Places Known For

Northumbria


Bernicia

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Scottish counties of Berwickshire and East Lothian, stretching from the Forth (River Forth) to the Tees (River Tees). In the early 7th century, it merged with its southern neighbour, Deira (Deira (kingdom)), to form the kingdom of Northumbria and its borders subsequently expanded considerably. British ''Bryneich'' thumb 300px ''Y Hen Gogledd (File:Yr.Hen.Ogledd.550.650.Koch.jpg)'' or "The Old North" Etymologies Bernicia is mentioned in the 9th-century

to borrow a foreign name for the area, so the former hypothesis is usually accepted, although no etymological analysis has produced a consensus. The etymology which is most widely cited is that tentatively proposed by Kenneth H. Jackson, which gives the meaning "Land of the Mountain Passes" or "Land of the Gaps". Jackson, ''Language and History in Early Britain'', pp. 701–5; Rollason, ''Northumbria 500–1100'', p. 81. The earlier derivation from the tribal name


Kingdom of Northumbria

;small (after 876) South: Danish kingdom (876–914) South: Norwegian kingdom (after 914) life_span 653–954 image_flag flag flag_type image_coat image_map Kingdom of Northumbria in AD 802.jpg image_map_size 250px image_map_caption image_map2

(1066-1087).svg 20px link Kingdom of England capital Northern: Bamburgh Southern: York latd latm latNS longd longm longEW national_motto national_anthem common_languages Old English (Northumbrian dialect), Cumbric (Cumbric language), Latin currency Sceat (''peninga'' (History of the English penny (c. 600 – 1066))) leader1 Oswiu (Oswiu of Northumbria) year_leader1 654


Deira

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to the western edge of the Vale of York. It was the southern of the two kingdoms of Deira and Bernicia which later merged to form the kingdom of Northumbria. The name of the kingdom is of Brythonic (British language (Celtic)) origin, perhaps from ''Deifr'', meaning "waters", or from ''Daru'', meaning "oak", in which case it would mean "the people of the Derwent (River Derwent, Yorkshire)", a derivation also found in the Latin language Latin

;) by the Angles. Before this it is likely that the capital was at or near Pocklington. The first Anglian (Angles) king of Deira of whom we have any record is Ælla (Aella of Deira), who flourished in the later 6th century after conquering the realm from the Britons in 581. After his death, Deira was subject to king Æthelfrith (Aethelfrith of Northumbria) of Bernicia, who united the two kingdoms into Northumbria. Æthelfrith ruled until the accession


Elmet

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of the Britons in Wales and the West Country (''i.e.'' Cornwall and Dumnonia), and to the south of those in the ''Hen Ogledd'' or Old North. As one of the southeasternmost Brittonic regions for which there is reasonably substantial evidence, it is notable for having survived relatively late in the period of Anglo-Saxon conquest (Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain). Elmet was invaded and conquered by Northumbria in the autumn of 616 or 626. The kingdom

tribal identity in pre-Roman times and that this re-emerged after Roman rule collapsed. The existence of Elmet is attested in the ''Historia Brittonum'', which says that King Edwin of Northumbria "occupied Elmet and expelled Certic (Ceretic of Elmet), king of that country". Bede's ''Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum'' says that Hereric, the father of St Hilda of Whitby, was killed at the court of King Ceretic. It is generally presumed that Ceretic Certic were


Glywysing

this as consistent with the British (Britons (historical)) victory at Badon Hill (Battle of Mons Badonicus), attributed to Arthur (King Arthur) by Nennius. This tenacious survival by the Romano-Britons and their descendants in the western kingdoms was to become the foundation of what we now know as Wales. With the loss of the lowlands, England's kingdoms of Mercia and Northumbria, and later Wessex, wrestled with Powys, Gwent and Gwynedd to define

;ref group note "Anglo-Saxon law" is a modern neologism for the Saxon Law of Wessex, the Anglian Law of Mercia, and the Danelaw, all of which were sufficiently similar to merit inclusion within this umbrella term. The laws of Anglian Northumbria were supplanted by the Danelaw, but were certainly similar to these. The origins of English law have been much studied. For example, the 12th century '' Tractatus of Glanvill Tractatus de legibus et consuetudinibus regni

to invade again for thirty years. thumb left The Church of St. Tewdric at Mathern (File:Mathern.jpg) In the autumn the besieged army left Chester, marched down to the south of Wales and devastated the Welsh kingdoms of Brycheiniog, Gwent (Kingdom of Gwent) and Glywysing until the summer of 894. They return via Northumbria, the Danish held midlands of the Five Burghs, and East Anglia to return to the fort at Mersea Island. In the autumn


Francia

, chief city of the Northumbrians. Downham, Keynes, Woolf. The Great Army defeated an attack on York by the two rivals for the Northumbrian throne, Osberht (Osberht of Northumbria) and Ælla (Ælla of Northumbria), who had put aside their differences in the face of a common enemy. Both would-be kings were killed in the failed assault, probably on 21 March 867. Following this, the leaders of the Great Army are said to have installed one Ecgberht I of Northumbria

to himself as a "tiny manlet") which restricted his riding and sword-fighting ability, Einhard concentrated his energies towards scholarship and especially to the mastering of Latin. Despite such humble origins, he was accepted into the hugely wealthy court of Charlemagne around 791 or 792. Charlemagne actively sought to amass scholarly men around him and established a royal school led by the Northumbrian scholar Alcuin. Einhard evidently was a talented builder

to the Innse Gall If the Vikings had a great impact on Pictland and in Ireland, in Dál Riata, as in Northumbria, they appear to have entirely replaced the existing kingdom with a new entity. In the case of Dál Riata this was to be known as the kingdom of the Sudreys (Kingdom of the Isles), traditionally founded by Ketil Flatnose (''Caitill Find'' in Gaelic) in the middle of the 9th century. The Frankish (Francia) ''Annales Bertiniani'' may record the conquest of the Inner Hebrides


Kingdom of Gwynedd

. 586. frameless right 240px (File:Gwynedd.620.jpg) On the accession of Beli's son Iago (Iago ap Beli) in c. 599 the situation in Britain had deteriorated significantly. Most of the area today called northern England and been overrun by the invading Angles of Deira and Bernicia who were in the process of forming a united Northumbrian kingdom. In a rare show of common interest it appears Gwynedd and neighbouring Powys (Kingdom of Powys) acted in concert to rebuff

the ability of the Welsh to seriously threaten England (although England as a united realm would not exist for another 350 years). For among the most powerful of the early kings of Gwynedd was Cadwallon ap Cadfan (c. 624 - 634) the grandson of Iago ap Beli. He became engaged in an initially disastrous campaign against Northumbria (Kingdom of Northumbria) where following a series of epic defeats he was confined first to Môn and then just to Ynys Glannauc (Puffin Island, Anglesey) before being

forced into exile across the Irish Sea to Dublin - a place which would come to host many royal refugees from Gwynedd. All must have seemed lost but Cadwallon raised an enormous army and after a brief time in Guernsey he invaded Dumnonia, relieved the West Welsh (Cornish people) who were suffering a Mercian invasion and forced Penda, the pagan King of Mercia, into an alliance against Northumbria. With new vigour he returned to his Northumbrian foes, devastated


Kingdom of Powys

of Æthelfrith of Northumbria clashed with Powys. According to Geoffrey of Monmouth, the Northumbrian monarch's political rival, Edwin of Deira (Edwin of Northumbria), was living in exile in Gwynedd (kingdom of Gwynedd) around this time. Historians such as John Morris (John Morris (historian)) have suggested that Æthelfrith attempted to capture him, but presumably King Selyf ap Cynan of Powys denied access through Powys to Edwin in Gwynedd, and seeing an opportunity to further drive

. Additionally, Bleddyn is recorded as amending the Law Codes of Hywel Dda. Bleddyn ap Cynfyn and his brother Rhiwallon fought alongside the Anglo-Saxons against the Norman Invasion (Norman conquest of England). In 1067 they allied with the Mercian Eadric the Wild in an attack on the Normans at Hereford, then in 1068 with Earl Edwin of Mercia (Edwin, Earl of Mercia) and Earl Morcar of Northumbria in another attack on the Normans. In 1070 he defeated his half-nephews, the sons

cymraeg_tafodieitheg_gymraeg_mynegai_1385e.htm Index to Welsh dialects * Horik II succeeds Horik I as king of Denmark. * Cyngen of Powys (Kingdom of Powys) makes the first known pilgrimage to Rome of a Welsh (Wales) ruler. * Viking Chieftain Hubba (Ubbe_Ragnarsson) winters in Milford Haven with 23 ships. Mercia's neighbours included Northumbria, Powys (Kingdom of Powys), the kingdoms of southern Wales, Wessex, Sussex (Kingdom of Sussex), Kingdom of Essex


Northern England

;) emerged. The Angle (Angles) settlers created Bernicia and Deira from which came Northumbria (Kingdom of Northumbria) and a Golden Age (Northumbria's Golden Age) in cultural, scholarly and monastic activity, centred on Lindisfarne and aided by Irish monks. Retrieved on 23 February 2009. Norsemen Norse

and Gaelic (Norse Gael) Viking raiders gained control of much of the area, creating the Danelaw. During this time there were close relations with Mann and the Isles (Kingdom of Mann and the Isles), Dublin (Kingdom of Dublin) and Norway. Northumbria was unified with the rest of England under Eadred (Eadred of England) around 952. After the Norman conquest (Norman conquest of England) in 1066, the Harrying of the North brought destruction, but afterwards many towns were built

of there, which included for a brief period the part of the Scottish lowlands between Hadrian's Wall and the Antonine Wall. After the arrival of the Angles, Saxons and Jutes, the north was divided into rival kingdoms, Bernicia and Deira. Bernicia covered lands north of the Tees, whilst Deira corresponded roughly to the eastern half of modern-day Yorkshire. Bernicia and Deira were first united as Northumbria by Aethelfrith, a king of Bernicia who conquered Deira around


Kingdom of Gwent

(historical) British victory at Badon Hill (Battle of Mons Badonicus), attributed to Arthur (King Arthur) by Nennius. This tenacious survival by the Romano-Britons and their descendants in the western kingdoms was to become the foundation of what we now know as Wales. With the loss of the lowlands, England's kingdoms of Mercia and Northumbria, and later Wessex, wrestled with Powys, Gwent and Gwynedd to define the frontier between the two

;Anglo-Saxon law" is a modern neologism for the Saxon Law of Wessex, the Anglian Law of Mercia, and the Danelaw, all of which were sufficiently similar to merit inclusion within this umbrella term. The laws of Anglian Northumbria were supplanted by the Danelaw, but were certainly similar to these. The origins of English law have been much studied. For example, the 12th century ''Tractatus de legibus et consuetudinibus regni Angliae (Tractatus of Glanvill)'' (

to the south of Wales and devastated the Welsh kingdoms of Brycheiniog, Gwent (Kingdom of Gwent) and Glywysing until the summer of 894. They return via Northumbria, the Danish held midlands of the Five Burghs, and East Anglia to return to the fort at Mersea Island. In the autumn of 894, the army towed their ships up the Thames to a new fort on the River Lea. In the summer of 895 Alfred arrived with the West Saxon army, and obstructed the course


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