Places Known For

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Bács-Bodrog County

. Between 1849 and 1872, it was again part of the Military Frontier, and after 1872, it came under civil administration as a part of the Bács-Bodrog County within the Habsburg Kingdom of Hungary (part of Austria-Hungary). *Bačka. The coat of arms of Bačka was granted by Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor (1657-1705) in 1699. It was later (1861) retained for the Batsch-Bodrog County (Bács-Bodrog County). In blue field on a green grass stands Saint Paul (Paul of Tarsus) wearing blue shirt and brown toga with golden nimbus holding in dexter a downpointed silver sword with golden hilt and in sinister a black book (Bible). The Bačka-Bodrog county was divided between Yugoslavia and Hungary after World War I. The northern part of it was later incorporated into Bács-Kiskun county of Hungary, that also uses the coat of arms with St. Peter in its dexter half. thumb left Oil drilling facilities near Srbobran (File:Oil drilling facilities near Srbobran, Vojvodina, Serbia.jpg) According to archeology, there was human settlement in the territory of present-day Srbobran in the prehistoric times. The first written record about the settlement is from 1338, in which the Srbobran is mentioned under name ''Sentomas'', which means Saint Thomas (Thomas (Apostle)), i.e. the apostle Thomas, who was the patron saint of a monastery and of the village around it in the Middle Ages. During this time, the area was under administration of the medieval Kingdom of Hungary and was part of the Bacsensis County (Bács-Bodrog County). This village, together with the monastery, became destroyed during the Ottoman (Ottoman Empire) conquest in the 16th century. Its former population left the region and fled towards North to Habsburg Royal Hungary. During the Ottoman administration, the settlement of Sentomaš was rebuilt and was populated by ethnic Serbs. It was part of the Ottoman Sanjak of Segedin. After the Bačka region was captured by Habsburg (Habsburg Monarchy) troops led by Prince Eugene of Savoy in the end of the 17th century, a settlement was included into Habsburg Monarchy and was populated by new colonists, mainly by ethnic Serbs from the South, but also (since the second half of the 18th century) by ethnic Hungarians from the North, who became the second largest ethnic group in the settlement (after Serbs). The settlement was part of the Military Frontier until 1751, when it came under the civil administration. A document from 1751 indicates that besides name ''Sentomaš'', the name ''Srbograd'' (Serb Town) was also used as a non-official denomination for the town. The development of the town was fast; in 1787 its population was 3,532, while in 1836 this number rose to 11,321. From 1751, the town was part of the Theiss District (District of Potisje) within the Batsch-Bodrog County (Bács-Bodrog County) and the Habsburg Kingdom of Hungary. Until the middle of the 19th century, the settlement was part of the Batsch-Bodrog County (Bács-Bodrog County) within the Habsburg Kingdom of Hungary. In 1848-1849 it was part of the autonomous Serbian Vojvodina and from 1849 to 1860 it was part of the Voivodeship of Serbia and Banat of Temeschwar, a separate Habsburg crownland. After abolishment of the voivodeship in 1860, the settlement was again included into Batsch-Bodrog County (Bács-Bodrog County). In the second half of the 19th century some Rusyns (Pannonian Rusyns) were settled here as well. After 1867, colonization of Hungarians was intensified, and until the beginning of the 20th century they replaced Serbs as largest ethnic group in Kula. According to the 1910 census the population of Kula was ethnically mixed: from the total population of 9,119 there was 3,679 speakers of Hungarian (Hungarian language), 2,510 speakers of Serbian (Serbian language), 2,425 speakers of German (German language), and 456 speakers of Rusyn (Pannonian Rusyn language). Until the middle of the 19th century, the settlement was part of the Batsch-Bodrog County (Bács-Bodrog County) within the Habsburg Kingdom of Hungary. In 1848-1849 it was part of the autonomous Serbian Vojvodina and from 1849 to 1860 it was part of the Voivodeship of Serbia and Banat of Temeschwar, a separate Habsburg crownland. After abolishment of the voivodeship in 1860, the settlement was again included into Batsch-Bodrog County (Bács-Bodrog County). In the second half of the 19th century some Rusyns (Pannonian Rusyns) were settled here as well. After 1867, colonization of Hungarians was intensified, and until the beginning of the 20th century they replaced Serbs as largest ethnic group in Kula. According to the 1910 census the population of Kula was ethnically mixed: from the total population of 9,119 there was 3,679 speakers of Hungarian (Hungarian language), 2,510 speakers of Serbian (Serbian language), 2,425 speakers of German (German language), and 456 speakers of Rusyn (Pannonian Rusyn language). History Tovariševo is one of the old Serb (Serbs) communities of Vojvodina, first mentioned in 1543, during Ottoman (Ottoman Empire) administration. It administratively was part of the Ottoman Sanjak of Segedin. In the end of the 17th century, the village was abandoned, but was repopulated in the beginning of the 18th century, during Habsburg (Habsburg Monarchy) administration. A description from the end of the 18th century (by András Vályi) states that ''"Tovarisova is a Rac (Raci (ethnonym))'' (Serb (Serbs)) ''village in Bács county (Bács-Bodrog County). The landowner is the Royal Hungarian Chamber and the population follows the old faith'' (i.e. Orthodox (Serbian Orthodoxy)). ''The black soil gives wheat, barley and oats, the village has an oak forest and a bad vineyard; it hasn't any water, but after the long autumn rains the soil became sodden; it lacks reed but it has silk-beetles. The nearest market-town is Újvidék ''(Novi Sad)'', where people can earn money from the sale of cattle."'' Until 1848, the village was part of the Batsch-Bodrog County (Bács-Bodrog County) within the Habsburg Kingdom of Hungary. In 1848-1849 it was part of autonomous Serbian Vojvodina, while from 1849 to 1860, it was part of the Voivodeship of Serbia and Banat of Temeschwar, which was a separate Habsburg crownland. After abolishment of the voivodeship, in 1860, the village was again included into Batsch-Bodrog County (Bács-Bodrog County). birth_date November 11, 1855 birth_place Zenta (Senta) (Serbian: Senta), Batsch-Bodrog County (Bács-Bodrog County), Kingdom of Hungary, Austrian Empire death_date August 13, 1906 History The village was firstly mentioned in 1457. In this time it was under administration of the medieval Kingdom of Hungary and was part of the Bács (Bács-Bodrog County) (Bač) county. In the 16th-17th century, it was under administration of the Ottoman Empire and was part of the Sanjak of Segedin, firstly within the Budin Eyalet (Budin Province, Ottoman Empire) and later within the Egir Eyalet. During this time it was populated by ethnic Serbs. Until the middle of the 19th century, the village was part of the Batsch-Bodrog County (Bács-Bodrog County) within the Habsburg Kingdom of Hungary. In 1848-1849 it was part of the autonomous Serbian Vojvodina and from 1849 to 1860 it was part of the Voivodeship of Serbia and Banat of Temeschwar, a separate Habsburg crownland. After abolishment of the voivodeship in 1860, the village was again included into Batsch-Bodrog County (Bács-Bodrog County). According to 1910 census, most of the inhabitants of the village spoke Slovak language. Until the middle of the 19th century, the village was part of the Batsch-Bodrog County (Bács-Bodrog County) within the Habsburg Kingdom of Hungary. In 1848-1849 it was part of the autonomous Serbian Vojvodina and from 1849 to 1860 it was part of the Voivodeship of Serbia and Banat of Temeschwar, a separate Habsburg crownland. After abolishment of the voivodeship in 1860, the village was again included into Batsch-Bodrog County (Bács-Bodrog County). According to 1910 census, most of the inhabitants of the village spoke Slovak language. In the end of the 17th century, the region of Bačka was captured by the Habsburg Monarchy and in the second half of the 18th century Crvenka was mentioned as a small settlement. It was colonized by Serbs, Hungarians and Germans. Until the middle of the 19th century, the town was part of the Batsch-Bodrog County (Bács-Bodrog County) within the Habsburg Kingdom of Hungary. In 1848-1849 it was part of the autonomous Serbian Vojvodina and from 1849 to 1860 it was part of the Voivodeship of Serbia and Banat of Temeschwar, a separate Habsburg crownland. After abolishment of the voivodeship in 1860, the town was again included into Batsch-Bodrog County (Bács-Bodrog County). According to 1910 census, most of the inhabitants of the town spoke German language. In the end of the 17th century, the region of Bačka was captured by the Habsburg Monarchy and in the second half of the 18th century Crvenka was mentioned as a small settlement. It was colonized by Serbs, Hungarians and Germans. Until the middle of the 19th century, the town was part of the Batsch-Bodrog County (Bács-Bodrog County) within the Habsburg Kingdom of Hungary. In 1848-1849 it was part of the autonomous Serbian Vojvodina and from 1849 to 1860 it was part of the Voivodeship of Serbia and Banat of Temeschwar, a separate Habsburg crownland. After abolishment of the voivodeship in 1860, the town was again included into Batsch-Bodrog County (Bács-Bodrog County). According to 1910 census, most of the inhabitants of the town spoke German language.


Taghaza

This maritime trade competed with the trans-Saharan gold trade. Economy There were integrated kingdoms and empires, with substantial cities and significant towns; and less organised territories with large scattered populations. People practised agriculture, stock-rearing, hunting, fishing, slaving, and crafts (metalworking, textiles, ceramics). They navigated along rivers and across lakes, trading over short and long distances, using their own currencies. Like in many other regions across Africa, powerful indigenous kingdoms along the Bight of Benin relied heavily on a long established slave trade (African slave trade). The Ashanti (The Ashanti) exploited their military predominance to bring slaves to coastal forts established first by Portugal after 1480, and afterwards by the Dutch (Netherlands), Danish (Denmark), and English (England). The slaving network quickly expanded deep


Bishopric of Würzburg

of his daughter Augusta with Eugène de Beauharnais. On March 15, 1806 he ceded the Duchy of Berg (Berg (state)) to Napoleon. thumb right Coat of arms of Lower Franconia (Image:Unterfranken Wappen.svg) The Coat of Arms includes the Arms of Duchy of Franconia in the upper portion, the “Rennfähnlein,” a banner, quarterly argent (silver) and gules (red), on a lance or (gold), in bend, on an azure (blue) field, associated with Würzburg (Bishopric of Würzburg) in the lower left quadrant


Berdyansk

, in a green field a silver nogay's nomad tent and the black plough, meaning a seminomadic life lodged in this district Nogays and employment with tillage of other local residents, and in the bottom part, on a blue field – a black anchor which symbolised affinity of the given district to the sea are represented. By this time the customs outpost here has been opened. From Mariupol and Odessa some foreign representatives (negotiators) with their offices on purchase and grain sending for the seas-oceans


Sijilmasa

for centuries by successive Ziyyanid sultans. Delfina S. Ruano (2006), ''Hafsids'', in Josef W Meri (ed.), ''Medieval Islamic Civilization: an Encyclopedia''. Routledge., p. 309. Its flag was a white crescent pointing upwards on a blue field. During the Middle Ages, Tlemcen not only served as a trading city connecting the "coastal" route across the Maghreb with the trans-Saharan caravan routes, I. Hrbek (1997), ''The disintegration of political unity in the Maghrib'', in Joseph Ki-Zerbo & Djibril T Niane (eds.) (1997), ''General History of Africa, vol. IV: Africa from the Twelfth to the Sixteenth Century'' (abridged ed.) UNESCO, James Curry Ltd., and Univ. Calif. Press., pp. 34-43. S.M. Cissoko (1997), ''The Songhay from the twelfth to the sixteenth century'', in Joseph Ki-Zerbo & Djibril T Niane (eds.) (1997), ''General History of Africa, vol. IV: Africa from the Twelfth to the Sixteenth Century'' (abridged ed.) UNESCO, James Curry Ltd., and Univ. Calif. Press., pp. 77-86. but also housed a European trading center (funduk) which connected African and European merchants. Talbi (1997: 29). In particular, Tlemcen was one of the points through which African gold (arriving from south of the Sahara via Sijilmasa or Taghaza) entered the European hands. Id. Consequently, Tlemcen was partially integrated into the European financial system. So, for example, Genoese bills of exchange (Bill of Exchange) circulated there, at least among merchants not subject to (or not deterred by) religious prohibitions. Fernand Braudel (1979), ''Civilization and Capitalism, 15th-18th Century: Vol. III: The Perspective of the World''. Transl. Sian Reynolds. Univ. Calif. Press & HarperCollins (1992), p. 66. The importance of these materials for reconstructing the social and economic history for the period between 950 and 1250 cannot be overemphasized. Judaic scholar Shelomo Dov Goitein created an index for this time period which covers about 35,000 individuals. This included about 350 "prominent people," among them Maimonides and his son Abraham (Avraham son of Rambam), 200 "better known families", and mentions of 450 professions and 450 goods. He identified material from Egypt, Palestine, Lebanon, Syria (but not Damascus or Aleppo), Tunisia, Sicily, and even covering trade with India. Cities mentioned range from Samarkand in Central Asia to Seville and Sijilmasa, Morocco to the west; from Aden north to Constantinople; Europe not only is represented by the Mediterranean port cities of Narbonne, Marseilles, Genoa and Venice, but even Kiev and Rouen are occasionally mentioned. Dov Goitein, Shelomo. ''A Mediterranean Society: The Jewish Communities of the Arab World as Portrayed in the Documents of the Cairo Geniza'' '''Taghaza''' (also '''Teghaza''') is an abandoned salt-mining centre located in a salt pan (Dry lake) in the desert region of northern Mali. It was an important source of rock salt for West Africa up to the end of the 17th century when it was abandoned and replaced by Taoudenni. Salt from the mines formed an important part of the long distance trans-Saharan trade. Taghaza is located The Fatimids turned westward in 911 CE, destroying the imamate of Tahert and conquering Sijilmasa in Morocco. Ibadi Kharijite refugees from Tahert fled south to the oasis at Ouargla. All this had been done by him to prepare for the appearance of Ubayd Allah al-Mahdi Billah, the ''imam (Shia Imam)''-caliph of the Fatimids. Al-Mahdi was rescued from a prison in Sijilmasa (present-day Morocco) and proclaimed as caliph, ruling from the former residence of the Aghlabids.


Province of Hanover

of Celle (Landkreis Celle). Coat of arms The ''Oberpräsident'' of the Province of Hanover awarded the then municipality of Munster, in a decree of 4 March 1937, a coat of arms. The coat of arms displayed on a gold field a blue dragon with red claws breathing red fire; above it lay a horizontal silver sword on a blue field. As a result of a petition by the council of the municipality of Munster of 18 April 1967 the District President (''Regierungspräsident'') in Lüneburg on 17 May 1967, authorised the field of the 1937 coat of arms to be changed from gold to silver and further authorised a town flag in the colours blue and white to be used. thumb Gustav Wyneken. (File:Gustav Wyneken.png) '''Gustav Wyneken''' (March 19, 1875, Stade, Province of Hanover  – December 8, 1964, Göttingen, Lower Saxony) was a German (Germany) educational reformer, free thinker (Freethought) and charismatic leader. His ideas and practice on education and youth became highly influential but were also controversial. After the French (First French Empire) victory over the electorate the Neuhaus area became part of the ephemeric Kingdom of Westphalia in early 1810, forming part of its ''Lower Elbe département''. When after the Great French War the bulk of Saxe-Lauenburg was separated from Hanover in 1815, the Neuhaus area, however, remained with Hanover, which had been elevated to Kingdom of Hanover the year before. After the Prussian annexation of Hanover Neuhaus became a part of the new Province of Hanover in 1866. At the introduction of Prussian style district administration (Kreis in Prussia) in Hanover on 1 April 1885 Neuhaus area became part of the Bleckede district, merged into the District of Lunenburg (Lüneburg) (Lüneburg (district)) on 1 October 1932. Karl August Wittfogel was born 6 September 1896 at Woltersdorf (Woltersdorf, Lower Saxony), in Lüchow, Province of Hanover. Wittfogel left school in 1914. He studied philosophy, history, sociology, geography at Leipzig University and also in Munich, Berlin and Rostock and in 1919 again in Berlin. From 1921 he studied sinology in Leipzig. In between Wittfogel was drafted into a Signal Corps Unit (''Fernmeldeeinheit'') in 1917 See the useful Wittfogel page of his high school, the Johanneum (Gelehrtenschule des Johanneums), Lüneburg and esp. Ulrich Menzel's excellent online presentation in the ''Personenlexikon Internationale Beziehungen virtuell''. ), combining the territorially unconnected former Hanoveran departments of Ilfeld and Elbingerode. By the Prussian reform of districts in 1932 the ''District of Ilfeld'' was dissolved and its two territorially unconnected parts were disentangled from Hanover and transferred to the Prussian Province of Saxony, with the Hohnstein section including Ilfeld becoming a part of the ''District of the County of Hohenstein'' (sic!), which comprised those parts of the ancient Hohnstein County, which had remained with the Prince-Bishopric of Halberstadt in 1632. Herzfeld was born in Celle, Province of Hanover. He studied architecture in Munich and Berlin (Technical University of Berlin), while also taking classes in Assyriology, ancient history and art history. In 19th century Hanover In 1823 the Kingdom of Hanover, then in personal union with the UK, adopted the term for its administrative subdivisions called Landdrostei en (sg. pl. ), each presided by a Landdrost, with those terms then translated into English as High-Bailiwick and High-Bailiff. Cf. Jakob Heinrich Kaltschmidt, ''A new and complete Dictionary of the English and German Languages with two Sketches of Grammar Neues vollständiges Wörterbuch der englischen und deutschen Sprache nebst einem kurzen Abrisse der englischen und der deutschen Sprachlehre'', 6th, rev. and enriched ed., Leipsic: Otto Holtze, 1875, p. 283. No ISBN On 1 April 1885 the terms were replaced in Hanover (Province of Hanover) by the terms Regierungsbezirk (governorate) and Regierungspräsident (gubernator). Life Syrup was born in Lüchow in Lüchow-Dannenberg district, Province of Hanover. The postal official's son studied engineering science as well as law and political science. In 1905, he joined the Prussian Industrial Inspection Service, staying until 1918, and making a name for himself in this time with various scientific publications on issues such as occupational health and safety and the work force's social status. In November 1918, Syrup was delegated by the Prussian Ministry for Trade and Industry to the Demobilization Ministry, where he was responsible for reintegrating former warriors into civilian industrial life. While in this job, Syrup created the Reich Office for Work Placement, whose president he was appointed in 1920. From 1927 until the end of 1938, he was president of the Reich institution for Work Placement and Unemployment Insurance. When the central office of the hitherto autonomous institution was integrated into the Reich Labour Ministry, Syrup was appointed State Secretary in this ministry. After the French (First French Empire) victory over the electorate Bleckede was occupied, before it was annexed to the ephemeric Kingdom of Westphalia in March 1810, forming part of its ''Lower Elbe département''. After the Great French War (Napoleonic Wars) Bleckede was restored to the Electorate of Hanover in 1813, which was elevated to Kingdom of Hanover two years later. After the Prussian annexation of Hanover Bleckede became a part of the new Province of Hanover in 1866. At the introduction of Prussian style district administration (Kreis in Prussia) in Hanover on 1 April 1885 Bleckede became the capital of the new ''Bleckede district'', which merged into the District of Lunenburg (Lüneburg) (Lüneburg (district)) on 1 October 1932.


Enontekiö


Thule Air Base

in November, 1952 and placed under the control of Northeast Air Command (NEAC). One flight from the 59th FIS was kept at Thule Air Base to back up the DEW Line. 1968 – Cold War: A Boeing B-52 Stratofortress B-52


Principality of Stavelot-Malmedy

--- image_coat Stavelot coat of arms.jpg coat_alt Coat of arms. On a blue field, the upper half shows a man, robed in red, with a bishop's staff in his left hand, a church building in his right; the lower half shows a wolf, with pannier sacks on his back. image_map Locator Principality of Stavelot-Malmedy (1560).svg image_map_caption Stavelot-Malmedy, as at 1560, within the Lower Rhenish–Westphalian Circle image_map_alt


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