are members, lie between Southern England and Northern France, as indicated by Selden (John Selden). Much of the earliest black presence in Canada came from the United States; comprising African Americans who came as Loyalists (Black Loyalists), or escaped to locations in Nova Scotia and Southwestern Ontario via the Underground Railroad (Underground Railroad#Arrival in Canada). Slavery had begun to be outlawed in British North America as early
: www.nationalarchives.gov.uk pathways blackhistory africa_caribbean britain_trade.htm title Britain and the Trade work Black Presence: Asian and Black History in Britain, 1500–1850 publisher The National Archives accessdate 13 January 2010 Portuguese (Portugal) side Benfica (S.L. Benfica), then managed by former Liverpool boss Graeme Souness, took Thomas to the Estádio da Luz on 1 August 1998, but his stay in Lisbon was an unsuccessful one as he found himself banished to the reserves after Souness was replaced by Jupp Heynckes. After two years with Benfica, he returned to England on 29 July 2000 to join Wimbledon (Wimbledon F.C.), but after a single season in which he played nine times he retired from playing on 31 May 2001. A European tour was completed and went from February 7, 2003 to 21st titled "The Doomination of Europe" in support of the new album and Mourning Beloveth were joined on the tour by Morgion (Morgion (band)) (USA) and The Prophecy (The Prophecy (band)) (UK). The tour started off in Ireland, travelled to the UK (United Kingdom), France, Spain, Portugal, Belgium, Netherlands. Shortly thereafter, an American tour has also taken place in August 2003 for 24 dates with Morgion, The Prophecy (The Prophecy (band)) and Orodruin (Orodruin (band)). Heritage sites '''Arnala Fort''' is located on a small island off the Arnala port. Since the fort is built on an island and surrounded on all sides by water it is also known as "Jaldurg" or "Janjire Arnala". The Portuguese (Portugal) called the island "Ilha das vacas" which means 'Island of the cows' in Portuguese (Portuguese language). Before the Portuguese control of the island, the island was controlled by the Muslim rulers of Gujarat. The island is near the mouth of Vaitarna river and the Portuguese used it to observe and control shipping and navigation along the western coast. The Portuguese captain of Bassein (Vasai) donated the island to a Portuguese nobleman. The nobleman tore down the old fort and began construction of 700 foot by 700 foot fort. The fort was never completed by the nobleman but remained under Portuguese control. '''Vasai fort''' (Bassein fort) is also located nearby. The Portuguese established a fort in Bassein, present day Vasai, on the mainland just north of the Bombay archipelago. The fort was fronted by a harbour. With this as the main base, they built other smaller forts, and strong houses in many of the islands. In the 18th century the fort was attacked by the Marathas under Baji Rao Peshwa, and fell in 1739 after a three year long campaign. The remains of the fort can be reached by bus or taxi from the Vasai railway station. The ramparts overlook Vasai creek and are almost complete, though overgrown. Several watch-towers still stand, with safe staircases leading up. During the late summer and early fall of 1968, ''Tench'' took part in a NATO exercise, Operation "Silvertower," in the eastern Atlantic. During that assignment, she visited ports in the United Kingdom, Germany, and Portugal. The submarine returned to New London on 4 November and began her final 19 months of active service. Near the end of her career, she was given hull classification symbol '''AGSS-417''' (general auxiliary submarine) on 1 October 1969. She was placed in commission, in reserve, at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, later that month; and, on 8 May 1970, ''Tench'' was placed out of commission. Berthed at Philadelphia, ''Tench'' remained in reserve until 1973. On 16 August 1973, her name was srtricken from the Naval Vessel Register, and she was subsequently scrapped. thumb left Castle of Palmela and surrounding landscape. (Image:Castelo Palmela e Vale Barris.JPG) The town's name comes from her Roman (Ancient Rome) founder, Cornelius Palma (''Palmella''). Palmela, once a fortress, was conquered by the Portuguese (Portugal) in the 12th century, from Muslim invaders. It is located up a hill in the Arrábida area, and it's a semi-rural town, right in the middle of Portugal's biggest urban area, though the fact that many people are moving in from big cities like Lisbon represents a problem. Wild fires in the region are another threat to the environment. *'''Napoleonic''': France, Belgium, Luxembourg, Quebec (Canada), Louisiana (U.S.), Italy, Romania, the Netherlands, Spain, and their former colonies; *'''Germanistic''': Germany, Austria, Switzerland, Czech Republic, Croatia, Hungary, Slovenia, Slovakia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Greece, Brazil, Portugal, Turkey, Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan (Republic of China); *'''Scandinavian''': Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden. Portugal, Brazil and Italy have alternated from French to German influence, as their 19th century civil codes were close to the Napoleonic Code and their 20th century civil codes are much closer to the German Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch (BGB). More recently, Brazil's 2002 Civil Code was heavily inspired by the Italian Civil Code in its unification of private law; legal culture and academic law now more closely follow the Germanistic tradition. The other law in these countries is often said to be of a hybrid nature. thumb left 170px Statue of Gil Eanes in his native town: the city of Lagos, Portugal Lagos (Image:GilEannes-Lagos.jpg) '''Gil Eanes''' (or '''Eannes''';
countries to abandon their enterprises due to inefficiency in cost. The English crown provided a charter giving the Royal African Company monopoly over the African slave routes until 1712.
. The English crown provided a charter giving the Royal African Company monopoly over the African slave routes until 1712. Commons:Category:Netherlands Dmoz:Regional Europe Netherlands Wikipedia:Netherlands
as replacements. Much of the earliest black presence in Canada came from the United States; comprising African Americans who came as Loyalists (Black Loyalists), or escaped to locations in Nova Scotia and Southwestern Ontario via the Underground Railroad (Underground Railroad#Arrival in Canada). Slavery had begun to be outlawed in British North America as early as 1793. Later black immigration to Canada came primarily from the Caribbean
and the Trade work Black Presence: Asian and Black History in Britain, 1500–1850 publisher The National Archives accessdate 13 January 2010 The kings of Dahomey sold their war captives (POW) into transatlantic slavery, who otherwise would have been killed in a ceremony known as the Annual Customs (The annual customs of Dahomey). As one of West Africa's principal slave states, Dahomey became extremely unpopular with neighbouring peoples. Commons:Category:France WikiPedia:France Dmoz:Regional Europe France
. "A Legacy Hidden in Plain Sight", ''The Washington Post'', 10 Jan 2004 Much of the earliest black presence in Canada came from the United States; comprising African Americans who came as Loyalists (Black Loyalists), or escaped to locations in Nova Scotia and Southwestern Ontario via the Underground Railroad
to inefficiency in cost. The English crown provided a charter giving the Royal African Company monopoly over the African slave routes until 1712. "18,000 miles, 51 shows, 79 days, over 1,000,000 fans