and architecture) typological and aesthetic changes. In this way Tarimi architectural history represents a dialogue between cultures both within and outside of the modern nation. Mosques and libraries It is estimated that Tarim contains up to 365 ''masājid'' (mosques); one, the Sirjis mosque, dates back to the seventh century. From the 17th to the 19th century, these mosques played a decisive role on the influence of Islamic scholarship in the area. Tarim’s famous al-Muhdar mosque is crowned by a 46-meter-high mud minaret (150 ft), the highest in Yemen. The minaret was designed by the local poets Abu Bakr bin Shihab and Alawi Al Mash’hūr. Completed in 1914, the al-Muhdar mosque is named in honor of Omar Al-Muhdar, a Muslim leader who lived in the city during the 15th century. Tarim...the town of mosques and schools. ''Yemen Times'', November 2005 Tarim also features the massive al-Kaf Library which is attached to the Al-Jame’a Mosque and houses more than 5,000 manuscripts from the region covering religion, the thoughts of the Prophets, Islamic law, Sufism, medicine, astronomy, agriculture, biographies, history, mathematics, philosophy, logic, and the eight volumes of Abū Muhammad al-Hasan al-Hamdānī’s ''Al-Iklil'' (crown). Many go back hundreds of years and often contain vibrantly colored illustration. Between 300 to 400 manuscripts are believed to be unique in the Islamic world, according to the scholar Abd al-Qader Sabban. Breton, J. Manhattan in the Hadhramaut. ''Saudi Aramco World'' (June 1986) pages 22–27 What distinguishes these manuscripts is that the majority belong to Yemeni authors and editors who resided in the Wadi Hadhramaut area. Nevertheless, there are others that belonged to scholars from Morocco, Khurasan (Greater Khorasan), and other Muslim regions. In 1996, estimates for the annual number of visitors to the Al-Kaf Library exceeded 4,780 individuals. Tarimi Palaces Tarim is famous for its innumerable palaces – a collection of approximately thirty mansions constructed between the 1870s and 1930s. During the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Hadhramaut’s merchant families grew rich from trade and investments abroad. The al-Kaf family was considered the most influential. Many members of the family were respected religious scholars. At the same time, they were among the regions first Western (Western culture)izing elite and contributed to public works projects in the name of modernization. Their palaces remain as testament to both their affluence and the complex identity of the modernizing elite of the colonial (Colonialism) period. Palaces financed by the al-Kafs and other families were executed in the stylistic idioms they encountered in British India and Southeast Asia. Consequently, the palaces include examples of Mughal (Mughal architecture), British Colonial, Art Nouveau, Deco, Rococo, Neo-Classical (Neoclassical architecture), and Modernist styles unparalleled in Yemen. While these foreign decorative styles were incorporated into the Tarimi architectural idiom, traditional Hadhrami construction techniques based on the thousand-year-old traditions of unfired mud brick and lime plasters served as the primary methods for executing these buildings. Qasr al-‘Ishshah Complex The complex of ‘Umar bin Shaikh al-Kaf, Qasr al-‘Ishshah is one of the original al-Kaf houses in Tarim. Shaikh al-Kaf built the house on proceeds made in South Asian trade and investment in Singapore’s ''Grand Hotel de l'Europe'' during the 1930s. Clarence-Smith, W. Middle Eastern Entrepreneurs in Southeast Asia, University of London ‘Ishshah derives from the Arabic root ‘-sh-sh meaning to nest, take root, or establish. Qasr al-‘Ishshah is a collection of several buildings constructed over a forty year period. The first building, known as Dar Dawil, was constructed during the 1890s. As Umar’s family grew, so did the size of the complex. Qasr al-‘Ishshah exhibits some of the finest examples of lime plaster decoration (''malas'') in Tarim. The decorative program of the exterior south façade finds its antecedents in Mughal royal architecture, as well as the colonial forms of the Near East, South Asia and Southeast Asia. Interior stucco decoration differs from room to room, including Art Nouveau, Rococo, Neo-Classical and combinations of the three. Myntii 1999 The ornamentation often incorporates pilasters along the walls framing openings, built-in cabinetry with skilled wood carvings, elaborate column capitals, decorated ceilings, niches and kerosene lamp holders, as well as complex color schemes. From 1970 to 1991, Qasr al-‘Ishshah was expropriated by the PDRY and divided up as multi-family housing. The house was recently returned to the al-Kaf family and legal ownership rights are shared amongst many of Shaikh al-Kaf’s descendents. In 1997, the Historical Society for the Preservation of Tarim rented half of the house in order to present the building to the public as a house museum, the only one of its kind in the Hadhramaut. Tarim Conservation Project: Report 2002. Columbia University Education Rabat Tarim Rabat Tarim is an educational institution teaching Islamic and Arabic sciences. In 1886, a group of Tarimi notables decided to build a religious institution for foreign and domestic students in Tarim, and accommodate foreign students. Those notables were Mohammed bin Salem Assri, Ahmed bin Omar al-Shatri, Abdul-Qader bin Ahmed al-Haddad, Ahmed bin Abdul-Rahman al-Junēd and Mohammed bin Omar Arfan. (100 feet) high, thus being early high-rise apartment buildings. In order to protect the buildings from rain and erosion, the walls must be routinely maintained by applying fresh layers of mud. The nearby town of Tarim (Tarim, Yemen) contains the tallest structure in the Wadi Hadhramaut valley, the mudbrick minaret of the Al-Mihdhar mosque. It stands at a height of approximately 53 meters (175 feet.) This is the tallest minaret in the southern Arabian peninsula. p. 9, ''The Shadow Factory: The Ultra-Secret NSA from 9 11 to the Eavesdropping on America'', James Bamford, Random House, Inc., 2009, ISBN 0-307-27939-1. '''Imam Abd Allah ibn Alawi al-Haddad''' born in 1634 CE (1044 Hijri). He lived his entire life in the town of Tarim (Tarim, Yemen) in Yemen’s Valley of Hadramawt and died there in 1720 CE (1132 Hijri). In Islamic history, he was considered one of the sages. He was an adherent to the Ashari Sunni Creed of Faith (Aqeedah), while in Islamic jurisprudence (Fiqh), he was a Shafii.
in the architectural history of the country. Thus, many original fortresses that protected the coast from Byzantine invasions evolved into cities, like Monastir (Monastir, Tunisia), Sousse or Lamta. birth_date 5 April 1911 birth_place Monastir (Monastir, Tunisia), Tunisia death_date , often referred to as ''USM'' or ''USMo''), is a football club from Monastir (Monastir, Tunisia) in Tunisia. Founded in 1923 under the name ''Ruspina Sports'', it was renamed Union Sportive Monastirienne in 1942. The new name reflects the union between Ruspina Sports and other clubs in town (swimming, petanque, etc.) and the Nationalists union of Monastir (like Mustapha Ben Jannet). The team plays in blue and white colors, on its own Mustapha Ben Jannet stadium (Stade Mustapha Ben Jannet) (capacity of 20,000). They train in the El Moraudi club hotel port El Kantaoui.
Stöver (1974) (#Stöver), p. 141. Once again, Linnaeus found a patron; he became acquainted with Count Carl Gustav Tessin (Carl Gustav Tessin), who helped him get work as a physician at the Admiralty. Stöver (1974) (#Stöver), pp. 146–147. Koerner (1999) (#Koerner), p. 16. During this time in Stockholm, Linnaeus helped found the Royal Swedish Academy of Science; he became the first Praeses in the academy by drawing of lots. Koerner (1999) (#Koerner), pp. 103–105. File:Stora Kopparberg 1288.jpg thumb 1 8 share of the Stora
cognitivism , Anti-Iraq war protest in Sydney, Archaeological tourism, Architectural history, Art periods, Art sale, Austin App, Ayal, Aziz (name), Babylonian literature, Baxter Althane disaster, Benny Morris, Black Athena, Boat people, Bondi (onomastics), Books and Journals for Mexican Revolution, Brenton, Brod (onomastics), Buche (onomastics), Buchs (onomastics), Cahen, Cattle mutilation, Cave Creek Complex fire
not occupied (Turkish invasion of Cyprus) by Turkish (Turkey) forces in 1974. Ayia Napa is about from Protaras (Paralimni#Protaras), a town that has recently seen similar development, but still manages to remain low-key and remains more favourable for families and Cypriot locals. * Cleanup needed (updated by bot) ** 158 - 20th century, Aguamania, Aisle, André Jacob Roubo, ArchiLab, Architectural history, Architectural style, Architecture
Ukrainian architecture is a term that describes the motifs and styles that are found in structures built in modern Ukraine, and by Ukrainians worldwide. These include initial roots which were established in the Eastern Slavic (Eastern Slavs) state of Kievan Rus'. After the 12th century (Mongol invasion of Rus), the distinct architectural history continued in the principalities of Galicia-Volhynia. During the epoch of the Zaporozhian Cossacks, a new style unique to Ukraine was developed under the western influences of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. After the union with the Tsardom of Russia, architecture in Ukraine began to develop in different directions, with many structures in the larger eastern, Russian-ruled area built in the styles of Russian architecture of that period, whilst the western Galicia (Galicia (Central Europe)) was developed under Austro-Hungarian architectural influences (Architecture of Austria), in both cases producing fine examples. Ukrainian national motifs would finally be used during the period of the Soviet Union and in modern independent Ukraine. thumb Verkhoturye in 1910 (File:Verkhoturye 1910 LOC prok 02108.jpg) In the 1550s, after the Tsardom of Russia had defeated the Khanate of Kazan and proceeded to gradually annex the lands of the Bashkirs, the Russians finally reached the southern part of the mountain chain. In 1574 they founded Ufa. The upper reaches of the Kama and Chusovaya in the Middle Urals, still unexplored, as well as parts of Transuralia still held by the hostile Siberian Khanate, were granted to the Stroganovs by several decrees of the tsar in 1558-1574. The Stroganovs' land provided the staging ground for Yermak (Yermak Timofeyevich)'s incursion into Siberia (Conquest of the Khanate of Sibir). Yermak crossed the Urals from the Chusovaya to the Tagil (Tagil River) around 1581. In 1597 Babinov's road was built across the Urals from Solikamsk to the valley of the Tura (Tura River), where the town of Verkhoturye (Upper Tura) was founded in 1598. Customs was established in Verkhoturye shortly thereafter and the road was made the only legal connection between European Russia and Siberia for a long time. In 1648 the town of Kungur was founded at the western foothills of the Middle Urals. During the 17th century the first deposits of iron (iron ore) and copper (copper ore) ores, mica, gemstones and other minerals were discovered in the Urals. January–June * February 27 – The Treaty of Stolbovo ends the Ingrian War between Sweden and Russia (Tsardom of Russia). Sweden gains Ingria (Swedish Ingria) and Kexholm (Priozersk). * April 14 – Second Battle of Playa Honda: The Spanish (Spain) navy defeats a Dutch (Netherlands) fleet in the Philippines. * The Jesuit Matteo Ricci becomes the first European to enter the Forbidden City in Beijing, China, during the Ming Dynasty. * A bad harvest occurs in the Tsardom of Russia, due to a rainy summer, causing the Russian famine of 1601–1603. * A famine (ending in 1603) kills about half the Estonian population. However, both economical and cultural growth came to an end in mid-17th century with a series of violent wars against Tsardom of Russia, Sweden, Brandenburg and Transylvania, as well as internal conflicts, known altogether as The Deluge (The Deluge (Polish history)). The misfortunes were started in 1648 by Bohdan Chmielnicki, who started a large-scale Cossack uprising (Chmielnicki's Uprising) in Ukraine. Although the Cossacks were defeated in 1651 in the battle of Beresteczko, Khmelnytsky sought help from Russian tsar, and by the Treaty of Pereyaslav Russia dominated and partially occupied the eastern lands of the Commonwealth since 1655. The Swedes (Swedish Empire) invaded and occupied the rest in the same year. The wars had shown internal problems of the state, with some people of the Grand Duchy supporting Russia The '''Russo-Swedish War of 1656–1658''' was fought by Russia and Sweden as a theater of the Second Northern War. It took place during a pause in the contemporary Russo-Polish War (1654-1667) as a consequence of the Truce of Vilna. Despite initial successes, Tsar Alexis of Russia failed to secure his principal objective—to revise the Treaty of Stolbovo, which had stripped Russia (Tsardom of Russia) of the Baltic coast at the close of the Ingrian War. * Though this was not the most noble person who had ever set foot in the establishment (an honor that would have to go to Peter, or — who knows? — Solomon), he was unquestionable the best-dressed, and identifiable, from a thousand yards, as a courtier… “Frightfully sorry to intrude,” said the courtier, “but word has reached the Household that an important Man (w:Peter I of Russia) has come to London ''incognito''. … From Muscovy (w:Tsardom of Russia), ‘tis said … The Lady of said Household (w:Anne of Great Britain) is deathly ill. On her behalf, I have come to greet the said Gentleman, and to observe the requisite formalities.” Daniel nodded out the window toward the melee. “As we say in Boston: ''get in line.''” ** “Confrontations in a Tavern”
, one in Monastir (Monastir, Tunisia) and one in Jendouba but it also has 178 other institutions including 24 colleges for Technology Studies (ISET) and six higher institutes of teacher training (ISFM). The influential role of the various dynasties that ruled the country, particularly in building cities and princes of Raqqada Mahdia, illuminates the role of the geopolitical context in the architectural history of the country. Thus, many original fortresses that protected the coast from Byzantine invasions evolved into cities, like Monastir (Monastir, Tunisia), Sousse or Lamta. In the 1967 Sousse Interzonal, Fischer turned up 53 minutes late (only seven minutes short of an automatic time forfeiture) for his game with Reshevsky, and made his opening move without a word of apology. Reshevsky, who had been convinced that Fischer had withdrawn from the tournament, lost the game badly and complained furiously to the organizers. Dmoz:Regional Africa Tunisia Localities Sousse Commons:Category:Sousse
Pickford (his uncle), at his Hyde Park, London premises. Pickford worked with his uncle for about ten years, training first as a mason and then as an architect. Dmoz:Regional Europe United Kingdom England Derbyshire Derby wikipedia:Derby
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