Places Known For

architectural design

Semnan, Iran

of the Alavid dynasty, centered in the ancient region of Tabaristan. The shrine also has religious value, being that the Alavids were the direct descendants of the second Shi'a Imam, Imam Hassan. :: پورتال شهرداری سمنان || Semnan Municipality Portal :: * Imamzadeh Yahya Mosque - Aside from the mosque's aesthetic tile work and architectural design, this is a designated place of Ziyarah, or Islamic pilgrimage. The mosque is characterized by its massive entrance, stained glass windows, glossy marble flooring, and unique interior design. :: پورتال شهرداری سمنان || Semnan Municipality Portal :: * Imamzadeh Ali ibn Jafar Mosque - Another place of Ziyarah, or Islamic pilgrimage, with aesthetic tile work and architectural design. The mosque is characterized by its green domes and a massive adobe dome that towers above the complex. :: پورتال شهرداری سمنان || Semnan Municipality Portal :: * Imamzadeh Ali ibn Ashraf Mosque - A beautiful mosque and place of Ziyarah, or Islamic pilgrimage. * Memorial of the Martyrs (Mezar Shohada) - this building was constructed as an interior cemetery for the soldiers of Semnan that were martyred in the brutal Iran-Iraq War of 1980–1988. The building consists of a glossy marble flooring, elegant chandeliers, murals, and stained glass windows. * Hakim Elahi Mausoleum - Hakim Elahi was a prominent scholar of Islam and philosophy. Secular thumb Historical entrance to the Semnan Citadel at night (File:Arg-semnan.jpg) * Pehne Hot Springs - a public bath house which uses hot therapeutic waters. These waters are utilized for relaxation as well as hydrotherapy. * The Gate of the Semnan Fortress - built by the Qajar dynasty under Prince Bahman Mirzaye Baha'ed-dowleh, the son of Fath Ali Shah Qajar. Unfortunately, Reza Shah Pahlavi destroyed the other three entrances and the walls around the old city under the pretext of road construction. * Semnan Bazaar - the place to buy the souvenirs, handicrafts, appliances, food items, etc. * Pehne Bazaar - a large and vast center of commerce with multiple wings. Similar to most bazaars in Iran, Pehne Bazaar has almost all the necessities as well as local products. * Sheikh Ala'ed-dowleh Bazaar - a traditional center of commerce that carries all the basic necessities as well as tourist items. * Tadayyon House - A mansion style home of the wealthy class in the Qajar (Qajar dynasty) era of Semnan. This multi-story complex consists of a stable, a massive kitchen, a traditional cistern of water, along with a towering windcatcher, signature of Iran's arid cities. The complex also features a unique Azerbaijani (Azerbaijani people) architectural design, signature of Qajar (Qajar dynasty) era buildings. :: پورتال شهرداری سمنان || Semnan Municipality Portal :: * The Interior Gardens of Semnan (Baghat Dakhil Shahr) - These massive gardens cover the entire southwestern portion of the city in a green, lush, and forested environment. The main trees that dominate the landscape are walnut and pomegranate trees. Within the gardens are numerous creeks trickling along the irregated paths, as well as traditional adobe brick homes which provide much of the housing for the "Maleh" district of Semnan. * The Garden Restaurant - This is by far the most traditional restaurant in the city of Semnan. The Garden Restaurant offers a traditional Iranian cuisine, including local dishes, and a beautiful outdoor dining experience. The restaurant features an entrance arch decorated with stained glass mosaic windows leading into a large courtyard filled with fountains, trees, flowers, and running water. Historical innovations thumb Example of a badgir (File:BadGir.JPG) attached to a cistern of water in Yazd, Iran similar in construct to the ones in Semnan Semnan's proximity to the Kavir (Dasht-e Kavir) Desert has provided the city with the opportunity to construct numerous facilities in order to cope with the dry climate. As a result, Semnan has numerous ancient, traditional irregation systems known as qanat. In addition, the roofs of many buildings are decorated with windcatchers known in Persian as badgir. These badgirs were normally attached to a small cistern of drinking water known in Persian as Ab Anbar. These ancient, traditional, and clever designs and systems helped Semnan grow and prosper before the introduction of modern plumbing and appliances. Within the vicinity of the city, ancient caravanserais from the active era of the historic and legendary Silk Road can be found. Economy The city of Semnan has traditionally been an important center of commerce along the historical Silk Road, and is still an important agricultural, industrial, and cultural center today. Industrial sector The production of textiles and carpets were the most important industries in the history of the city. But nowadays, in relation to its population, Semnan has very powerful industrial sectors, with special regards to its automobile industry (cars and bikes). Another major industry is the production of cement from the nearby cement plants. The mountains and foothills around Semnan also hold major deposits of minerals used in the production of plaster; these mines are known in Persian as ''ma'dan e gach''. Other minerals that are mined around the city consist of gypsum, salts, zeolite, bentonite, and celestine (celestine (mineral)). Some heavy industries of Semnan consist of the Iran Khodro Semnan Production Plant (producing 100,000 Samand cars per year), Oqab Afshan Production Plant (largest bus production plant in the region of Asia), the Semnan Sodium Carbonate Company (largest in the region of Asia), and the Semnan Rolling Mills Group (major producer of piping and profiles). One of the largest industrial zone in the city is the Semnan Industrial Town, which features 2,100 hectares of land and 900 industrial units. Agricultural sector Agricultural traditions still persist around and within the city of Semnan. The Golrudbar river, which starts in the Alborz mountains in the north, runs through the western side of the city. With proper irregation, the municipality has managed to convert the entire southwestern portion of the city into green and lush pomegranate gardens. Around the city, further irregation of the Golrudbar river and the surrounding creeks and tributaries have provided the proper environment for the cultivation of herbs, eggplants, potatoes, walnuts, and cotton. Semnan also produces handwoven rugs called ''Glim''. These rugs consist of naturally dyed wools, woven into beautiful tribal and local designs. Villages in Semnan-Iran-05-22-2011 - YouTube Demography and ethnic influences Majority of the city dwellers are Persians. Older Semnan was made up of four main districts: Shaji (Shahjoo), Naasaar, Latibaar and Espanjon (Esfanjan). These four districts still exist today, but the city has grown and become much larger including some new districts. To the west of the city is "Maleh" which used to be a separate settlement but was not a part of Semnan. In the local language the inhabitants are known as Malezh. "Maleh" consists of three parts: Koery (Kodivar), Koshmeni (Kushmaqaan) and Zaveni (Zavaqaan). "Maleh" is now part of Semnan. As a result of the Qajar dynasty's heavy influence on the city of Semnan, especially under Fath Ali Shah's reign, some families in Semnan can trace their lineage back to the Qajar dynasty. Furthermore, much of the city's most important monuments have been built under Turkic (Turkic peoples) dynasties. For example, the Jame' Mosque of Semnan, constructed nearly 1,000 years ago, was built by the Seljuq dynasty. The famous Imam Mosque, originally known as Soltani Mosque, was constructed by the Qajar dynasty. The Gate of Semman, or Arg e Semnan, which is the representative symbol of the city of Semnan, was also constructed by the Qajar dynasty. Many other historical sites within the city and the surrounding villages demonstrate a strong Turkic (Turkic peoples) and Ilkhanate influence in their architectural designs. Also, much of the city's ''Sayyid'' population tends to descend from the Alavids of the Caspian region to the north of the province. Religion The people of the city of Semnan are almost all entirely Shi'a Muslim. The Shi'a Islamic faith dominates the culture, norms, traditions, and beliefs of the city, and continues to dictate the style of life in city. As a result, the celebrations, rituals, and days of religious mourning play a major role in the life of a Semnani city dweller, and are for some families, more important that the national Iranian customs and holidays. The majority of the people of Semnan observe Shi'a Islam quite conservatively; hence, the martyrdom and birthdays of Shi'a Imams are very important days on the calendar. Muharram traditions thumb Artistic impression of a historical Day of Ashura Ashura (File:10 Muharram.jpg) mourning ceremony, by Fausto Zonaro (1909) Muharram is the first month of the Islamic Calendar, and also the month which marks the brutal and tragic martyrdom of the third Shi'a Imam, Imam Hussein and 72 members of his household. The people of Semnan observe Muharram and the overall 50 days of mourning by refraining from worldy pleasures, such as music and joyful gatherings, wearing dark clothes to show intimate grief, and participating in outdoor rallies consisting of massive mourning accompanied by sorrowful chants which recall the events of the tragedy in Karbala, the place of Imam Hussein's martyrdom. In addition, the mournings on the tenth day of Muharram, known as Ashura (Day of Ashura), consist of self-flagellation rituals in which the participants attempt to symbolically inflict pain upon themselves. Another major event held in Semnan during the month of Muharram is the reenactment of the tragedy of Karbala. Participating locals would wear the armor and clothing of the armies of Imam Hussein and his enemies, as well as decorating the local horses in the cavalry uniform of the era. Thus, the battle would be reenacted. خطای نابهنگام During this month's sorrowful rituals, it is custom to cook a community meal (usually a stew). This is done by placing colossal cauldrons outside upon a source of heat, then, people would take turns stirring the stew until it is ready to be consumed by the community's mourners. سایت جامع سمنان - مسابقه عكس "شور عاشورا " در سمنان برگزار می‌شود Traditional clothing and modern trends thumb Common clothing for Western Imitation (File:Iranian women walking and talking.jpg) Being a city in the Islamic Republic of Iran, all styles and clothing trends in Semnan must meet the Islamic standards of Hijab. The styles of clothing within the city of Semnan are categorized within the ''Western (Western world)'', ''Rural Semnani'', and ''Modern Iranian'' styles. * '''Western Imitation:''' Regardless of religious beliefs, a large number of Semnanis prefer to wear Western clothing. For men, this style of clothing usually refers to a t-shirt and a pair of jeans, or an informal dress shirt tucked into a pair of jeans or slacks. For women, this style of clothing usually refers to a pair of jeans, a blouse, and a tight, thin overcoat in order to meet Islamic standards of dress. * '''Rural Semnani:''' The rural Semnani style of clothing is the traditional clothing of the people of Semnan, however, this style of clothing is rarely seen within the city, and is mainly worn during ceremonies held by the rural people living in the villages around Semnan. For men, rural Semnani clothing refers to a vest like garment worn over an informal long-sleeved dress shirt along with a pair of slacks. Also, the men tend to wear a wool cap or prayer cap. For women, this style of clothing usually refers to a vest worn over a long, loose shirt, along with a long and colorful skirt. The vests worn by the women tend to be decorated with numerous coins dating back to the Pahlavi dynasty and the Qajar dynasty. When the rural-styled women leave their homes, they would wear a colorful or flowery designed chador, or a long cloak that covers the body entirely except for the hands and face. * '''Modern Iranian:''' The modern Iranian style of clothing reflects a mixture of Iranian and Western styles of clothing that are worn by the people of Tehran and other major Iranian cities. There are also a few additional accessories worn by individuals to distinguish their rank or social standing. For example, the majority of Sayyid Semnanis distinguish themselves by wearing a green cap, which symbolizes their descent from the Prophet of Islam and his Ahl al-Bayt, or holy household. Villages in Semnan-Iran-05-22-2011 - YouTube Furthermore, the women of Semnan tend to wear the chador as the preferred form of hijab. Semnan Province-Iran-05-01-2011 - YouTube Unique customs and traditions Norms thumb Artistic impression of jinn (File:Jinn from Ali manuscript.jpg) * While the validity of the following has not been verified, some Semnani families have reported that the traditional norms and customs of the city called for a high level of respect and prestigious treatment towards the ''Sayyid'' population; in return, the ''Sayyids'' were expected to demonstrate a dignified source of emulation and guidance for the citizens. If such norms and traditions existed, it is not clear to what extent they are practiced and carried out in today's Semnan. * It has also been reported that the people of Semnan have historically refused to wear black clothing for the mourning of the dead, this does not include the religious mournings of Muharram or the deaths and martyrdoms of Shi'a imams and figures. The foundation of this refusal appears to be rooted in the hatred of the people of Semnan towards the Abbasid Caliphate and its utilization of black flags. What Do You Know About Semnan before Taking a Trip to Iran? | Travel Blog * Superstitions are highly intertwined with the religious beliefs amongst the older generations in Semnan. One example would be the historical refusal of the local people to travel near the Rig-e Jenn or ''Dunes of the Jinn'' while leading trade caravans south towards the Province of Isfahan in the past. The local people believed that evil, demonic spirits lived and dwelled near the sand dunes. * Traditionally, the women were tasked with baking the oven-baked bread of the city. It is reported that in historical times, the women could make three months worth of bread in one day. Over time, the women responsible for the baking of the bread developed several folksongs that they would sing as they baked. Two famous folksongs are "môr siyô" and "nün bışkán". Nowrouz traditions thumb Sample of samanu (File:Samanoo-Samanou-Persian-sweet-paste-for-Nowruz-Haft-Sin-Tablet.jpg) The celebrations of Nowrouz are slightly different in the city of Semnan. Since the beginning of the Iranian (Islamic) solar month of ''Esfand'', a man dressed in red with a charcoal-blackened face known as Hajji Firuz sits on top of a wooden horse, decorated with beautiful textiles, in the bazaars of Semnan. He congratulates the people and takes part in the establishment of the holiday environment. He sings in the Semnani language: ''arbaab e mani somboli baleikom, arbaab e mani sarbalaayii hei kon, arbaab e mani bozboz e qandi, arbaab e mani chera nemikhandi''. Also, as the celebrations approach the Nowrouz, many celebrators blacken there faces with charcoal and join the celebrations. Another interesting aspect of the Nowrouz celebrations are the massive gatherings of the womenfolk in which they make covenants with God (Allah) to cook large batches of samanu for the poor. سایت جامع سمنان - نوروز در استان سمنان Unique foods and dishes thumb Popular Koloocheh and Masgati Kolüçe (File:Kolooche.jpg) cookies (right) demonstrate the Caspian (Caspian Sea) region's culinary influence on Semnan The people of Semnan have many foods and dishes that are specific to Semnan. Some of the common ingredients used in Semnani dishes consist of pomegranate extracts, fresh walnuts from Shahmirzad (şômırzé), a variety of greens and herbs known in Persian as ''sabzijat'', and more recently, potatoes. Semnani food tends to be slightly sour and spicey when compared to the general culinary preferences of Tehran. In fact, there is an old proverb among the local people that says, "Semnan has so many foods, that a wife from this city can cook a different dish for every night of the year." Some of the famous dishes are: Chelo Gousht, سایت دستور پخت غذا - چلو گوشت سمنانی Sabzi polo, سایت پرشین پرشیا-تغذیه وغذاهای سالم - سبزی پلوی سمنانی ها سبزتر است! and Khoresht e Esfanaj va Gerdou (espenôj vu yüz). The Semnani people are also quite fond of a variety of breads such as shirmal, shortbread (kamôç), and Kolüçe (Koloocheh and Masgati) pastries. In the Semnani language, bread that is baked in an oven is referred to as "nün," while bread made by other means is referred to as "sôdjí." The following are the names of some foods in English and Semnani: chicken (gırká), pomegranate (nôr), grapes (engír), cucumber (djürüng), walnut (yüz), eggplant (vıngun), and apricot (şillık). Languages Persian language The Persian language is the official language of the Islamic Republic of Iran, and thus within the city of Semnan. Every literate person in Semnan knows how to communicate in the Persian language. Semnani language , ''Ostān-e Semnān'' ) is one of the 31 provinces (provinces of Iran) of Iran. It is in the north of the country, and its center is Semnan (Semnan, Iran). The province of Semnan covers an area of 96,816 square kilometers and stretches along the Alborz mountain range and borders to Dasht-e Kavir desert in its southern parts. In 1340 Mas'ud moved against the Ja'un-i Qurban under Arghun Shah; the latter was forced to abandon Nishapur and retreat to Tus (Tus, Iran). The Sarbadars continued to mint coins in Togha Temur's name, in the hope that he would ignore this move as he was campaigning in the west again at this time. The khan, however, moved against them; his forces were destroyed, and while fleeing to Mazandaran several important figures such as 'Ala' al-Din (formerly in charge of Sabzavar), 'Adb-Allah, and Togha's own brother 'Ali Ke'un were killed. The Sarbadars gained control of Jajarm, Damghan and Simnan (Semnan, Iran), along with Togha's capital of Gurgan. Mas'ud and Hasan Juri, however, soon came into disagreement over several issues. Mas'ud, following the defeat of Togha Temur, gained a new suzerain in the form of Hasan Kucek of the Chobanids, as well as the latter's puppet khan Sulaiman. Mas'ud considered the move necessary; with the conquest of Simnan, the Chobanids were now neighbors. Since the Chobanids were Sunnis, however, this doubtless did not go over well with Mas'ud's co-ruler. Safir-2 (Safir (rocket)) Semnan (Semnan, Iran), Iran 2 February 2009 The most important network of roads consists of Semnan (Semnan, Iran) to Sangsar to Shahmirzad to Fooladmahale axis which connects these places with the city of Sari (Sari, Iran). This road connects the two provinces of Mazandaran and Semnan.


and Meteora in Greece. The architectural design is in general specific and identical: a large three-aisled basilica with a gable roof. The churches are single-apsed, with a wide altar apse and internal niches that serve as prothesis (Prothesis (altar)) and diaconicon. Most churches also have one niche, each on the northern and southern walls, next to the prothesis and the diakonicon. Along the southern side there is an arched porch. Of the ca. 24-30 churches of Moscopole, besides the St. John the Baptist Monastery (St. John the Baptist's Monastery, Moscopole) ( Aromanians of Katerini mainly descend from nearby Aromanian settlements of Livadi and Kokkinopilos, and in lesser numbers from Samarina, Moscopole, Avdella, Perivoli (Perivoli, Grevena) and Smixi. According to some sources the Aromanians formed a majority amongst the town's Christian population in the beginning of the 20th century. Early life He was Aromanian (Aromanians) in origin, his family having settled with '''Naum Şaguna''' (Andrei's father) in Hungary from Moscopole, now Albania. With the guidance of local Jesuits, Şaguna's parents had opted to convert to Roman Catholicism, seeking to obtain a better status than the second-class (Second-class citizen) one reserved for most Eastern Orthodox (Eastern Orthodox Church) subjects of the Habsburgs. However, the Şagunas most likely continued to practice their original religion in secret - the future Metropolitan was probably never a practising Catholic. Gojdu was born to an Aromanian (Aromanians) family that originated in Moscopole. He studied at the high school in his native town and then graduated in law in Budapest, Bratislava and Vienna, becoming both a lawyer and a politician in 1824. He was a supporter of the rights of the Romanians in Transylvania and Hungary.

Kenzō Tange

project was a seventeen-hectare (42-acre) development set in Tokyo's Hibiya Park. Stewart (1987), p. 171 Early career After graduating from the university, Tange started to work as an architect at the office of Kunio Maekawa. During his employment, he travelled to Manchuria, participating in an architectural design competition for a bank, and toured Japanese-occupied Jehol (Jehol Province) on his return. When the Second World War started, he left Maekawa to rejoin the University of Tokyo as a postgraduate student. He developed an interest in urban design, and referencing only the resources available in the university library, he embarked on a study of Greek and Roman marketplaces. In 1942, Tange entered a competition for the design of the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere Memorial Hall. He was awarded first prize for a design that would have been situated at the base of Mount Fuji; the hall he conceived was a fusion of Shinto shrine architecture and the plaza on Capitoline Hill in Rome. The design was not realised. Reynolds (2001), p. 126 In 1946, Tange became an assistant professor at the university and opened Tange Laboratory. In 1963, he was promoted to professor of the Department of Urban Engineering. His students included Sachio Otani, Kisho Kurokawa, Arata Isozaki, Hajime Yatsuka and Fumihiko Maki. Category:1913 births Category:2005 deaths Category:Japanese architects Category:Pritzker Architecture Prize winners Category:Recipients of the Order of the Sacred Treasure, 1st class Category:Recipients of the Pour le Mérite (civil class) Category:Recipients of the Praemium Imperiale Category:Recipients of the Royal Gold Medal Category:Recipients of the Order of Culture Category:Légion d'honneur recipients Category:People from Sakai, Osaka Category:University of Tokyo alumni Category:Nihon University alumni Category:Expo '70 Category:Japanese Roman Catholics

Pushkin, Saint Petersburg

Category:Cities and towns under jurisdiction of Saint Petersburg Category:Tsarskoselsky Uyezd Category:Populated places established in 1710 Category:Alexander Pushkin Category:1710 establishments in Russia - Pushkin (Pushkin, Saint Petersburg) Пушкин Saint Petersburg - *Petrozavodsk – tsar Peter the Great (Peter I of Russia) *Pushkin (Pushkin, Saint Petersburg) – Aleksandr Pushkin *Saint Petersburg – St. Peter, as the patron saint of Peter the Great (Peter I of Russia) (Saint Petersburg, Florida in the United States was in turn named after the Russian city)

Frisco, Texas

work accessdate 2006-07-13 and received the 2003 Texas Construction award for Best Architectural Design. Toyota Stadium (Toyota Stadium (Texas)), which was opened August 6, 2005, as "Pizza Hut Park", is a 20,500-seat stadium. It is primarily used

Lakeside Apartments District, Oakland, California

to include multiple ground floor retail shop spaces, a transit information kiosk, and 54 parking spaces for 73 units, a ratio of .74 parking spaces per unit, which departs from Oakland's current 'one to one' parking ratio planning law. This project came under intense scrutiny from neighborhood activists for its architectural design which contrasts with the character of a mosque next door to the project, the Islamic Cultural Center of Northern California, a historic mission-revival building


in 1854 Jacques Garreau, ''Les chemins de fer en Norvège'' the terminus in Oslo had been constructed as an ad-hoc solution located at Gamle Oslo Gamlebyen . Suggestions included Youngstorget, Grünerløkka and Vaterlands bru. In 1852 an architectural competition (architectural design competition) was announced, and won by a suggestion based on Crown Street railway

Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission

by the Economic Coordination Committee, and Edward Durell Stone was commissioned to oversee the architectural design of PINSTECH. From 1965–71, the PAEC sent 600 scientists abroad for training in nuclear sciences. in 1969, the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, agreed to supply a small scale nuclear reprocessing plant, with the capacity to extract 360 grams of plutonium per year. ref name


Britto in 1607. wikipedia:Makati commons:Category:Makati City


Deco architectural style. Henri Maclaine-Pont was among the first Dutch architects to recognise the importance of combining each architectural style with local cultural traditions. He stressed that modern architecture should interact with local history and native elements. Commons:Category:Bandung Wikipedia:Bandung

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