and environmentalist Archaeological heritage * Ancient Rajbari(1737–38) at Puranbagh, Baniachang * Bagala Matar Mandir, Habiganj * Baniachong village (the biggest village in Asia) * Bibir Dargah Mosque, Baniachang * Bikhangal Akhra, Baniachang * Dorga-tila, Mira-tila and Tangee-tila, Nabiganj * Foltoli-tila and water fountain, Nabiganj * Jami Mosque, Bahubal * Kalibari, Habiganj Sadar * Kuri-tila, Black-stone and an Ancient Rajbari, Dinarpur, Nabiganj * Mashulia Akhra, Habiganj Sadar * Monument for the freedom-fighters, Teliapara tea garden * Mosque of Uchail, built by Mojlishe Amin,habiganj by azaz * Murarbandar Dargah Sharif, Chunarughat * Putijuri Jami Mosque, Bahubal * Ramakrishna Ashram, Habiganj Sadar * Rashidpur Tea Garden, Bahubal Upazila * Shagor Dighi, Baniachong * Shajeerbazar, Chunarughat * Sham-baoul Akhra and Doulotpur Akhra, Baniachang * Tea gardens in the valleys * War of Liberation Mass Grave, Nabiganj * War of Liberation Memorial Monument, Nabiganj See also *Districts of Bangladesh *Sylhet Division References Geography and climate Sylhet District has an area of 3,490 km²; and is bounded by the districts of Maulvi Bazar, Sunamganj (Sunamganj District), Habiganj (Habiganj District) along with Cachar (Cachar District) and Karimganj (Karimganj District) districts of India. * Expansion needed (updated by bot) ** 235 - 1979 in India, 2005 Men's Champions Trophy (field hockey), Abahani Krira Chakra, Alaol, Apodization, Bagerhat District, Bangalore IT.COM, Bangladesh Army, Bangladesh Betar, Bangladesh Military Academy, Bangladesh Rifles, Banning of Tamil language media importation, Barguna District, Bhola District, Bogra District, Brahmanbaria District, Brajalal College, Brajamohan College, Brojen Das, Caste system in Kerala, Centre for Railway Information Systems, Chand Raat, Chandpur District, Chittagong District, Chittranjan Locomotive Works, Constitution of Bangladesh, Constitution of Sri Lanka, Cuisine of Kashmir, Culture of Bangladesh, Dasa sil mata, Dhaka District, Dinajpur District, Bangladesh, DishTV, Dish TV India, Education in Bangladesh, Elaan, Elections in Bangladesh, Elections in India, Embroidery of India, Exim Bank (India), Fall of Sassanids, Faridpur District, Filmfare Awards, Folklore of India, Gaibandha District, Gazipur District, Goan houses, Goan literature, Godavari Class Frigate, Gota, Governors of Mizoram, H. 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of the village on the summit of the mountains, lay the remains of the Crusader (Crusades) fortress of Magdala (later known as ''Qal'at Na'la'' ("the fortress of Na'la"). On the lakeshore about Category:Ancient villages in Israel Category:Ancient synagogues in the Land of Israel Category:Archaeological sites in Israel Category:Arab villages depopulated during the 1948 Arab–Israeli War Category:Biblical places Category:New Testament places Category:District of Tiberias * Magdala Gadar—One Magdala was in the east, on the River Yarmouk (Yarmouk River) near Gadara (in the Middle Ages "Jadar", now Umm Qais), thus acquiring the name Magdala Gadar. * Magdala Nunayya—There was another, better-known Magdala near Tiberias, Magdala Nunayya ("Magdala of the fishes"), which would locate it on the shore of the Sea of Galilee. Al-Majdal (Al-Majdal, Tiberias), a Palestinian (Palestinian people) Arab (Arab people) village depopulated in the lead up to the 1948 Arab-Israeli war (1948 Arab–Israeli War) was identified as the site of this Magdala. The modern Israeli municipality of Migdal (Migdal (town)) (Khirbet Medjdel), founded in 1910 and about 6 km NNW of Tiberias, has expanded into the area of the former village.
the beginning of the Islamic era in Bahrain. They turned Bahrain into the strongest state in the Persian Gulf and possibly, wider Middle East. They raided Baghdad and in 930 sacked Mecca and Medina, desecrating the Zamzam Well with the bodies of Hajj pilgrim and taking the Black Stone with them back to Bahrain where it remained for twenty years. The Qarmatians were eventually defeated by their Ismaili counterparts, the Abbasids in 976 and afterwards their power waned
), in the late 19th century. File:St johns church 1880 1.jpeg St. John's Church (St. John's Church (Fuzhou)), 1880. File:1800s painting France Qing naval battle Fuzhou.jpg 1800s painting of the France and Qing naval battle (Battle of Fuzhou) in Fuzhou. File:Island
, and the architecture reflects that. The buildings, of dark black stone are primarily 1800s Russian in style, with Armenian touches. Much of the center was destroyed by the 1988 quake which devastated the region, part of which has been rebuilt. There are also Russian churches, cemeteries and a large Russian base still dominates a part of the city. Get in Vans called ''marshutni'' depart Yerevan for Gyumri from a parking lot next to Sasuntsi David subway station. These are cheap, at about $4, but often
the Black Stone, traveling seven times between Mount Safa and Mount Marwah (Al-Safa and Al-Marwah), and symbolically stoning the Devil (Stoning of the Devil) in Mina (Mina, Saudi Arabia). Muslim scholars who held to the round Earth theory used it for a quintessentially Islamic purpose: to calculate the distance and direction from any given point on the Earth to Makkah (Mecca) (Mecca). In the 11th century, Abu Rayhan Biruni al-Biruni
the sacred Hajj, killing hundreds before escaping with the much revered Black Stone. A feud with the Baghdad-based Abbasids less than 50 years later saw the Qarmatians leave the town. thumb Abraj Al Lulu (File:AbrajAlLulu-Bahrain.jpg) '''Malcolm X''' ( February 21, 1965), born '''Malcolm Little''' and also known as '''El-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz''' This name includes
-1258 page 113 author Gustave Edmund Von Grunebaum
Ismaili Muslim sect seized Bahrain, seeking to create a utopian society based on reason and redistribution of property among initiates. Thereafter, the Qarmatians demanded tribute from the caliph in Baghdad, and in 930 AD sacked Mecca and Medina, bringing the sacred Black Stone back to their base in Ahsa (Bahrain (historical region)), in medieval Bahrain, for ransom. According to historian Al-Juwayni, the stone was returned 22 years later in 951 under mysterious circumstances. Wrapped in a sack, it was thrown into the Great Mosque of Kufa in Iraq, accompanied by a note saying "By command we took it, and by command we have brought it back." The theft and removal of the Black Stone caused it to break into seven pieces.
in Linköping, Sweden. Standing cross: the priest (Sven Lidman (clergyman)). Front black stone: the writer The sketch from his notebook was found in 1868 in Linköping by a visiting researcher from the United States of America, and dates from 1714. It is referred to as "The Manuscript": the published description is referred to as "The Published Account". thumb The seal of Johannes Magnus (Image:Johannes Magnus sigill, Nordisk familjebok.png) Johannes
Dynasty were raised in Emesa. One of them was Elagabalus who served as the high priest at the Temple of El-Gebal (Elagabalus (deity)), the local sun god. He brought the image of this god, a conical black stone, to the Elagabalium in Rome. Herodian, ''Roman History'', V.3.5 Emesa also grew wealthy because it formed a link in the eastern trade funneled through Palmyra, however, this dependence also caused the city's downfall when Palmyra sank to insignificance in the 4th-century. Nonetheless, Emesa at this time had grown to rank with the important cities of Tyre (Tyre, Lebanon), Sidon, Beirut, and Damascus. It also continued to retain local significance, because it was the market center for the surrounding villages. The city remained a strong center of paganism, because of the Temple of El-Gabal. After one of his victories over Zenobia, Emperor Aurelian visited the city to pay thanks to the deity. Due to the strength of the pagan sun cult in Emesa, Christians initially did not settle in the city. Eusebius (Eusebius of Caesarea) writes that Silvanus, the city's first bishop, had no jurisdiction over the city, but the surrounding villages. He was executed by Emperor Julian (Julian the Apostate) and succeeded by Bishop Antonius—the first bishop to settle Emesa. Herbermann, 1913, p. 403. By the 5th-century, Christianity was well established under the Byzantine Empire; however, few ancient Christian inscriptions exist in Homs today. Under the Byzantines, the city became an important center for Eastern Christianity. Initially a diocese, Homs was given the status of ecclesiastical metropolis after the discovery of John the Baptist's head in a nearby area in 452. Arab Caliphate Prior to the Muslim conquest of Syria, Arab tribes (Tribes of Arabia), particularly the Banu Kalb settled around Emesa, ensuring its position as an important Yemeni center. The Byzantine (Byzantine Empire) emperor Heraclius abandoned the city—which served as his headquarters Kennedy, 2007, p. 74 —after the defeat of his army to that of the Rashidun Muslim (Rashidun Caliphate)s under Umar ibn al-Khattab during the Battle of Yarmouk in southern Syria. In 637 CE, the Rashidun army led by Khalid ibn al-Walid captured Emesa peacefully (Siege of Emesa) as the city agreed to pay a substantial ransom of 71,000 to 170,000 dinars. Dumper, 2007, p. 172. Mannheim, 2001, p. 205. The caliph Umar established Homs as the capital of Jund Hims, a district within the province of Bilad al-Sham, encompassing the towns of Latakia, Jableh, and Tartus along the coast, Palmyra in the Syrian Desert and the territory in between, including the town of Hama. le Strange, 1890, p. 25. Homs was likely the first city in Syria to have a substantial Muslim population. Kennedy, 2007, p. 86. The Muslims transformed half of St. John's Church into the city's Friday Mosque (Great Mosque of al-Nuri (Great Mosque of al-Nuri (Homs))) and Homs soon became a centre of Islamic piety since some 500 companions (Sahaba) of Muhammad settled there after its conquest. The tombs of Khalid ibn al-Walid, his son Abd al-Rahman, and Ubaid Allah, the son of Caliph Umar are located in the city. Ibn Jubair quoted in le Strange, 1890, p. 355. During the conflict (First Fitna) between the Umayyads and Ali, the inhabitants of Homs allied themselves with Ali and when the latter was defeated, the Umayyad caliph Mu'awiyah hived the northern half of Jund Hims to form a separate district, Jund Qinnasrin, apparently as punishment. Ali's oratory (''mash-had 'Ali'') was located in the city, and Islamic tradition claims his fingerprints are engraved on it. Yaqut al-Hamawi quoted in le Strange, 1890, p. 356. Despite repression by the Umayyads, Homs remained a center of Shia Islam for a while longer. As a stronghold of the Banu Kalb, the city became involved in the latter's conflicts with the Qais tribal faction. The last Umayyad caliph, Marwan II, enjoyed the support of the Qais and subsequently razed the city walls in response to a rebellion by the Banu Kalb. thumb left The interior of the Great Mosque of al-Nuri (Homs) Great Mosque of al-Nuri (File:Interior - Al-Nuri Mosque - Hims, Syria.jpg) In 750 the Abbasid (Abbasid Caliphate)s wrested control of Syria, including Homs, from the Umayyads, but the Arab tribes continued to revolt against the Caliphate. Despite the prosperity Homs experienced during this era, Abbasid rule was generally not welcomed nevertheless. During and after the reign of caliph Harun al-Rashid (796-809), the Abbasid authorities sent numerous punitive expeditions against Homs. Under the reign of al-Mutawakkil, in October 855 Christians of the city rose in revolt in response to additional taxation (jizya). The caliph put down the revolt by expelling Christians from the city, burning down their churches and executing members of their leadership. Gil, 1997, pp. 296–97. With Abbasid rule over the Caliphate weakening in the mid 9th-century, Homs became sought after by rebel dynasties contending for control of Syria due to the city's strategic position. Initially, the Egypt-based Tulunids came into control of it, but they were forced out by the Aleppo-based Hamdanids who were briefly succeeded by the Qarmatians, after their Turkish rebel ally Aftakin invaded northern Syria and established Homs as his base. Gil, 1997, p. 343. In 891 Muslim geographer al-Yaqubi noted that Homs was situated along a broad river which served as a source of drinking water for the inhabitants. It was one of the largest cities in Syria and had several smaller districts surrounding it. In 944 the Hamdanids took definitive control of the city, dominating it until 1016. Arab geographer al-Mas'udi claimed in the early 10th-century that Homs was "noted for the personal beauty of its inhabitants." le Strange, 1890, p. 353. In 985 al-Muqaddasi noted that Homs was the largest city in all of Syria, but it had suffered "great misfortunes" and was "threatened with ruin." He stated that when the city was conquered by the Muslims they turned half of its church into a mosque. al-Muqaddasi quoted in le Strange, 1890, p. 354. For around thirty years during the 10th-century, Homs was raided by the Byzantines and its inhabitants were subject to slaughter and plunder while the city's mosque was briefly restored as a church. Throughout most of the 11th-century, the Byzantine raids receded greatly and the Mirdasids of the Banu Kalb tribe ruled over Homs, replacing the Hamdanids. Inclined towards Shia Islam, they did not oppose the Shia Fatimid Caliphate of Egypt which was aiming to extend its rule into northern Syria and Iraq at the time. This precipitated a Sunni Muslim reaction led by the Seljuk Turks who occupied Homs under the leadership of Aq Sunqur al-Hajib in 1090. Seljuk, Ayyubid, and Mamluk rule thumb right Romantic illustration of Homs by Louis-François Cassas (File:18th century original drawing of the castle of Hims by Cassas.jpg). The artist in the foreground is shown sketching the Citadel of Homs, surrounded by his guards and the inquisitive locals The First Crusade was launched in 1096, and in 1098, the Crusaders captured Antioch to the northwest, looted Ma'arat al-Numan, and finally besieged Homs itself. Although they managed to cut the city off from its main port Tartus, they failed in taking the city. Soon after, Homs came under the control of the Seljuk ruler of Damascus who transformed it into a large, fortified camp and key fortress effectively preventing the Crusaders from penetrating deeper into Muslim territory. Immune from attack, Homs became a point where the Muslims could marshal their forces and launch raids against Crusader holdings along the Mediterranean coast. In the early 12th-century, the Seljuks engaged in internal fighting, during which Homs was often a prize. In 1149 the Mosul-based Zengids under Nur al-Din (Nur ad-Din Zangi) captured the city. Dumper, 2007, p. 173. Muslim geographer Al-Idrisi noted in 1154 that Homs was populous, had paved streets, possessed one of the largest mosques in Syria, contained open markets, and was frequented by travelers attracted to its "products and rarities of all kinds." He also reported that its residents were "pleasant; living with them is easy, and their manners are agreeable. The women are beautiful and are celebrated for their fine skin." le Strange, 1890, p. 354. A series of earthquakes in 1157 inflicted heavy damage upon Homs and its fortress, then in 1170, a minor quake finished off the latter. However, because of its strategic importance, being opposite of the Crusader County of Tripoli, the city and its fortifications were soon restored. In 1164 Nur al-Din awarded Homs to Asad ad-Din Shirkuh (Shirkuh) as a fief, but reclaimed it five years later following Shirkuh's death. The latter's nephew, Saladin, gained control of the city in 1175 and in 1179, after reorganizing his territories in northern Syria, restored the fief to his Ayyubid dynasty. Shirkuh's descendants retained Homs for nearly a century until 1262 with the death of al-Ashraf Musa. In 1225 Arab geographer Yaqut al-Hamawi mentioned that Homs was large, celebrated and walled, having a strongly fortified castle on its southern hill. Towards the end of Ayyubid rule, Homs remained a centrepiece of the wars between them and the Crusaders, as well as internecine conflicts with the Mongol Empire and the Mamluks. The first battle (First Battle of Homs) between the Mongols and the Mamluks took place on December 10, 1260, ending in a decisive Mamluk victory. A second battle (Second Battle of Homs) was fought on October 29, 1281, also ending in a Mamluk victory. The Mamluks were finally defeated in the Battle of Wadi al-Khazandar, also known as the "Third Battle of Homs," in 1299. Homs declined politically after falling to the Mamluks under Baibars because their campaigns effectively drove out the Crusaders and the Mongols from the entirety of Syria. At the beginning of the 14th-century, the city was merely the capital of the smallest province of Syria and was often attached to the province of Damascus. Ibn Batuta visited Homs in 1355, writing that it had fine trees, good markets, and a "fine Friday Mosque," noting that all of its inhabitants were Arabs. Ibn Batuta quoted in le Strange, 1890, p. 357. Timur seized the city in 1400, and later in the 15th-century as Mamluk weakness had brought insecurity to the countryside, Homs was ravaged by Bedouin raids; In 1510 a powerful tribe led by al-Fadl bin Nu'ayr was sent on an expedition by the governor of Damascus to loot the city markets as Homs had failed to pay compensation for his "services." Ottoman rule thumb right Khalid ibn al-Walid Mosque (File:Khaled Ebn El-Walid Mosque3.jpg), an example of Ottoman architecture in Homs
wall of the Latin Cathedral in 1619 - and the Boimiv Chapel (Каплиця Боїмів) which built as a tomb in 1610's for the merchant Boim family. A mannerist architecture marvel all made of black stone. *
on the square are three fountains in 1900's: first the Fountain Adonis (to Northeast) has an cup, which stands on the pavement, in the centre of a star, outlined in red and black stone. In the centre of the bowl - a statue of the hero character of ancient mythology Adonis with a dog and boar killed him; Fountain Neptune (to Southwest) In the centre of the bowl - a statue of ancient mythology character Neptune,- the Roman god of freshwater and the sea,- which is situated at the feet of dolphin; and also on the square is the Fountain Amphitrite (to Northwest) with a statue of ancient mythology character Amfitryta, consort of Neptune with a dolphin. Landmarks * Commons:Category:Lviv Wikipedia:Lviv Dmoz:Regional Europe Ukraine Provinces Lviv Oblast Lviv