. The article, which recounts the History of the Richmond Bakery was originally published in ''Richmond 150'' a book
published in 1968 for the 150th anniversary of the Village of Richmond and goes on to say that the original bakery was sold in 1900 to Sam Wright, who operated the business until 1926. In 1930, Harold Brown rented a bakeshop and opened the Richmond Bakery on McBean Street which had a wood-fired brick oven, a few utensils and a kerosene lamp for lighting because there was no electricity. All the water was hand pumped from a well and carried to the bakery. Bread sold for 3 cents a loaf to retailers
was officially established by royal decree in 1540. Diego Nájera was assigned as the area’s priest in 1592, and by the time he died in 1635, was highly regarded by the Mazahuas. He learned both the culture and the language of the Mazahua people he served. Nájera wrote “La Doctrina y Enseñanza en la Lengua Mazahua” as a guide for priests to teach the Catholic faith in the Mazahua language. It was published in 1637. It is the only known book published in this language. During the beginning of the Mexican War of Independence, Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla and his army passed through the municipality on his way to Mexico City. The parish priest of Jocotitlán, José Ignacio Muñiz y Acosta issued the formal edit excommunicating (Excommunication) Hidalgo. The following year, in 1811, the town of Jocotitlán was attacked by royalist forces under Juan Bautista de la Torre, eliminating the nascent insurgency here and leaving much of the town destroyed. However, a number of residents would still participate in the insurgency during the war, mostly under Francisco López Rayón. The adoption of the Cadiz Constitution (Spanish Constitution of 1812) in Spanish controlled lands was formally recognized in Jocotitlán on 7 July 1820. However, this constitution required the naming of municipal authorities although there was yet no municipality. This was rectified on 19 July, with the formation of an “ayuntamiento” or municipal council and the marking of territory which contained 1,000 people. The municipality was created by joining the haciendas of Tiacaque, Villeje, Pasteje, Nenanci and Caro. The towns and villages at that time were mostly communities of laborers on these haciendas. The first municipal president was C. Antonio del Valle. In 1823, some of its territory, called Tapaxco, was separated from the municipality. The State of Mexico ratified the establishment of the municipality in 1825. In the 19th century, political sentiment in the municipality leaned towards centralized government (as opposed to a federalist system), opposing Liberal leaders such as Valentín Gómez Farías. During the Reform War, they adhered to the Plan of Tacubaya, and Liberal forces sacked the town in 1859. That same year, there was also an uprising of the Mazahua population as well. During the reign of Maximilian I (Maximilian I of Mexico), a number of individuals gained control of large areas of land in the municipality. In the latter part of the century, there was a push to provide education, telegraph and telephone to the area, along with a number of public works. At the end of the century, it was the fourth most populous municipality in its district and participated in the World’s Fair in Chicago (World's Columbian Exposition), exhibiting its cereals production, along with others from the State of Mexico. No major battles of the Mexican Revolution occurred here, but a number of people who went to fight for the various rebel forces. However, the war caused widespread hunger in the area as the economy suffered. It also suffered epidemics and an earthquake in 1912. In 1913, a merchant and city official by the name of León Paniagua managed to get the town spared from an attack by a rebel group looking for sack the area. However, in 1915, a group of 200 Zapatistas (Liberation Army of the South) attacked taking money and supplies. After the war, the haciendas of the area were broken up and the land redistributed. The rest of the 20th century is dominated by economic change with the introduction of technology and industrialization a well as the urbanization of the municipal seat. From the 1930s to the 1960s, electricity was introduced, along with water pipes and the construction of schools. A theatre and library were also constructed. In the 1960s, a company named IUSA (Grupo Isuacell) bought much of the former hacienda of Pasteje, as part of a move of its operations away from Mexico City. The property was about five percent of the municipality’s territory, but it had no water or electrical services. The company had to drill its own wells and negotiate with authorities to get connected to the grid. The workers of the area at that time had no experience working in industry. The company set wages lower than the national average, but also opened schools and training courses to workers. Workers at that time were forbidden to travel to Toluca or Mexico City, likely to prevent them from knowing how low their wages were. Despite, the initial difficulties, this was the beginning of the Pasteje Industrial Park, and the start of the industrialization of the area’s economy. In the 1970s, the company established a school, which would eventually offer classes from high school technical school level all the way to preschool for local area youth, with much of the cost of attending paid for by local industries. The growth of the industrial park became the main impetus for the area’s population growth from then to the present. In 1983, the village of Jocotitlán was officially declared to be a town, with several smaller communities in the municipality elevated to village status. Starting from the 1990 Census, the municipality ceased to be officially considered a rural farming area, and considered to be industrial. Today, both are still part of the municipality’s economy. Infrastructure remains a problem as it lags behind need. The number of those with professional studies have increased due to the improvement of the area’s educational system. Geography and environment thumb View of the Jocotitlán Volcano (File:JocotitlanVolcano1.JPG) The municipality is located between Ixtlahuaca and Atlacomulco, fifty four kilometers north of the state capital of Toluca. This area is in the northwest of the state, in the Ixtlahuaca Valley, which is formed by small mountain chains that belong to the Sierra Madre Occidental, with some formations as a result of being on the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. Category:Municipalities of the State of Mexico Category:Populated places in the State of Mexico The earliest major civilization of the state is Teotihuacan, with the Pyramids of the Sun and Moon being built between 100 BCE and 100 CE. Between 800 and 900 CE, the Matlatzincas established their dominion with Teotenango as capital. This city is walled with plazas, terraces, temples, altars, living quarters and a Mesoamerican ball game court.In the 15th century, the Aztecs conquered the Toluca and Chalco valleys to the west and east of the Valley of Mexico respectively. Part of the Toluca Valley was held by the P’urhépechas (P'urhépecha) as well. Other dominions during the pre-Hispanic period include that of the Chichimecas in Tenayuca and of the Acolhuas in Huexotla (Texcoco, Mexico State), Texcotizingo and Los Melones. Other important groups were the Mazahuas in the Atlacomulco area. Their center was at Mazahuacán, next to Jocotitlán mountain. The Otomi (Otomi people)s were centered in Jilotepec.
' ('Yarns from Rauma'), which was also a name of a book published in 1920. This body of writings has been written in the dialect of Rauma, and they are regarded as the first Finnish language texts that have been actually written in a dialect which is not mainstream Finnish. The dialect of Rauma has a lot of vocabulary that is reminiscent of the old seafaring days and ties with Swedish, English and German speaking countries, and therefore is locally regarded as its own language. Nortamo's writings
Founding of Gravenhurst Nearby Muldrew Lake was named after the lake's second cottager, Dr. William Hawthorne Muldrew. He was the principal of the first Gravenhurst high school in 1894. In 1901 he published a book called ''Sylvan Ontario, A Guide to Our Native Trees and Shrubs''. It was the first book published on this subject in Ontario, and the drawings were his own. All the different types of trees and shrubs of Muskoka could be seen at the school, as he transplanted many of the specimens from Muldrew Lake. In 1942 the Royal Norwegian Air Force moved their training camp (Little Norway) from Toronto to Muskoka airfield near Gravenhurst. The Norwegians remained in Gravenhurst almost to the end of World War IIin 1945. Per Conradi Hansen, Little Norway - A message of Liberty to the Hills of Home, ISBN 978-82-997663-0-2 From 1940 to 1946 Gravenhurst was the site of Camp XX, the Gravenhurst Internment Camp, for Nazi Prisoners of War, known locally as "the Muskoka officers club". Before the war it was the Calydor Sanitarium. After the war it was turned into a TB sanitarium, again, and later became a kosher resort called The Gateway. Original townships The Town of Gravenhurst includes these original townships from the 1800s: * Wood Township (eastern half) * Morrison Township * Ryde Township * Muskoka Township Transportation Gravenhurst also declares itself the "Gateway to the Muskoka Lakes" and has a large gate bearing this message hanging over Muskoka District Road 420, the main road leading into town from Highway 11 (Ontario Highway 11). The gate had been removed but was rebuilt in 2009 and stands again at the south end of town. It is the home port of the ''RMS Segwun'', the oldest vessel powered by a working steam engine in North America. The Gravenhurst railway station along the Northlander line stopped passenger service in the Fall of 2012. Education Located on the shore of Lake Muskoka since 1949 Gravenhurst has been home to the Ontario Fire College. The College run by the Province of Ontario, under the Fire Marshall's Office, offers training and education programs which are based on the Ontario Fire Service Standards. Courses are available to members of any Ontario municipal fire department, whether full-time or volunteer. The campus also provides a location for Ontario Provincial Police marine and K-9 training. Public education consists of Gravenhurst High School, and two elementary schools administered by the Trillium Lakelands District School Board. '''Sparrow Lake''' is a lake located in the south-central region of the Province of Ontario, Canada. It is situated north-west of the town of Orillia and south of the town of Gravenhurst, Ontario and approximately 150 kilometres and a 1.5 hour drive north of the Greater Toronto Area. Sparrow Lake is the most southerly lake in the popular Muskoka tourist region. - align "center" '''South Muskoka Shield''' 2006 Gravenhurst (Gravenhurst, Ontario) Gravenhurst Centennial Centre - align "center"
Shandong People's Republic of China align center WEH align center ZSWH Weihai Airport - - Weihai ZSWH WEH Weihai Dashuibo Airport - ***Qingdao – Qingdao liuting International Airport ***Weihai – Weihai Airport ***Yantai – Yantai Laishan Airport History According to a description in a book published by HarperCollins The Chinese Art of T'ai Chi Ch'uan by Chee Soo
in the Macedonian First League, as well as the home ground of the Macedonia national football team on almost all occasions (the other venues rarely chosen being the Goce Delčev Stadium in Prilep, or SRC Biljanini Izvori in Ohrid). Although literature had, as mentioned, been written in the dialects of Macedonia before, arguably the most important book published in relation to the Macedonian language was ''On Macedonian Matters'' by Krste Misirkov, a native
of Thessaloníki. This dialect
. In a Swedish school book published in 1795 Islam was described as ''"the false religion that had been fabricated by the great deceiver Muhammad, to which the Turks to this day universally confess".'' thumb Ella Bohlin. (File:Ella Bohlin.jpg) '''Ella Bohlin''' (born 1979 in Jönköping, Sweden) is a Christian Democratic (Christian Democrats (Sweden)) politician in Sweden and was the leader of the Christian Democratic Youth League
'' by Milivoje Ivanisevic, president of the Belgrade Centre for Investigating Crimes Committed against the Serbs, estimates the number of people killed at around 1,200. * ''For the Honourable Cross and Golden Freedom'', a book published by the RS Ministry of Interior, referred to 641 Serb victims in the Bratunac-Srebrenica-Skelani region. *Phase 3: The Protection of Safe Areas- The next expansion of the mandate was on 16 April 1993 with United Nations Security Council Resolution 819 declaring the town of Srebrenica a "safe area" free "from armed attack or any other hostile act." William J. Durch and James A. Shear (1996). Faultlines: UN Operations in the Former Yugoslavia. New York: St. Martin’s Press In May 1993, Bihać, Sarajevo, Goražde, Žepa and Tuzla were also added as "safe areas". *The involvement of the British battalion, especially concerning the Ahmići massacre, has inspired the film ''Warriors (Warriors (TV series))'' by the BBC. *The involvement of the Dutch battalion (DutchBat) in Srebrenica inspired ''The Enclave''. *The involvement of the Canadian battalion (CanBat) in Krajina inspired ''Peacekeepers''. In April, 1993, Lagumdžija met with a group of citizens from Srebrenica who had journeyed through the Serb lines to Sarajevo. They informed him of the desperate situation of Srebrenica and the eastern Bosnian enclaves. In an effort to highlight the plight of Srebrenica, Lagumdžija suspended humanitarian aid donations for Sarajevo until aid was delivered to the eastern enclaves. A month later, UN (United Nations) Commander Philippe Morillon visited Srebrenica and declared the citizens under the protection of the UN. ''Ibid'', 266. In 1992, he was elected the Special Emissary of United Nations Organization to Bosnia and Herzegovina. In 1995, he resigned because of the idleness of great powers concerning war crimes in Bosnia, especially the assassination of few thousand men and boys in Srebrenica done by Serbian soldiers. He announced in his report breaking of human rights by all participants of this conflict. * The European Court of Human Rights agrees, for the first time, to hear cases brought against Russia by Chechen (Chechnya) civilians. (BBC) (ECHR press release) * Authorities in Republika Srpska, the Bosnian Serb division of Bosnia and Herzegovina, admit for the first time the actual scale of the 1995 Srebrenica massacre (Srebrenica massacre), providing a list of over 7,000 Muslim victims. The Bosnian Serb president admitted in June that Serb forces had committed the massacre, but did not give a specific number of victims. (BBC) (Melbourne Herald Sun) (Channel News Asia) * A Boeing 747 cargo plane, en route to Spain, crashes at the end of a runway at Halifax International Airport in Nova Scotia, Canada. All seven of the crew are confirmed dead in Canada's worst-ever air cargo crash. (CBC) The war in Bosnia brought major ethnic cleansing of non-Serbs from the regions that today make up the Republika Srpska: throughout Bosanska Krajina (notably the significant minority population of Bosniaks and Croats in Banja Luka, slight majority of Bosniaks in Prijedor), Bosnian Posavina (Croats as well as Bosniaks, from Brčko (Brčko (city)), Bosanski Brod, Doboj, Odžak, Derventa), eastern Bosnia (Bosniak majority population of Foča, Zvornik, Višegrad, Srebrenica, Žepa), eastern Herzegovina (Trebinje). During the Bosniak-Croat conflict, Bosniaks were ethnically cleansed by Croats and sometimes vice-versa in areas of Central Bosnia, central and eastern Herzegovina (Mostar and Stolac). The war in Croatia started in 1991, and was caused by the rebellion of Serbian (Serbs) population in Croatia, their wish to secede, hoping to form a Greater Serbia, and along with other Serb-occupied territories in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina unite with Serbia. During the war in Croatia, from 1991 to 1995 around 600,000 Serbs were ethnically cleansed from southern and eastern parts of country, they were forced out in waves, and the most known event was the operation storm, where 250.000 people fled in the course of 5 days. The Croatian operations Flash (Operation Flash) and Storm (Operation Storm) in 1995 was the instigator to widespread incidents, including rapes and murders of those who had chosen to stay, burning of houses, killing of livestock etc. in the purpose of ethnically cleansing these majority Serb areas, but UN, ICTY and international community didn't show any interest for that issue. Many of Croatias generals are indicted for these atrocities, and had the war time president Franjo Tudjman not died he would also be indicted according to Carla Del Ponte, the chief attorney of the Haag court, Serbia is now home to more than 800.000 refuges from Croatia, Bosnia (Bosnia and Herzegovina) and Kosovo, most of them are Serbs, but there are Roma (Romani people) (who are, in most cases, settled in cardbox ghettos around Serbian cities (most famous is Gazela situated under the Gazela bridge in Belgrade downtown)), Gorani (Gorani people), Albanians and Montenegrins as well. A few Chrysi Avyi members participated in the Bosnian War in the Greek Volunteer Guard (GVG), which was part of the Drina Corps of the Army of Republika Srpska. A few GVG volunteers were present in Srebrenica during the Srebrenica massacre (Srebrenica massacre#Non-Serb participants in the killings), and they raised a Greek flag (Flag of Greece) at a ruined church after the fall of the town. Michas, Takis;"Unholy Alliance", Texas A&M University Press: Eastern European Studies (College Station, Tex.) pp. 22 Spiros Tzanopoulos, a GVG sergeant who took part in the attack against Srebrenica, said many of the Greek volunteers participated in the war because they were members of Hrisi Avgi. 16 July 2005 article in Eleftherotypia. (in Greek) Chrysi Avyi members in the GVG were decorated by Radovan Karadžić, but — according to former Chrysi Avyi member Charis Kousoumvris — those who were decorated later left the party. The successful Partisan breakout helped their reputation as a viable fighting force with the local populace. Consequently they were able to replenish their losses with new recruits, regroup, and mount a series of counterattacks in eastern Bosnia, clearing Axis garrisons of Vlasenica, Srebrenica, Olovo, Kladanj and Zvornik in the following 20 days. The success of humanitarian intervention in international affairs is varied. As discussed above, humanitarian intervention is a contentious issue. Examples of humanitarian intervention illustrate, that in some cases intervention can lead to disastrous results, as in Srebrenica and Somalia. In other cases, a lack of clarity as to the rules of when intervention can occur has resulted in tragic inaction, as was witnessed during the Rwandan genocide. One example is of a successful humanitarian intervention and also of humanitarian principles being applied is East Timor which, prior to its independence, was plagued with massive human rights abuses by pro-Indonesian militias and an insurgency war led by indigenous East Timorese against Indonesian forces. A peacekeeping mission was deployed to safeguard the move to independence and the UN established the United Nations Transitional Administration in East Timor (UNTAET). This not only dealt with traditional security priorities, but also helped in nation building projects, coordinated humanitarian aid and civil rehabilitation, illustrating not only a successful humanitarian intervention but also a effective application of human security principles. The term '''Bosnian Genocide''' refers to either the genocide (Srebrenica massacre) committed by Bosnian Serb forces in Srebrenica in 1995 or the ethnic cleansing campaign (Ethnic cleansing in Bosnia) that took place throughout areas controlled by the Bosnian Serb Army during the 1992–1995 Bosnian War (war in Bosnia and Herzegovina). John Richard Thackrah (2008). '''The Routledge companion to military conflict since 1945'', Routledge Companions Series, Taylor & Francis, 2008, ISBN 0415363543, 9780415363549. pp. 81,82 "Bosnian genocide can mean either the genocide committed by the Serb forces in Srebrenica in 1995 or the ethnic cleansing during the 1992–95 Bosnian War" He was a high-profile foreign correspondent at Channel 4 News, serving as Moscow correspondent. He worked in Bosnia (Bosnia and Herzegovina) during the war (Bosnian War) there, including Srebrenica, and subsequently covered the trial (trial (law)) of Slobodan Milošević, work which won him two of his three Amnesty International awards. He also covered the war in Afghanistan and the status of the Uyghur (Uyghur people) in western China. A larger group of voters, however, voted "No" for reasons that were connected to the Constitution itself. 48 % thought the new Constitution was worse than the existing treaties, and 44 % cited the declining influence of the Netherlands in the EU, with the treaty as an important motivation. Linked to this was a fear of being dominated by the powerhouses of the European Union (particularly the United Kingdom, France and Germany). The perception of an aggressive and ruthless style on the part of the "Yes" campaign also put off many. The Minister of Justice, Piet Hein Donner, warned that a rejection would raise the chances of war and stated that "the C in CDA (Christian Democratic Appeal) '' for 'Christian' '' implies that you vote in favour of the constitution." The Minister for Economic Affairs, Laurens Jan Brinkhorst, said that "the lights would go off" in the case of a rejection and that The Netherlands would become "the Switzerland of Europe." The People's Party for Freedom and Democracy withdrew a controversial television broadcast, in which rejection was connected with the Holocaust, the genocide (Srebrenica massacre) in Srebrenica and the terrorist attacks (11 March, 2004 Madrid attacks) on March 11, 2004 in Madrid. This seriously damaged the "Yes" campaign. After breakup of Yugoslavia From 1992 to 1995 during the Bosnian War, Goražde was one of six Bosniak (Bosniaks) enclaves, along with Srebrenica and Žepa, surrounded and besieged by the Bosnian Serb Army. In April 1993 it was made into a United Nations Safe Area (United Nations Safe Areas) in which the United Nations was supposed to protect the civilian population from attack. Between March 30 and April 23, 1994, the Serbs launched a major offensive against the town. After air strikes against Serb tanks and outposts and a NATO ultimatum, Serbian forces agreed to withdraw their artillery and armored vehicles 20 km from the town. Regan Richard (1996). ''Just war: principles and cases''. CUA Press, p. 203. ISBN 0813208564 After the negotiation of the Dayton accords, a land corridor was established between Goražde and the Federation. On 11 July 1995, NATO aircraft attacked targets in the Srebrenica area of Bosnia-Herzegovina as identified by and under the control of the United Nations. WikiPedia:Srebrenica Dmoz:Regional Europe Bosnia_and_Herzegovina Localities Srebrenica Commons:Category:Srebrenica
1980 to 1988, he represented his then hometown Cleckheaton as a councillor - during that time he was chairman of the housing committee and the social services committee and was deputy leader of Kirklees Council (Kirklees). In the 1987 election, he contested the Hexham (Hexham (UK Parliament constituency)) seat. - 11 Kirklees 409,800 Metropolitan borough West Yorkshire - In 2007, Ian McMillan (Ian McMillan (poet)) wrote a book published by HarperCollins called