for an airport in Kanon was accepted and built, but a seaside park in Ujina was not. Norioki (2003), p. 92 The Hiroshima authorities took a lot of advice about the city's reconstruction from foreign consultants and in 1947 Tam Deling, an American park planner, suggested to build a Peace Memorial and to preserve buildings situated near ground zero (directly below the explosion of the atomic bomb). Norioki (2003), p. 96 In 1949 the authorities
enacted the Hiroshima Peace Memorial Reconstruction Act, which gave the city access to special grant aid, and in August that year, an international competition was announced for the design of the Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park. Diedfendorf, Hein & Yorifusa (2003), p. 95 Tange was awarded first prize for a design that proposed a museum whose axis runs through the park, intersecting Peace Boulevard (Peace Boulevard (Hiroshima)) and the atomic bomb dome. The building is raised on massive piloti (columns), which frame the views along the structure's axis. Diedfendorf, Hein & Yorifusa (2003), p. 98 Projects Peace Centre in Hiroshima thumb Hiroshima Peace Memorial Museum, view along axis (1955) (File:Hiroshima Peace Memorial Museum 2009.jpg) Work on the Peace Centre commenced in 1950. In addition to the axial nature of the design, the layout is similar to Tange's early competition arrangement for the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere Memorial Hall. In the initial design the Hiroshima Peace Memorial Museum was dominated by adjoining utility buildings, which were linked to it by high-level walkways. Tange refined this concept to place the museum prominently at the centre, separate from the utility buildings (only one of which was subsequently designed by him). In addition to architectural symbolism, he thought it important for the design to centre around the building that houses the information about the atomic explosion. Kulterman (1970), p. 17 The museum is constructed from bare reinforced concrete. The primary museum floor is lifted six metres above the ground on huge piloti and is accessible via a free-standing staircase. The rhythmical facade comprises vertical elements that repeat outwards from the centre. Like the exterior, the interior is finished with rough concrete; the idea was to keep the surfaces plain so that nothing could distract the visitor from the contents of the exhibits. Kulterman (1970), p. 18 The Peace Plaza is the backdrop for the museum. The plaza was designed to allow 50 thousand people to gather around the peace monument in the centre. Tange also designed the monument as an arch composed of two hyperbolic paraboloids, said to be based on traditional Japanese ceremonial tombs from the Kofun Period. The Ise Shrine In 1953 Tange and the architectural journalist and critic Noboru Kawazoe were invited to attend the reconstruction of the Ise Shrine (Ise Grand Shrine). The shrine has been reconstructed every 20 years and in 1953 it was the 59th iteration. Normally the reconstruction process was a very closed affair but this time the ceremony was opened to architects and journalists to document the event. The ceremony coincided with the end of the American Occupation (Occupied Japan) and it seemed to symbolise a new start in Japanese architecture. In 1961 when Tange and Kawazoe published the book ''Ise: Prototype of Japanese Architecture'', he likened the building to a modernist structure: an honest expression of materials, a functional design and prefabricated elements. Diedfendorf, Hein & Yorifusa (2003), p. 197 The Kagawa Prefectural Government Hall The Kagawa Prefectural Government Hall on the island of Shikoku was completed in 1958. Its expressive construction could be likened to the Daibutsu style seen at the Todai-ji in Nara (Nara, Nara). Stewart (1987), p. 207 The columns on the elevation bore only vertical loads so Tange was able to design them to be thin, maximising the surfaces for glazing. Although the hall has been called one of his finest projects, Japan Architect (2005), p. 100 it drew criticism at the time of its construction for relying too heavily on tradition. Kulterman (1970), p. 56 thumb Kenzō Tange's own house (1953) (File:Tange House.jpg) Tange's own home Tange's own home, designed in 1951 and completed in 1953, uses a similar skeleton structure raised off the ground as the Hiroshima Peace Museum; however, it is fused with a more traditional Japanese design that uses timber and paper. The house is based on the traditional Japanese module of the tatami mat, with the largest rooms designed to have flexibility so that they can be separated into three smaller rooms by fusuma sliding doors. Kulterman (1970), p. 28 The facade is designed with a rhythmic pattern; it comprises two types of facade designs ("a" and "b") that are ordered laterally in an a-b-a-a-b-a arrangement. The house is topped with a two-tier roof. Kazuo Shinohara's (Kazuo Shinohara) 1954 house at Kugayama is remarkably similar in its design, although it is built with steel and has a simpler rhythm in its facade. Stewart (1987), p. 197 Town Hall, Kurashiki The fortress-like town hall in Kurashiki was designed in 1958 and completed in 1960. When it was constructed it was situated on the edge of the old town centre connecting it with the newer areas of the town. Kurashiki is better known as a tourist spot for its old Machiya style houses. Kulterman (1970), p. 92 Set in an open square, the building sits on massive columns that taper inwards as they rise. The elevation consists of horizontal planks (some of which are omitted to create windows) which overlap at the corners in a "log cabin" effect. The entrance is covered with a heavy projecting concrete canopy which leads to a monumental entrance hall. The stair to this hall ascends in cantilevered straight flights to the left and right. The walls to this interior are bare shuttered concrete punctured by windows reminiscent of Le Corbusier's La Tourette (La Tourette Monastery). The Council Chamber is a separate building whose raked roof has seating on top of it to form an external performance space. Banham (1978), p. 82 Tokyo Olympic arenas thumb Yoyogi National Gymnasium (1964) (File:Yoyogi National Gymnasium 2008.jpg) The Yoyogi National Gymnasium is situated in an open area in Yoyogi Park on an adjacent axis to the Meiji Shrine. The gymnasium and swimming pool were designed by Tange for the 1964 Tokyo Olympics (1964 Summer Olympics), which were the first Olympics held in Asia. Tange began his designs in 1961 and the plans were approved by the Ministry of Education in January 1963. The buildings were placed to optimize space available for parking and to permit the smoothest transition of incoming and outgoing people. Kulterman (1970), p. 204 Inspired by the skyline of the Colosseum in Rome, the roofs have a skin suspended from two masts. The buildings were inspired by Le Corbusier's Philips Pavilion designed for Brussel's World Fair and the Ingalls Rink Yale University's hockey stadium by Eero Saarinen (both structures completed in 1958). The roof of the Philips pavilion was created by complex hyperbolic paraboloid surfaces stretched between cables. In both cases Tange took Western ideas and adapted them to meet Japanese requirements. Stewart (1987), p. 218 The gymnasium has a capacity of approximately 16,000 and the smaller building can accommodate up 5,300 depending on the events that are taking place. At the time it was built, the gymnasium had the world's largest suspended roof span. Two reinforced concrete pillars support a pre-stressed steel net onto which steel plates are attached. The bottom anchoring of this steel net is a heavy concrete support system which forms a distinct curve on the interior and exterior of the building. In the interior, this structural anchor is used to support the grandstand seats. The overall curvature of the roof helps protect the building from the damaging effects of strong winds. Tange won a Pritzker Prize for the design; the citation described the gynasium as "among the most beautiful buildings of the 20th century". Category:1913 births Category:2005 deaths Category:Japanese architects Category:Pritzker Architecture Prize winners Category:Recipients of the Order of the Sacred Treasure, 1st class Category:Recipients of the Pour le Mérite (civil class) Category:Recipients of the Praemium Imperiale Category:Recipients of the Royal Gold Medal Category:Recipients of the Order of Culture Category:Légion d'honneur recipients Category:People from Sakai, Osaka Category:University of Tokyo alumni Category:Nihon University alumni Category:Expo '70 Category:Japanese Roman Catholics
) and the Khan Research Laboratories (KRL) had ingeniously built the extensive research infrastructure initiated by Bhutto. General Akbar's office was soon shifted at the Army Combatant Generals Headquarter (GHQ) and guided General Zia on key matters of nuclear science and the atomic bomb production, and was the first engineering officer to have acknowledge General Zia about the success of this energy project into the fully matured programme. On the recommendation of Akbar, Zia approved the appointment of Munir Ahmad Khan as the scientific director of the atomic bomb project, as Zia was convinced by Akbar that civilian scientists under Munir Khan's directorship were at their best to counter the international pressure. fields Theoretical physics workplaces Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission (SUPARCO) Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (PINSTECH) Punjab University (University of the Punjab) Imperial College, London Government College University University of Cambridge International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) Comsats Institute of Technology (COMSATS) Third World Academy of Sciences (TWAS) Edward Bouchet Abdus Salam Institute alma_mater University of the Punjab Government College University St John's College, Cambridge Salam was a science advisor to the Government of Pakistan from 1960 till 1974, a position from which he played a major and influential role in Pakistan's science infrastructure. Salam was responsible for not only major development and contribution in theoretical and particle physics, but as well as promoting scientific research at maximum level in his country. Salam was the founding director of Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission (SUPARCO), and responsible for the establishment of the Theoretical Physics Group (Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology#Research Divisions) (TPG) in Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC). In 2003, a team of Pakistani statisticians and mathematicians met the officials of Government of Pakistan where they had urged the government to established the Separate Division to mathematically modeled (Mathematical economics) the country (Pakistan)'s economy (Economy of Pakistan). The following years, the Statistics Division (Statistics Division of the Government of Pakistan) was established under the technical direction of Scientist Emeritus (Scientist) of PAEC (Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission), dr. Asghar Qadir. As of today, Asif Bajwa is the current secretary-general of the Statistics Division. And, Minister responsible for the Division is Dr. Abdul Hafeez Shaikh, Finance Minister of Pakistan.
the end of 1949 (although Soviet geologists continued to work in Xinjiang till 1955 when Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev refused to Mao Zedong's demand to hand over to PRC the techology of nuclear weapons production and own Chinese atomic project was initiated using facilities built by Soviets in Chuguchak and Altai (Altay City) in Northern Xinjiang) and were used in nuclear weapon design and the creation of the first Soviet atomic bomb (Soviet atomic bomb project), successfully
: thumb upright Soviet Nuclear physics nuclear physicist (Image:1958 Sakharov Kurchatov.jpg), dissident and human rights activist Andrei Sakharov (left) and Kurchatov in 1958 -- During its formative years, the atomic bomb project (Soviet atomic bomb project) remained a relatively low priority until information from spy Klaus Fuchs and later the destruction of Hiroshima and Nagasaki goaded Stalin into action. Stalin ordered Kurchatov to produce a bomb by 1948, and put
. Wales' railway network developed in conjunction with that of the rest of the United Kingdom during the nineteenth century. The North Wales Coast Line and South Wales Main Line sought to profit from traffic between London and Ireland. Numerous railways were built to export coal and iron from South Wales and slate from North Wales. In the latter half of the nineteenth century, tourism was booming and railways served resorts such as Llandudno, Barry Island and locations along the Cambrian Coast Line. Abercynon North was served by a train every 30 minutes in each direction, weekday daytimes, calling at almost all stations between Aberdare and Barry Island via Llandaf.
Richard G. authorlink Richard G. Hewlett last2 Anderson first2 Oscar E. title The New World, 1939–1946 location University Park, Pennsylvania publisher Pennsylvania State University Press year 1962 isbn 0-520-07186-7 oclc 637004643 ref harv * - ThSA
docks at Hunters Point would be used for loading the key fissile components of the first atomic bomb onto the USS Indianapolis (USS Indianapolis (CA-35)) in July 1945 for transfer to Tinian. Deanery Two The parishes within Deanery Two are made up of those from the Bayview Hunter's Point (Bayview-Hunters Point, San Francisco) neighborhood, and the Excelsior District, Visitacion Valley, and Crocker Amazon, and Ingleside areas.
. Later, islanders unsuccessfully sued the Japanese government. Many military historians believe that Okinawa led directly to American use of the atomic bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. A prominent holder of this view is Victor Davis Hanson, who states it explicitly in his book ''Ripples of Battle''. Hanson, Victor Davis, (October 12, 2004). "Ripples of Battle: How Wars of the Past Still Determine How We Fight, How We Live, and How We Think", Anchor, October 12, 2004, ISBN 0
of China . * Qian Sanqiang 錢三强 (1913–1992), famous scientist of great merit in Chinese atomic bomb study; and his father Qian Xuantong 錢玄同 (1887–1939), famous scholar. * Tu Shou'e 屠守鍔 (1917–), famous scientist and rocket designer. * Fred P. Manget (1880–1979), medical missionary from the United States and founder of Huzhou General Hospital Specialty * '''''Silk''''': Huzhou is well known as one of the birthplaces for silk civilization. In 1958, a great number of silk, silk ribbon and uncarbonized tablets were found in the southern suburbs of Huzhou. Scientists from the Institute of Archaeology measured these silk products carefully and determined the age of the silk to date back 4700 years ago. Now, these silk pieces have become the greatest treasures of Zhejiang Silk Museum. Huzhou silk has many good features, such as paleness in color, quality, flexibility, and round shape. As a result, Huzhou silk has gained a good reputation for a long time. The history of Huzhou silk can be chased down to the time of the Warring States (474 BC –221 BC) .By this time of Southern and Northern Dynasties (420 AD – 589 AD), Huzhou silk has already been exported to more than ten countries. During the Tang dynasty (618 AD – 907 AD), Huzhou silk is chosen as an imperial tribute,which marks the prosperity of silk production . When it comes to Ming dynasty (1368 AD – 1644 AD), the residents living near the lake entering the textile industry, resulting in an enrichment of Huzhou Silk species. Huzhou Silk has won awards in the World's Fair, and is famous overseas. "huzhou silk history." baidu. baidu, 09 May 2009. Web. 30 Oct 2013. . * ""Huzhou ink brush"" Huzhou has a long history of manufacturing ink brushes, and it can be traced back to Qin Dynasty. Huzhou's ink brush production and manufacture gained prominence in the Ming Dynasty (13th century). Now Hzhou is known as the "Hometown of Ink Brush". Huzhou also holds annual "Huzhou Ink Brush Festival", and the festival also has some memorial activities dedicated to Meng Tian - the inventor of ink brush pen. The most famous brush pen workshop in Huzhou could be the Shanlian ( Simplified Chinese: 善 琏; Pinyin: Shàn Liǎn), and its brush pens are named Shanlian Hubi ( Simplified Chinese: 善琏湖 笔; Pinyin: Shànliǎn Húbǐ). Shanlian is also a local place name, whose ancient name was Mengxi (蒙溪, literally means "the creek of Meng Tian"). Meng Tian made brush pens there. * '''''Zhouji dumpling''''' Zhouji dumpling was founded by Zhouji. It is said that in 1930, the Zhouji saw Ding Lianfang (Chinese name) opened a snack store, which is booming, as a result, Zhouji also opened a store to compete. Soon after, Zhouji's snack store was defeated, then he opened a shop called " Zhouji's dumpling shop ". Zhouji is very particular about the quality of the dumpling and select all raw materials very carefully, such as the bamboo clothing (the out layer of bamboo leaf), sesame,sesame oil, wine, sugar, salt and other spices to be added into the dumpling. Besides that, Zhouji invented a special processing of the dumpling so that dumplings do not break up easily when boiled. Combined with the special sauce, the dumplings have a fantastic taste and are a very popular dish. "Zhoushengji dumpling." Baidu bai ke. baidu, 07 Sept. 2012. Web. 30 Oct 2013. . See also * Huzhou ink brush * Sheraton Huzhou Hot Spring Resort References
Chinese atomic bomb. It is off-limits to most foreigners and a highly secured area. The CAEP, or "Physics" Research agency of the Military and Government is based here. If allowed to enter, it really fascinating to see the completely modern, clean city strategically located in the mountains next to greater Mianyang. Science City is closed to foreigners not specifically cleared for entry. The "city" is not gated, and signs at its boundaries are not always present. It is unlikely, however, that you will accidentally stumble upon the city, being that it is somewhat set off to the northeast and off of the most popular bus lines. Do *