1183 and then on August 13, 1184, Saladin and al-Adil besieged Karak (Al Karak), but to no avail. Afterward, the Ayyubids raided Samaria, burning down Nablus. Saladin returned to Damascus in September 1184 and a generally peaceful environment between the Crusader states and the Ayyubid empire subsequently ensued in 1184-85. ) is one of the governorates of Jordan, located south-west of Amman, Jordan's capital. Its capital is Al Karak. It borders Madaba (Madaba Governorate) and the Capital (Amman Governorate) Governorates to the north, Ma'an Governorate from the east, Tafilah Governorate from the south, and the Dead Sea form the west. - align center style "background:#f0f0f0;" 1 align left '''Capital Department (Al-Qasabah)''' style "background:#f0f0f0;" لواء قصبة الكرك align left includes the city of Al Karak and 35 other towns and villages style "background:#f0f0f0;" 64,850 Al Karak - '''Kerak Castle''' is a large crusader castle (crusader castles) located in Kerak (Al Karak) in Jordan. It is one of the largest crusader castles in the Levant. Construction of the castle began in the 1140s, under Pagan (Pagan the Butler), Fulk of Jerusalem's butler. The Crusaders called it ''Crac des Moabites'' or "Karak in Moab", as it is frequently referred to in history books. Kerak should not be confused with Krak des Chevaliers. thumb left 250px The Upper court (File:Karak Castle 01.jpg)
in Palestine, and Nehardea are mentioned in the 3rd century as cities whose inhabitants were proud and ignorant (Yer. Pes. 32a; comp. Bab. Pes. 62b; see Bacher, ''Ag. Pal. Amor.'' i. 60). Nehardea is famous in the history of the Masorah (Masoretes) because of an ancient tradition relating to the number of verses in the Bible; it is here said that Hamnuna (Hamnuna (disambiguation)) (Bacher, l.c. i. 2) brought this tradition from Nehardea, where he had received it from Naḳḳai (see ''M. J. C.'' i. 174; Strack, ''Diḳduḳ Ṭe'amim,'' p. 56). Certain readings of the Biblical text are characterized by tradition—especially by the Masorah to the Pentateuch Targum (Onkelos)—as being those of Sura, and certain others as of Nehardea (see Berliner, ''Die Massorah zum Targum Onkelos,'' pp. xiii. et seq., 61-70, Leipsic, 1877). Bibliography * Barak S. Cohen, "‘In Nehardea Where There Are No Heretics’: The Purported Jewish Response to Christianity in Nehardea (A Re-examination of the Talmudic Evidence)," in Dan Jaffé (ed), ''Studies in Rabbinic Judaism and Early Christianity: Text and Context'' (Leiden: Brill, 2010) (Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity Arbeiten zur Geschichte des antiken Judentums und des Urchristentums, 74), See also *Nehardea Academy *Anbar (town) (Firuz Shapur) *Fallujah *Talmudic Academies in Babylonia *Pumbedita Academy *Pumbedita (City) *Mahuza *Pum-Nahara Academy *Sura (city) *Sura Academy *Talmudic Academies in the Land of Israel Notes
. Fishing on this lake is an ancient tradition and the lake has an annual bass fishing tournament. The Welib Já Waterfall is located on the road between Palenque and Bonampak. left thumb Overlooking part of the Malpaso or Nezahualcoyotl Reservoir (File:MalpasoDam02.JPG) - 071 Palenque (Palenque, Chiapas) Palenque (Palenque, Chiapas) - *295 (Mexican Federal Highway 295): Río Lagartos, YUC - Valladolid (Valladolid, Yucatán), YUC - Felipe Carrillo Puerto (Felipe Carrillo Puerto, Quintana Roo), QR *307 (Mexican Federal Highway 307): Cancún, QR - Chetumal (Chetumal, Quintana Roo), QR; Palenque (Palenque, Chiapas), CHIS - Benemérito de las Américas, CHIS - La Trinitaria (La Trinitaria, Mexico), CHIS - Palenque (Palenque, Chiapas) Miguel Alemán (Miguel Alemán, Tamaulipas) - thumb Howler monkey at the Yaxchilan archeological site (File:HowlerMonkeyYaxchilan01.JPG) The Lacandon has approximately 1.9 million hectares stretching from southeast Chiapas into northern Guatemala and into the southern Yucatán Peninsula. The Chiapas portion is located on the Montañas del Oriente (Eastern Mountains) centered on a series of canyonlike valleys called the Cañadas, between smaller mountain ridges oriented from northwest to southeast. It is bordered by the Guatemalan border on two sides with Comitán de Domínguez (Comitán, Chiapas) to the southwest and the city of Palenque (Palenque, Chiapas) to north. While migration of people into the lowland rainforests had been going on since the 1930s, it accelerated in the 1960s and 1970s, as there was high population growth in the highlands areas. The government encouraged people, especially the indigenous, to move to the lowlands and claim lands there. During the 20th century, the population of municipalities in this area, such as Altamirano (Altamirano, Chiapas), Las Margaritas (Las Margaritas, Chiapas), Ocosingo and Palenque (Palenque, Chiapas) has risen from 11,000 in 1920 to over 376,000 in 2000. In 1990, a World Bank study declared that the following decade would make or break the Lacandon Selva's chances for survival as the rainforest had been "reduced to the minimum size essential for the integrity of its ecosystem." The destruction of the jungle has been such that satellite photos show the Mexico-Guatemalan border where the deforestation on the Mexican side stops.
; ref Casting metalware in Chamba is an ancient tradition, dating back to the Bronze Age period, with items typically made out of copper or brass, and also iron, especially in the traditional making of implements and weapons by blacksmiths. Of particular note in this trade are the large plaques with reliefs, commonly used for wall decoration. The temple cupolas in Chamba district are often furnished with copper and brass items made in Chamba and often the golden kalasha or vessel crowning
production, especially winter wheat is concentrated on the irrigated lands of the Sharur plain and in the basin of the Nakhchivan river. Vine growing in Nakhchivan has an ancient tradition, in the Araz valley and foothills. Very hot summers and long warm autumns make it possible to grow such highly saccharine grapes as bayan-shiraz, tebrizi, shirazi. Wines such as "Nakhchivan" "Shahbuz", "Abrakunis", "Aznaburk" are of reasonable quality and very popular. Fruit production is quite important, mainly of quince, pear, peach, apricot, fig (Common fig), almonds and pomegranate. Cattle ranching (Cattle) is another traditional branch of Nakhchivan farming. Due to the dry climate, pastures in Nakhchivan are unproductive, therefore sheep breeding prevails over other livestock production (livestock). Winter pastures stretch on the PriAraz plain, on the foothills and mountain sides to the altitude of 1200 m. But the summer pastures go up on the high-mountain area to an altitude of 2300–3200 m. The most widespread sheep variety is "balbas". These sheep are distinguished by their productivity and snow-white silky wool which is widely used in the manufacture of carpets. Horned and small cattle are bred everywhere, especially in environs of Sharur and Nakhchivan. Buffalo (Eurasian Buffalo)es are also bred here. — ایروان جانلیغی) also known as '''Čoḵūr Saʿd''' Hewsen, Robert H (Robert H. Hewsen). and George Bournoutian. "Erevan." Encyclopedia Iranica. Accessed January 3, 2009. , was an administrative territory that was established Safavid Persia in the early 17th century. It covered an area of roughly 7,500 square miles, and corresponded to most of present-day central Armenia, most of the Iğdır Province of present-day Turkey, and the Sharur and Sadarak rayons of the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic of present-day Azerbaijan.
of the generation after Socrates. Ancient tradition ascribes thirty-six dialogues and thirteen letters (Epistles (Plato)) to him, although of these only twenty-four of the dialogues are now universally recognized as authentic; most modern scholars believe that at least twenty-eight dialogues and two of the letters were in fact written by Plato, although all of the thirty-six dialogues have some defenders. John M. Cooper, ed., ''Complete Works'', by Plato (Indianapolis: Hackett, 1997), v–vi
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cities like Edo and Osaka. It was not precisely a new form; satirical waka was a style known since ancient times. But it was in the Edo period that this aspect of waka developed and reached an artistic peak. Still, most waka poets kept to ancient tradition or made those reformation another stereotype, and waka was not a vibrant genre in general at the end of this period. * February 23 – In England, the Humble Petition and Advice offers Lord Protector Oliver Cromwell
. State criminals were subjected to the ''karkan'', a triangular wooden collar placed around the neck. On extraordinary occasions when the Shah took justice into his own hand, he would dress himself up in red for the importance of the event, according to ancient tradition. Economy What fueled the growth of Safavid economy was Iran's position between the burgeoning civilizations of Europe to its west and India and Islamic Central Asia to its east
, King Cadwaladr (Cadwaladr) of Gwynedd (Kingdom of Gwynedd) ordered his soldiers to identify themselves by wearing the vegetable on their helmets in an ancient battle against the Saxons that took place in a leek field. This story may have been made up by the English poet Michael Drayton, but it is known that the leek has been a symbol of Wales for a long time; Shakespeare, for example, refers to the custom of wearing a leek as an “ancient tradition” in '' Henry V (play) Henry V