Alsace-Lorraine

of Versailles date_post 28 June 1919 image_flag Dienstflagge Elsaß-Lothringen Kaiserreich.svg image_border border flag_type Flag flag image_coat Wappen Deutsches Reich - Reichsland Elsass-Lothringen.png symbol_type Alsace-Lorraine Coat of arms symbol image_map Alsace-lorraine.JPG image_map_caption The Imperial territory of Alsace-Lorraine

. p1 French Third Republic flag_p1 Flag of France.svg border_p1 border image_p1 s1 French Third Republic flag_s1 Flag of France.svg border_s1 border image_s1 stat_year1 1910 stat_area1 14496 stat_pop1 1874014 footnotes The '''Imperial Territory of Alsace-Lorraine''' (


Template:Infobox former country/doc

flag_p5 Flagge_Großherzogtum_Hessen_ohne_Wappen.svg p6 Alsace-Lorraine flag_p6 Flag of France.svg s1 Weimar Republic s2 Republic of Alsace-Lorraine s3 Free City of Danzig s4 Second Polish Republic s5 Klaipėda Region s6 Saar (League of Nations) s7 Hlučín Region s8 South Jutland County Northern Schleswig s9 Eupen-Malmedy flag_s1 Flag of Germany (3-2 aspect ratio).svg flag_s2 Flag of the Republic of Alsace-Lorraine.svg flag_s3 Gdansk flag.svg

Grand Duchy of Hesse flag_p5 Flagge_Großherzogtum_Hessen_ohne_Wappen.svg p6 Alsace-Lorraine flag_p6 Flag of France.svg s1 Weimar Republic s2 Republic of Alsace-Lorraine s3 Free City of Danzig s4 Second Polish Republic s5 Klaipėda Region s6 Saar (League of Nations) s7 Hlučín Region s8 South Jutland County Northern Schleswig s9 Eupen-Malmedy flag_s1 Flag of Germany (3-2 aspect ratio).svg flag_s2 Flag of the Republic of Alsace-Lorraine.svg flag_s3


German Empire

Württemberg.svg p5 Grand Duchy of Baden flag_p5 Flagge Großherzogtum Baden (1871-1891).svg p6 Grand Duchy of Hesse flag_p6 Flagge Großherzogtum Hessen ohne Wappen.svg p7 Alsace-Lorraine flag_p7 Flag of France.svg s1 Weimar Republic s2 Republic of Alsace-Lorraine s3 Free City of Danzig s4 Second Polish Republic s5 Klaipėda Region s6 Saar (League of Nations) s7 Hlučín Region s8 South Jutland County Northern Schleswig s9 Eupen-Malmedy flag_s1 Flag of Germany

(3-2 aspect ratio).svg flag_s2 Flag of the Republic of Alsace-Lorraine.svg flag_s3 Gdansk flag.svg flag_s4 Flag of Poland.svg flag_s5 Flag of Lithuania 1918-1940.svg flag_s6 Flag of Saar 1920-1935.svg flag_s7 Flag of Czechoslovakia.svg flag_s8 Flag of Denmark.svg flag_s9 Flag of Belgium.svg image_flag Flag of the German Empire.svg flag Flag of Germany#North German Confederation and the German Empire (1866–1918) flag_type Flag image_coat Wappen Deutsches Reich

of capital. Germany was not weighted down with an expensive worldwide empire that needed defense. Following Germany's annexation of Alsace-Lorraine in 1871, it absorbed parts of what had been France's industrial base. Stephen Broadberry, and Kevin H. O'Rourke. ''The Cambridge Economic History of Modern Europe'' (2 vol. 2010) By 1900, the German chemical industry dominated the world market for synthetic dyes (Dye). John J. Beer, ''The Emergence


County of Boulogne

: Eustace IV (Eustace IV of Boulogne) (son of, also Count of Mortain) * 1153–1159 : William I (William I, Count of Boulogne) (brother of, also Count of Mortain and Earl of Surrey) * 1159–1170 : Mary I (Marie, Countess of Boulogne) (sister of, married Matthew of Alsace) ;House of Alsace right 50px (Image:Blason Lorraine.svg) * 1170–1173 : Matthew (Matthew of Alsace) * 1173–1216 : Ida (Ida, Countess of Boulogne) (daughter of, married Renaud de Dammartin Renaud of Dammartin


Roussillon

table at the conclusion of the Thirty Years' War with the Peace of Westphalia, in which Mazarin's policies were French rather than Catholic and brought Alsace (though not Strasbourg) to France; he settled Protestant princes in secularized bishoprics and abbacies in reward for their political opposition to Austria. In 1658 he formed the League of the Rhine, which was designed to check the House of Austria in central Germany. In 1659 he made peace with Habsburg Spain

to the king, and prices ranged from 13 to 27 livre (French livre)s for a ''minot'' (Minot (unit)); #the ''Pays de salines'' (Franche-Comté, Alsace and Lorraine (Lorraine (province))), in which the tax was levied on the salt extracted from the salt marshes, and prices for a ''minot'' (Minot (unit)) varying from 15 livre (French livre)s (Franche-Comté) to between 12 and 36 livre (French livre)s in the numerous fiscal divisions of the Alsace-Lorraine; Guérisse was serving mainly

it is today, Bély, 21. In 1492, roughly 450,000 km² versus 550,000 km² today. and numerous border provinces (such as Roussillon, Cerdagne, Calais, Béarn, Navarre (Basse-Navarre), County of Foix, Flanders (Flanders (county)), Artois, Lorraine (Lorraine (province)), Alsace, Trois-Évêchés (Three Bishoprics), Franche-Comté, Savoy, Bresse, Bugey, Gex (Gex, Ain), Nice, Provence, and Brittany) were autonomous or foreign


Saarland

especially contributed to that process. The first motorcar was built by Karl Benz in 1886. The enormous growth of industrial production and industrial potential also led to a rapid urbanisation of Germany, which turned the Germans into a nation of city dwellers. 450px thumb right Germany 1919–1938 (File:Deutsches Reich2.png) On 28 June 1919 the Treaty of Versailles was signed. Germany was to cede Alsace-Lorraine, Eupen-Malmédy, North Schleswig (Northern Schleswig), and the Klaipėda Memel

, and the Saarland. After the Battle of France, this ''Wehrkreis'' was extended to include Lorraine (Lorraine (region)), including Nancy (Nancy, France), and the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. The commander was ''General der Infanterie'' Walter Schroth. The ''région'' was effectively annexed by Germany in 1940 during World War II, and incorporated into the Greater German Reich (Nazi Germany), which had been restructured into Reichsgaue. Alsace was merged with Baden

, and Lorraine with the Saarland, to become part of a planned Westmark (Gau Westmark). The German government never negotiated or declared a formal annexation, however, in order to preserve the possibility of an agreement with the West. During the war, 130,000 young men from Alsace and Lorraine were forcibly inducted into the German army and in some cases, the Waffen SS. Stéphane Courtois, Mark Kramer. '' Livre noir du


North German Confederation

of the North German Confederation.svg symbol Coat of arms of Germany#North German Confederation symbol_type Coat of arms image_map Map-NDB.svg image_map_caption The North German Confederation (red). The southern German states that joined in 1870 (Unification of Germany) to form the German Empire are in orange. Alsace-Lorraine, the territory annexed following the Franco-Prussian War of 1871, is in a paler orange. The red territory in the South marks the original

King Wilhelm I of Prussia (Wilhelm I, German Emperor). It also marked the downfall of Napoleon III (Napoleon III of France) and the end of the Second French Empire, which was replaced by the French Third Republic. As part of the settlement (Treaty of Frankfurt (1871)), the territory of Alsace and part of Lorraine (Lorraine (region)) was taken by Prussia to become a part of Germany, which it would retain until the end of World War I when it was returned to France in the Treaty

. The preliminary peace treaty was signed at Versailles and the final peace treaty was signed with the Treaty of Frankfurt (Treaty of Frankfurt (1871)) on May 10, 1871. Otto von Bismarck was able to secure Alsace-Lorraine from France as part of the German Empire under the Treaty of Frankfurt. In 1868 Gneist became a member of the North German (North German Confederation) parliament, and acted as a member of the commission for organizing the federal army, and also of that for the settlement


Grand Duchy of Baden

the Bavarian Rhenish Palatinate (Palatinate region) and Alsace in modern France (France); to the south by Switzerland, and to the east by the Kingdom of Württemberg, the Principality of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen and partly by Bavaria. After World War II in 1945, the French military government created the state of Baden (South Baden) (originally known as "South Baden") out of the southern half of the former Baden, with Freiburg im Breisgau Freiburg

Stabel * 1866–1868: Karl Mathy * 1868–1876: Julius Jolly * 1876–1893: Ludwig Karl Friedrich Turban * 1893–1901: Franz Wilhelm Nokk * 1901–1905: Carl Ludwig Wilhelm Arthur von Brauer * 1905–1917: Alexander von Dusch (Alexander von Dusch (Staatsminister)) * 1917–1918: Heinrich von Bodman (Heinrich von und zu Bodman) See also * Baden (territory) (Baden) *German Revolution *Alsace Soviet Republic *Bavarian Soviet Republic Notes

of Bavaria Bavaria . The complete Prussian and German victory brought about the final unification of Germany under King Wilhelm I of Prussia (Wilhelm I, German Emperor). It also marked the downfall of Napoleon III (Napoleon III of France) and the end of the Second French Empire, which was replaced by the French Third Republic. As part of the settlement (Treaty of Frankfurt (1871)), the territory of Alsace and part of Lorraine (Lorraine (region)) was taken by Prussia to become


Palatinate-Neuburg

Ruper (Rupert, Count Palatine of Veldenz) of Veldenz. In 1544, the cadet branch of Palatinate-Veldenz split off. In 1553, the County of Lützelstein (now in Alsace) was purchased from the Electoral Palatinate. Count Palatine Wolfgang dissolved the monasteries in his territory and thereby increased his revenues and acquired the territory of Disibodenberg Abbey. In 1557, he inherited Palatinate-Neuburg, half of the Rear County of Sponheim

of Palatinate-Veldenz split off. In 1553, the County of Lützelstein (now in Alsace) was purchased from the Electoral Palatinate. Count Palatine Wolfgang dissolved the monasteries in his territory and thereby increased his revenues and acquired the territory of Disibodenberg Abbey. In 1557, he inherited Palatinate-Neuburg, half of the Rear County of Sponheim and half of the Lordship of Guttenberg from the Palatinate under the Treaty of Heidelberg


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