century the disciples of Columbanus and other Scottish and Irish missionaries founded several monasteries or ''Schottenklöster'' in what are now France, Germany, Belgium, and Switzerland. The Irish influence in these monasteries is reflected in the adoption of Insular (Insular art) style in book production, visible in 8th-century works such as the Gelasian Sacramentary. The Insular (Insular script) influence on the uncial script of the later Merovingian period eventually gave way to the development of the Carolingian minuscule in the 9th century. Society The most dramatic change in medieval Gaul was the collapse of trade and town life. While many "towns" existed in the Dark Ages (Dark Ages (historiography)), they were usually only the fortified villages or market-centers surrounding government or religious buildings; many of these towns were descended from Roman cities. There were, however, improvements in agriculture, notably the adoption of a new heavy plough and the growing use of the three-field system. Currency Byzantine coinage was in use in Francia before Theudebert I began minting his own money at the start of his reign. The solidus (solidus (coin)) and triens were minted in Francia between 534 and 679. The denarius (or denier (French denier)) appeared later, in the name of Childeric II and various non-royals around 673–675. A Carolingian denarius replaced the Merovingian one, and the Frisian penning (Pfennig), in Gaul from 755 to the eleventh century. The denarius subsequently appeared in Italy issued in the name of Carolingian monarchs after 794, later by so-called "native" kings in the tenth century, and later still by the German Emperors (Holy Roman Empire) from Otto I (Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor) (962). Finally, denarii were issued in Rome in the names of pope and emperor from Leo III (Pope Leo III) and Charlemagne onwards to the late tenth century. ) is the reversed base of an ancient Ionic (Ionic order) column that played an important role in the ceremony surrounding the installation (Carantania#The Ducal Inauguration) of the princes of Carantania in the Early Middle Ages. After the incorporation into the Frankish Empire (Francia) the procedure held in Slovene language was continued as the first part of the coronation of the Dukes of Carinthia (Duchy of Carinthia), followed by a mass (mass (liturgy)) at Maria Saal cathedral and the installation at the Duke's chair, where he swore an oath in German (German language) and received the homage of the estates. History Several sources attest the existence of a distinctive Gallican rite in the Frankish (Franks) lands between the 5th and 9th centuries. The Celtic Rite and Mozarabic rite, which are liturgically related to the Gallican, are sometimes collectively referred to as "Gallican" as opposed to the different structure of the Roman rite (Roman Rite). Lack of a central authority led to the development of local traditions of the Gallican rite in Francia, sharing a basic structure but varying in details. These traditions endured until the Carolingian dynasty. During a papal visit in 752-3, Pope Stephen II had Mass (Eucharist) celebrated using Roman chant. According to Charlemagne, his father Pepin (Pippin the Younger) and Chrodegang of Metz abolished the Gallican rites in favor of the Roman use, in order to strengthen ties with Rome that would culminate in Charlemagne's elevation to Holy Roman Emperor. Charlemagne completed the job his father had begun, so that by the 9th century the Gallican rite and chant had effectively been eliminated. However, the Roman chant brought to the Carolingian churches was incomplete, and ended up incorporating musical and liturgical elements from the local Gallican traditions. The resulting Carolingian chant, which developed into Gregorian chant, was a Romanized chant, but one in which traces of the lost Gallican repertory may still be found.
Benedict , Saint Maurus. Returning to Fulda two years later, he was entrusted with the principal charge of the school, which under his direction became one of the most preeminent centers of scholarship and book production in Europe, and sent forth such pupils as Walafrid Strabo, Servatus Lupus of Ferrières (Loup de Ferrières), and Otfrid of Weissenburg. At this period he probably compiled his excerpt from the grammar of Priscian, a popular text book during the Middle Ages
and Nikolai Burliuk, Elena Guro, Vasili Kamenski and Velimir Khlebnikov, the Russian futurists created a sustained series of artists' books that challenged every assumption of orthodox book production. Whilst some of the books created by this group would be relatively straightforward typeset editions of poetry, many others played with form, structure, materials and content that still seems contemporary. '''Alexandrov Sloboda''' (the former name of the settlement) served
intelligence and insinuating counter-intelligence '''Piero Sraffa''' (August 5, 1898 – September 3, 1983) was an influential Italian (Italy) economist whose book ''Production of Commodities by Means of Commodities'' is taken as founding
Hope". '''Waldfeucht''' is a municipality in the district Heinsberg (Heinsberg (district)), in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It is situated on the border with the Netherlands, approx. 15 km south of Roermond and 8 km west of Heinsberg. thumb Klingspor-Museum (Image:Klingspor-Museum.jpg) The '''Klingspor-Museum''' is a museum in Offenbach (Offenbach am Main), Germany, for the art of modern book production, typography and type. It includes a collection of the fine art books from Karl Klingspor, one of the owners of Gebr. Klingspor type foundry in Offenbach, built the basis to this museum. The museum hosts the work of famous type designers like Rudolf Koch, Otto Eckmann, Peter Behrens, Walter Tiemann, Rudo Spemann, Imre Reiner, Hans Bohn, Karlgeorg Hoefer, Ernst Schneidler, Rudo Spemann, Werner Bunz and Georg Trump. thumb upright Johann Zahn (1687). (File:Fotothek df tg 0001899 Porträt.jpg) '''Johann Zahn''' (1641, Karlstadt am Main – 1707) was the seventeenth-century German (Germany) author of ''Oculus Artificialis Teledioptricus Sive Telescopium'' (Würzburg, 1685). This work contains many descriptions and diagrams, illustrations and sketches of both the camera obscura and magic lantern, along with various other lanterns, slides (Photographic slide), projection (Slide projector) types, peepshow boxes (peep show), microscopes, telescopes, reflectors, and lenses. As a student of light, Zahn is considered the most prolific writer and illustrator of the camera obscura. The station was closed some weeks prior to the surrender of Germany and the hangars were used by No.35 MU for storage and the flying field reverted to back to agricultural use. Years later the A16 was being improved and a bypass for the village of Holton-le-Clay cut into a large proportion of the station. Commons:Category:Germany Wikipedia:Germany Dmoz:Regional Europe Germany
, such as Australia and New Zealand, applications for British passports can be submitted in person at the counter in a number of post office branches. Passport book production is limited to the UK from 2010. '''''Petalostigma''''' is a genus of plants under the family (family (biology)) Picrodendraceae and the monogeneric subtribe '''Petalostigmatinae''', first defined by von Mueller in 1857. It has seven