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architectural works


Selçuk

'' at Birgi (1312) built by the Aydın beylik. The above mosques, although being successors of Seljuq architecture, differ greatly in the increase of decorations in the interior and exterior spaces and the different placement of the courtyards and minarets. Karaman beylik also left noteworthy architectural works, such as ''Ulucami Mosque'' in Ermenek (1302), ''Hatuniye Madrassa'' in Karaman (1382), ''Akmedrese Madrassa'' in Niğde (Niğde Province) (1409), all of which respect a new style that considers and incorporates the exterior surroundings also. One of the first examples of the Anatolian beylik architecture hinting at the forming of the Ottoman architecture that aims at uniting the interior space beneath one big dome and forming a monumental architectural structure is ''Ulucami Mosque'' in Manisa (Manisa Province) (1374) built by the Saruhan beylik. Also worth noting is the increase in constructions of madrassas that points at the beyliks' attaching greater importance to sciences. caption İsabey Mosque as it appears today location WikiPedia:Selçuk Dmoz:Regional Middle_East Turkey Provinces Izmir Districts Selcuk Commons:Category:Selcuk


Venetian Dalmatia

of Venetian Dalmatia: this region is the only in Croatia where did not happen the destructions (and the population mass-emigrations) due to the Ottoman conquests (Siege of Vienna) Some architectural works from that period of Dalmatia are of European importance, and would contribute to further development of the Renaissance: the Cathedral of St James in Sebenico (Šibenik) and the Chapel of Blessed John in Trau (Trogir). Indeed the Croatian renaissance, strongly influenced by Venetian and Italian literature, was thoroughly developed on the coastal parts of Croatia. The beginning of the Croatian (Culture of Croatia) 16th-century literal activity was marked by a Dalmatian humanist (Humanism) Marco Marulo (Marko Marulić) and his epic (Epic poetry) book ''Judita'', which has been written by incorporating peculiar motives and events from the classical Bible, and adapting them to the contemporary literature in Europe. Dunja Fališevac, Krešimir Nemec, Darko Novaković (2000). Leksikon hrvatskih pisaca. Zagreb: Školska knjiga d.d. ISBN 953-0-61107-2. In 1997 the historical city-island of Trogir (called "Tragurium" in Latin when was one of the Dalmatian City-States and "Trau" in venetian) was inscribed in the UNESCO World Heritage List. "The orthogonal street plan of this island...was embellished by successive rulers with many fine public and domestic buildings and fortifications. Its beautiful Romanesque (Romanesque architecture) churches are complemented by the outstanding Renaissance and Baroque buildings from the Venetian period", says the UNESCO report. Trogir is the best-preserved Romanesque-Gothic (Gothic architecture) complex not only in the Adriatic, but in all of Central Europe. Trogir's medieval core, surrounded by walls, comprises a venetian well-preserved castle and tower (Kamerlengo Castle) and a series of dwellings and palaces from the Romanesque, Gothic, Renaissance and Baroque periods. Trogir's grandest building is the church of St. Lawrence, whose main west portal is a masterpiece by Radovan (Radovan (master)), and the most significant work of the Romanesque-Gothic style in Croatia. The British Encyclopedia 1911 British Encyclopedia, p.774 states that: "... from Italy (and Venice) came the Romanesque. The belfry of S. Maria, at Zara, erected in 1105, is first in a long list of Romanesque buildings. At Arbe there is a beautiful Romanesque campanile which also belongs to the 12th century; but the finest example in this style is the cathedral of Trau. The 14th century Dominican and Franciscan convents in Ragusa are also noteworthy. Romanesque lingered on in Dalmatia until it was displaced by Venetian Gothic in the early years of the 15th century. The influence of Venice was then at its height. Even in the relatively hostile Republic of Ragusa the Romanesque of the custom-house and Rectors' palace is combined with Venetian Gothic, while the graceful balconies and ogee windows of the Prijeki closely follow their Venetian models. In 1441 Giorgio Orsini of Zara, summoned from Venice to design the cathedral of Sebenico, brought with him the influence of the Italian Renaissance. The new forms which he introduced were eagerly imitated and developed by other architects, until the period of decadence - which virtually concludes the history of Dalmatian art - set in during the latter half of the 17th century. Special mention must be made of the carved woodwork, embroideries and plate preserved in many churches. The silver statuette and the reliquary of St. Biagio at Ragusa, and the silver ark of St. Simeon at Zara, are fine specimens of Italian jewelers' work, ranging in date from the 11th or 12th to the 17th century ...". In the 19th century the cultural influence from Venice & the Italian peninsula (Italy) originated the editing in Zara of the first Dalmatian newspaper, in Italian (Italian language) and Croatian (Croatian language): ''Il Regio Dalmata – Kraglski Dalmatin'', founded and published by the Italian Bartolomeo Benincasa in 1806 AD. Furthermore, this ''Kraglski Dalmatin'' was stamped in the typography of Antonio Luigi Battara and was the first fully done in Croatian language. Governors The ''Provveditore generale'' (Governor-general) was the official name of Venetian state officials supervising Dalmatia. Category:History of Dalmatia Category:Venetian period in the history of Croatia Category:16th century in Croatia Category:17th century in Croatia Category:18th century in Croatia Category:History of Italy


Deir al-Balah

; military road to Canaan. Bunson, 2002, p. 97. The square-shaped building had four towers at each corner and included a reservoir. Archaeological findings in Deir al-Balah revealed a large ancient Egyptian cemetery with graves containing jewelry and other personal belongings. The inhabitants of the fortress employed traditional Egyptian techniques and artistic designs in their architectural works. ref name


Semarang

; Anwari in Bandung, which provided planning and contractor services. Among Sukarno's architectural works are the renovated building of the Preanger Hotel (1929), where he acted as assistant to famous Dutch architect Charles Prosper Wolff Schoemaker (Wolff Schoemaker). Sukarno also designed many private houses on today's Jalan Gatot Subroto, Jalan Palasari, and Jalan Dewi Sartika in Bandung. Later on, as president, Sukarno remained engaged in architecture, designing the Proclamation Monument and adjacent ''Gedung Pola'' in Jakarta, the Youth Monument (''Tugu Muda'') in Semarang, the Alun-alun Monument in Malang, the Heroes' Monument in Surabaya, and also the new city of Palangkaraya in Central Kalimantan. 2000 PDI-P National Congress The First PDI-P Congress was held in Semarang, Central Java in April 2000, at which Megawati was re-elected as the Chairperson of PDI-P for a 2nd term. Career In 1883, Eijkman left Holland for The Indies, where he was made medical officer of health, first in Semarang, then later at Tjilatjap, a small village on the south coast of Java, and at Padang Sidempoean in Western Sumatra. It was at Tjilatjap that he caught malaria, which later so impaired his health that he, in 1885, had to return to Europe on sick-leave. - SRG WARS Achmad Yani International Airport Semarang, Indonesia - In December, the brigade was part of Operation Pounce a mission to disarm the Japanese in Java until they could be relieved by Dutch forces in April 1945. On their arrival in Batavia (Jakarta) they discovered that the Japanese had handed over their weapons to Indonesian nationalists. Who made the most of the opportunity to attack the British force. The brigade dispersed rioters and patrolled the city until they were moved to Semarang on the coast between Batavia and Surabaya in January 1946. To prevent extremists infiltrating into the town, the three battalions established patrols on the outskirts of the town and defended the docks and the airport. Despite a number of guerrilla attacks, law and order was re-established. In April 1946, they handed over control to the Dutch and returned to Singapore. Commons:Category:Semarang


Bandung

. On March 1923, Sukarno divorced Siti Oetari to marry Inggit (who also divorced her husband Sanoesi). And later on Soekarno also divorced Inggit and married Fatmawati. Sukarno graduated with a degree in engineering on 25 May 1926. In July 1926, with his university friend Anwari, he established the architectural firm Soekarno & Anwari in Bandung, which provided planning and contractor services. Among Sukarno's architectural works are the renovated building of the Preanger Hotel (1929), where he acted as assistant to famous Dutch architect Charles Prosper Wolff Schoemaker (Wolff Schoemaker). Sukarno also designed many private houses on today's Jalan Gatot Subroto, Jalan Palasari, and Jalan Dewi Sartika in Bandung. Later on, as president, Sukarno remained engaged in architecture, designing the Proclamation Monument and adjacent ''Gedung Pola'' in Jakarta, the Youth Monument (''Tugu Muda'') in Semarang, the Alun-alun Monument in Malang, the Heroes' Monument in Surabaya, and also the new city of Palangkaraya in Central Kalimantan. Sukarno graduated with a degree in engineering on 25 May 1926. In July 1926, with his university friend Anwari, he established the architectural firm Soekarno & Anwari in Bandung, which provided planning and contractor services. Among Sukarno's architectural works are the renovated building of the Preanger Hotel (1929), where he acted as assistant to famous Dutch architect Charles Prosper Wolff Schoemaker (Wolff Schoemaker). Sukarno also designed many private houses on today's Jalan Gatot Subroto, Jalan Palasari, and Jalan Dewi Sartika in Bandung. Later on, as president, Sukarno remained engaged in architecture, designing the Proclamation Monument and adjacent ''Gedung Pola'' in Jakarta, the Youth Monument (''Tugu Muda'') in Semarang, the Alun-alun Monument in Malang, the Heroes' Monument in Surabaya, and also the new city of Palangkaraya in Central Kalimantan. In the meantime, Sukarno eventually divorced Inggit, who refused to accept her husband's wish for polygamy. She was provided with a house in Bandung and a pension for the rest of her life. In 1943, he married Fatmawati. They lived in a house in Jl. Pegangsaan Timur No. 56, confiscated from its previous Dutch owners and presented to Sukarno by the Japanese. This house would later be the venue of the Proclamation of Indonesian Independence in 1945. In the regions, the Darul Islam (Darul Islam (Indonesia)) rebels under Kartosuwirjo in West Java refused to acknowledge Sukarno's authority and declared a NII (Negara Islam Indonesia - Islamic State of Indonesia) on August 1949. Rebellions in support of Darul Islam also broke-out in South Sulawesi in 1951, and in Aceh in 1953. Meanwhile, pro-federalism members of the disbanded KNIL (Royal Dutch East Indies Army) launched failed rebellion in Bandung (APRA rebellion (Legion of Ratu Adil) of 1950), in Makassar (Makassar Uprising) in 1950, and in Ambon (Republic of South Maluku revolt of 1950). Commons:Category:Bandung Wikipedia:Bandung


Kaifeng

WikiPedia:Kaifeng


Surabaya

thumb left 160px Sukarno as an Hogere burgerschool HBS (File:Sukarno HBS.png) student in Surabaya, 1916. The son of a Javanese primary school teacher, an aristocrat (Aristocracy (class)) named Raden Soekemi Sosrodihardjo and his Balinese wife from the Brahman caste (Brahmin) named Ida Ayu Nyoman Rai from Buleleng regency, Sukarno was born at Jl. Pandean IV 40 Surabaya, East Java in the Dutch East Indies (now Indonesia). Following Javanese (Javanese people) custom, he was renamed after surviving a childhood illness. After graduating from a native primary school in 1912, he was sent to ''Europeesche Lagere School'' (Dutch-medium junior secondary school) in Mojokerto. When his father sent him to Surabaya in 1916 to attend a ''Hogere Burger School'' (Dutch-medium secondary school), he met Tjokroaminoto, a nationalist and founder of Sarekat Islam, the owner of the boarding house where he lived. In 1920, Sukarno married Tjokroaminoto's daughter Siti Oetari. In 1921 he began to study at the ''Technische Hogeschool'' (Institut Teknologi Bandung) (Technical Institute) in Bandung. He studied civil engineering and focused on architecture. In Bandung, Sukarno became romantically involved with Inggit Garnasih, the wife of Sanoesi, the boarding house owner where he lived as student. Inggit was 13 years older than Sukarno. On March 1923, Sukarno divorced Siti Oetari to marry Inggit (who also divorced her husband Sanoesi). And later on Soekarno also divorced Inggit and married Fatmawati. thumb left 160px Sukarno as an Hogere burgerschool HBS (File:Sukarno HBS.png) student in Surabaya, 1916. The son of a Javanese primary school teacher, an aristocrat (Aristocracy (class)) named Raden Soekemi Sosrodihardjo and his Balinese wife from the Brahman caste (Brahmin) named Ida Ayu Nyoman Rai from Buleleng regency, Sukarno was born at Jl. Pandean IV 40 Surabaya, East Java in the Dutch East Indies (now Indonesia). Following Javanese (Javanese people) custom, he was renamed after surviving a childhood illness. After graduating from a native primary school in 1912, he was sent to ''Europeesche Lagere School'' (Dutch-medium junior secondary school) in Mojokerto. When his father sent him to Surabaya in 1916 to attend a ''Hogere Burger School'' (Dutch-medium secondary school), he met Tjokroaminoto, a nationalist and founder of Sarekat Islam, the owner of the boarding house where he lived. In 1920, Sukarno married Tjokroaminoto's daughter Siti Oetari. In 1921 he began to study at the ''Technische Hogeschool'' (Institut Teknologi Bandung) (Technical Institute) in Bandung. He studied civil engineering and focused on architecture. In Bandung, Sukarno became romantically involved with Inggit Garnasih, the wife of Sanoesi, the boarding house owner where he lived as student. Inggit was 13 years older than Sukarno. On March 1923, Sukarno divorced Siti Oetari to marry Inggit (who also divorced her husband Sanoesi). And later on Soekarno also divorced Inggit and married Fatmawati. Sukarno graduated with a degree in engineering on 25 May 1926. In July 1926, with his university friend Anwari, he established the architectural firm Soekarno & Anwari in Bandung, which provided planning and contractor services. Among Sukarno's architectural works are the renovated building of the Preanger Hotel (1929), where he acted as assistant to famous Dutch architect Charles Prosper Wolff Schoemaker (Wolff Schoemaker). Sukarno also designed many private houses on today's Jalan Gatot Subroto, Jalan Palasari, and Jalan Dewi Sartika in Bandung. Later on, as president, Sukarno remained engaged in architecture, designing the Proclamation Monument and adjacent ''Gedung Pola'' in Jakarta, the Youth Monument (''Tugu Muda'') in Semarang, the Alun-alun Monument in Malang, the Heroes' Monument in Surabaya, and also the new city of Palangkaraya in Central Kalimantan. Ominously, Dutch soldiers and administrators under the name of Netherlands Indies Civil Administration (NICA) began to return under the protection of the British. They were led by Hubertus Johannes van Mook, a pre-war Dutch colonial administrator who led the Dutch East Indies government-in-exile in Brisbane, Australia. They armed released Dutch POWs, which began to engage in shooting rampages against Indonesian civilians and Republican police. As consequence, armed conflict soon erupted


Medellín

WikiPedia:Medellín Dmoz:Regional South America Colombia Localities Medellín Commons:Medellín


Sichuan

), which acknowledged the unique culture and economy of the region largely differing from that of mainstream northern China in the Yellow River region. The Special District later became the province


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