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translating visual


Kotka

;ref UK in Finland - valign "top" *1884: Paul Gottlieb Nipkow of Lębork, Kingdom of Prussia, German Empire invents the Nipkow disk,an image scanning device. It was the basis of his patent method of translating visual images to electronic impulses, transmit said impulses to another device and successfully reassemble the impulses to visual images. Nipkow used a selenium photoelectric cell (Solar cell). How Products Are Made, Inventor Biographies: "Paul Gottlieb Nipkow (1860–1940)" Nipkow proposed and patented the first "near-practicable" electromechanical television system (History of television) in 1884. Although he never built a working model of the system, Nipkow's spinning disk design became a common television image rasterizer (Rasterisation) used up to 1939. George Shiers and May Shiers, ''Early Television: A Bibliographic Guide to 1940'', Taylor & Francis, 1997, p. 13, 22. ISBN 9780824077822. *1884: Alexander Mozhaysky of Kotka, Grand Duchy of Finland, Russian Empire makes the second known "powered, assisted take off of a heavier-than-air craft carrying an operator". His steam-powered (Steam engine) monoplane took off at Krasnoye Selo, near Saint Petersburg, making a hop and "covering between 65 and 100 feet". The monoplane had a failed landing, with one of its wings destroyed and serious damages. It was never rebuilt. Later Soviet (Soviet Union) propaganda would overstate Mozhaysky's accomplishment while downplaying the failed landing. The Grand Soviet Encyclopedia called this "the first true flight of a heavier-than-air machine in history". Carroll Gray, "Aleksandr Fyodorovich Mozhaiski 1825 – 1890" Hargrave the Pioneers, Aviation and Aeromodeling-Interdependent Evolutions and Histories:"Alexandr Fyodorovich Mozhaisky (1825–1890)" *1884–1885: Ganz Company engineers Károly Zipernowsky, Ottó Bláthy and Miksa Déri had determined that open-core devices were impracticable, as they were incapable of reliably regulating voltage. In their joint patent application for the "Z.B.D." transformers, they described the design of two with no poles: the "closed-core" and the "shell-core" transformers. In the closed-core type, the primary and secondary windings were wound around a closed iron ring; in the shell type, the windings were passed ''through'' the iron core. In both designs, the magnetic flux linking the primary and secondary windings traveled almost entirely within the iron core, with no intentional path through air. When employed in electric distribution systems, this revolutionary design concept would finally make it technically and economically feasible to provide electric power for lighting in homes, businesses and public spaces. ''Bláthy, Ottó Titusz (1860 – 1939)'', Hungarian Patent Office, January 29, 2004. Zipernowsky, K., M. Déri and O. T. Bláthy, ''Induction Coil'', Patent No. 352,105, U.S. Patent Office, November 2, 1886, retrieved July 8, 2009. Bláthy had suggested the use of closed-cores, Zipernowsky the use of shunt connections (Shunt (electrical)), and Déri had performed the experiments. Smil, Vaclav, ''Creating the Twentieth Century: Technical Innovations of 1867—1914 and Their Lasting Impact'', Oxford University Press, 2005, p. 71. Electrical and electronic systems the world over continue to rely on the principles of the original Z.B.D. transformers. The inventors also popularized the word "transformer" to describe a device for altering the EMF of an electric current, Nagy, Árpád Zoltán, "Lecture to Mark the 100th Anniversary of the Discovery of the Electron in 1897" (preliminary text), Budapest October 11, 1996, retrieved July 9, 2009. although the term had already been in use by 1882. commons:Kotka


Kingdom of Prussia

; *1884: Paul Gottlieb Nipkow of Lębork, Kingdom of Prussia, German Empire invents the Nipkow disk,an image scanning device. It was the basis of his patent method of translating visual images to electronic impulses, transmit said impulses to another device and successfully reassemble the impulses to visual images. Nipkow used a selenium photoelectric cell (Solar cell). How Products Are Made, Inventor Biographies: "Paul Gottlieb Nipkow (1860–1940)" Nipkow proposed and patented the first "near-practicable" electromechanical television system (History of television) in 1884. Although he never built a working model of the system, Nipkow's spinning disk design became a common television image rasterizer (Rasterisation) used up to 1939. George Shiers and May Shiers, ''Early Television: A Bibliographic Guide to 1940'', Taylor & Francis, 1997, p. 13, 22. ISBN 9780824077822. *1884: Alexander Mozhaysky of Kotka, Grand Duchy of Finland, Russian Empire makes the second known "powered, assisted take off of a heavier-than-air craft carrying an operator". His steam-powered (Steam engine) monoplane took off at Krasnoye Selo, near Saint Petersburg, making a hop and "covering between 65 and 100 feet". The monoplane had a failed landing, with one of its wings destroyed and serious damages. It was never rebuilt. Later Soviet (Soviet Union) propaganda would overstate Mozhaysky's accomplishment while downplaying the failed landing. The Grand Soviet Encyclopedia called this "the first true flight of a heavier-than-air machine in history". Carroll Gray, "Aleksandr Fyodorovich Mozhaiski 1825 – 1890" Hargrave the Pioneers, Aviation and Aeromodeling-Interdependent Evolutions and Histories:"Alexandr Fyodorovich Mozhaisky (1825–1890)" The French invasion of Russia of 1812 was a turning point, which reduced the French (First French Empire) and allied invasion forces (the Grande Armée) to a tiny fraction of their initial strength and triggered a major shift in European politics, as it dramatically weakened the previously dominant French position on the continent. After the disastrous invasion of Russia, a coalition of Austria (Austrian Empire), Prussia (Kingdom of Prussia), Russia (Russian Empire), Sweden, the United Kingdom (United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland), and a number of German States (Confederation of the Rhine), and the rebels in Spain (Spain under the Restoration) and Portugal (Kingdom of Portugal) united to battle France in the War of the Sixth Coalition. Two-and-a-half million troops fought in the conflict and the total dead amounted to as many as two million. This era included the battles of Smolensk (Battle of Smolensk (1812)), Borodino (Battle of Borodino), Lützen (Battle of Lützen (1813)), Bautzen (Battle of Bautzen), and the Dresden (Battle of Dresden). It also included the epic Battle of Leipzig in October, 1813 (also known as the Battle of Nations), which was the largest battle of the Napoleonic wars, which drove Napoleon out of Germany. Napoleon shortly returned from exile, landing in France on March 1, 1815, marking the War of the Seventh Coalition, heading toward Paris while the Congress of Vienna was sitting. On March 13, seven days before Napoleon reached Paris, the powers at the Congress of Vienna declared him an outlaw (s:Declaration at the Congress of Vienna); four days later the United Kingdom (United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland), Russia (Russian Empire), Austria (Austrian Empire) and Prussia (Kingdom of Prussia), members of the Seventh Coalition, bound themselves to put 150,000 men each into the field to end his rule. Hamilton-Williams, David p. 59 This set the stage for the last conflict in the Napoleonic Wars, the defeat of Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo, the restoration of the French monarchy for the second time and the permanent exile of Napoleon to the distant island of Saint Helena, where he died in May 1821. left thumb 200px Congress Vienna, Jean Godefroy – Jean-Baptiste Isabey (File:CongressVienna.jpg) The result was the Concert of Europe, also known as the "Congress System". It was the balance of power (Balance of power in international relations) that existed in Europe from 1815 until the early 20th century. Its founding members were the United Kingdom (United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland), Austrian Empire, Russian Empire and Kingdom of Prussia, the members of the Quadruple Alliance responsible for the downfall of the First French Empire; in time France became established as a fifth member of the concert. At first, the leading personalities of the system were British foreign secretary Lord Castlereagh (Robert Stewart, Viscount Castlereagh), Austrian chancellor Klemens Wenzel, Prince von Metternich and Tsar Alexander I (Alexander I of Russia) of Russia. The Kingdom of Prussia, Austrian Empire and Russian Empire formed the Holy Alliance with the expressed intent of preserving Christian social values and traditional monarchism. Spahn, M. (1910). Holy Alliance. In ''The Catholic Encyclopedia''. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Retrieved May 15, 2010 from New Advent. Every member of the coalition promptly joined the Alliance, save for the United Kingdom (United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland). * July 3 – French troops occupy Rome; the Roman Republic (Roman Republic (19th century)) surrenders. * July 6 – The Danish (Denmark) Army beats the Prussian (Kingdom of Prussia) army at Fredericia, Jutland, thereby putting an end to the Prussian Danish War until 1864. * August 8 – Austria crushes the Hungarian rebellion with Russian aid. Composition history By the beginning of 1839 Richard Wagner was employed as a conductor (Conductor (music)) at the Court Theatre in Riga. His extravagant lifestyle and the retirement from the stage of his actress wife, Minna, meant that he ran up huge debts. Wagner was writing ''Rienzi'' and hatched a plan to flee his creditors in Riga, escape to Paris via London and make his fortune by putting ''Rienzi'' on to the stage of the Paris Opéra. However this plan quickly turned to disaster: his passport having been seized by the authorities on behalf of his creditors, he and Minna had to make a dangerous and illegal crossing over the Prussian (Kingdom of Prussia) border, during which Minna suffered a miscarriage. Gutman, Robert W. 1990, ''Wagner - The Man, His Mind and His Music'', Harvest Books. ISBN 978-0-15-677615-8 page 64. Boarding the ship ''Thetis'', whose captain had agreed to take them without passports, their sea journey was hindered by storms and high seas. The ship at one point took refuge in the Norwegian (Norway) fjords at Tvedestrand, and a trip that was expected to take 8 days finally delivered Wagner to London 3 weeks after leaving Riga. After the Congress of Vienna, the Kingdom of Prussia received a large amount of territory in the Westphalian region and created the province of Westphalia in 1815. The northernmost portions of the former kingdom, including the town of Osnabrück, had become part of the states of Hanover (Kingdom of Hanover) and Oldenburg (Grand Duchy of Oldenburg). # Rome (Rome (department)) was known as the '' ), located in the Tiergarten in Berlin, is a prominent memorial statue dedicated to Prince Otto von Bismarck, Prime Minister (Prime Minister of Prussia) of the Kingdom of Prussia and the first Chancellor (Chancellor of Germany (German Reich)) of the German Empire. It was sculpted by Reinhold Begas. History The town is first mentioned in 1399. During the 14th and 15th century, it prospered along the trade route between Danzig and Russia (Russian Empire). By 1790, there was a gristing mill, sawmill, brewery, and inn. Under the Second Partition of Poland in 1793, the settlement was annexed by Prussia (Kingdom of Prussia). It returned to Congress Poland following the Congress of Vienna in 1815. On September 2, 1846, the town was first connected to the emerging Polish railways as part of the mainline between Warsaw and Kraków. Following the development of Łódź as an industrial center, Koluszki served as the junction for its rail. By 1900, about half of the town worked for the railway in some capacity and the town developed around the railway and bus stations. The town suffered during both world wars. Under the Nazi occupation (Nazi occupation of Poland) during the Second World War, Koluszki was annexed to Germany (Nazi Germany) and was the site of a Jewish ghetto. The town was restored to Poland by the Red Army on January 18, 1945. Its town charter was established in 1949. Klein dealt with small matters of zoological nomenclature and set up his own system of classification of animals, which was based on the number, shape, and position of the limbs. For his work in the field of natural science, Klein had been awarded the membership of several scientific societies, including the Royal Society in London and the Danzig Research Society. He was also a correspondent of the Lutheran pastor Friedrich Christian Lesser. He died 27 February 1759 in Königsberg, Prussia (Kingdom of Prussia) (now Kaliningrad, Russia). The settlement in the historical region of Upper Lusatia was first mentioned in a 1262 deed. Initially a possession of the Bohemian crown (Kingdom of Bohemia), Lusatia by the 1635 Peace of Prague (Peace of Prague (1635)) fell to the Saxon Electorate (Electorate of Saxony). As Saxony had sided with Napoleon (Napoleon I of France) it had to cede the northeastern part of Upper Lusatia to Prussia (Kingdom of Prussia) according to the Final Act of the 1815 Vienna Congress (Congress of Vienna). After the new border had been drawn, ''Reichenau'' was the only locality east of the Neisse river (Lusatian Neisse) that belonged to the Kingdom of Saxony. With the implementation of the Oder-Neisse line at the end of World War II, it was therefore the only municipality in Poland which until 1945 was part of the Free State of Saxony (Saxony). At first called ''Rychwald'', the town was renamed in 1947. thumb left Tower of the Upper Gate (File:Bad Ziegenhals-turm.JPG) After the First Silesian War (Silesian Wars) and the 1742 Treaty of Breslau the Duchy of Nysa was partitioned and Ziegenhals became a Prussian (Kingdom of Prussia) bordertown, while the adjacent area around Zlaté Hory remained with Austrian Silesia. In the 19th century it became a spa town (''Bad''). After World War II and the implementation of the Oder-Neisse line in 1945, the area fell to the Republic of Poland (People's Republic of Poland). First documented in the 13th century, Berlin became the capital of the Kingdom of Prussia (w:Kingdom of Prussia) (1701–1918), the German Empire (w:German Empire) (1871–1918), the Weimar Republic (w:Weimar Republic) (1919–33) and the Third Reich (w:Third Reich) (1933–45). Berlin in the 1920s (w:1920s Berlin) was the third largest municipality in the world. After World War II, the city, along with the German state, was divided - into East Berlin (w:East Berlin) — capital of the German Democratic Republic (w:German Democratic Republic), colloquially identified in English as East Germany — and West Berlin (w:West Berlin), a political exclave (w:exclave) (surrounded by the Berlin Wall (w:Berlin Wall) from 1961 to 1989) and a ''de facto'' (although not ''de jure'' (w:Allied Control Council)) state of the Federal Republic of Germany (w:Federal Republic of Germany), known colloquially in English as West Germany (w:West Germany) from 1949 to 1990. Following German reunification (w:German reunification) in 1990, the city was once more designated as the capital of all Germany.


German Empire

. It was the basis of his patent method of translating visual images to electronic impulses, transmit said impulses to another device and successfully reassemble the impulses to visual images. Nipkow used a selenium photoelectric cell (Solar cell). How Products Are Made, Inventor Biographies: "Paul Gottlieb Nipkow (1860–1940)" Nipkow proposed and patented the first "near-practicable" electromechanical television system (History of television) in 1884. Although he never built a working model of the system, Nipkow's spinning disk design became a common television image rasterizer (Rasterisation) used up to 1939. George Shiers and May Shiers, ''Early Television: A Bibliographic Guide to 1940'', Taylor & Francis, 1997, p. 13, 22. ISBN 9780824077822. *1884: Alexander Mozhaysky of Kotka, Grand Duchy of Finland, Russian Empire makes the second known "powered, assisted take off of a heavier-than-air craft carrying an operator". His steam-powered (Steam engine) monoplane took off at Krasnoye Selo, near Saint Petersburg, making a hop and "covering between 65 and 100 feet". The monoplane had a failed landing, with one of its wings destroyed and serious damages. It was never rebuilt. Later Soviet (Soviet Union) propaganda would overstate Mozhaysky's accomplishment while downplaying the failed landing. The Grand Soviet Encyclopedia called this "the first true flight of a heavier-than-air machine in history". Carroll Gray, "Aleksandr Fyodorovich Mozhaiski 1825 – 1890" Hargrave the Pioneers, Aviation and Aeromodeling-Interdependent Evolutions and Histories:"Alexandr Fyodorovich Mozhaisky (1825–1890)" thumb right Benz Patent Motorwagen (File:1885Benz.jpg) which is widely regarded as the first automobile was first introduced in 1885. *1885–1888: Karl Benz of Karlsruhe, Baden, German Empire introduces the Benz Patent Motorwagen, widely regarded as the first automobile. Ralph Stein (1967). The Automobile Book. Paul Hamlyn Ltd." It featured wire wheels (unlike carriages' wooden ones) Georgano, G. N. ''Cars: Early and Vintage, 1886–1930''. (London: Grange-Universal, 1985) with a four-stroke engine of his own design between the rear wheels, with a very advanced coil ignition Georgano and evaporative cooling rather than a radiator. The ''Motorwagen'' was patented on January 29, 1886 as ''DRP-37435: "automobile fueled by gas"''. DRP's patent No. 37435 (PDF (Portable Document Format), 561 kB, German (German language)) was filed January 29, 1886 and granted November 2, 1886, thus taking effect January 29. The 1885 version was difficult to control, leading to a collision with a wall during a public demonstration. The first successful tests on public roads were carried out in the early summer of 1886. The next year Benz created the ''Motorwagen Model 2'' which had several modifications, and in 1887, the definitive ''Model 3'' with wooden wheels was introduced, showing at the Paris Expo the same year. Benz began to sell the vehicle (advertising it as the ''Benz Patent Motorwagen'') in the late summer of 1888, making it the first commercially available automobile in history. *1885–1887: William Stanley, Jr. of Brooklyn (Brooklyn, New York), New York, an employee of George Westinghouse, creates an improved transformer. Westinghouse had bought the patents of Lucien Gaulard and John Dixon Gibbs on the subject, and had purchased an option on the designs of Károly Zipernowsky, Ottó Bláthy and Miksa Déri. He entrusted engineer Stanley with the building of a device for commercial use. Nazi Germany branch 23px border (Image:War Ensign of Germany 1903-1918.svg) Reichsheer (German Army (German Empire)) 23px (Image:Flag of Weimar Republic (war).svg) Reichswehr 23px (File:Flag Schutzstaffel.svg) Waffen-SS :'''George''': By Gum, this is interesting! I always loved history. The Battle of Hastings (w:Battle of Hastings), Henry VIII (w:Henry VIII of England) and his six knives (w:Wives of Henry VIII) and all that! :'''Blackadder''': You see, Baldrick, in order to prevent a war in Europe, two super blocs developed: us, the French and the Russians on one side (w:Allies of World War I); and the Germans and Austro-Hungary on the other (w:German Empire). The idea was to have two vast, opposing armies, each acting as the other's deterrent (w:Causes of World War I#Arms Race). That way, there could never be a war. :'''Baldrick''': Except, well, this is sort of a war, isn't it? First documented in the 13th century, Berlin became the capital of the Kingdom of Prussia (w:Kingdom of Prussia) (1701–1918), the German Empire (w:German Empire) (1871–1918), the Weimar Republic (w:Weimar Republic) (1919–33) and the Third Reich (w:Third Reich) (1933–45). Berlin in the 1920s (w:1920s Berlin) was the third largest municipality in the world. After World War II, the city, along with the German state, was divided - into East Berlin (w:East Berlin) — capital of the German Democratic Republic (w:German Democratic Republic), colloquially identified in English as East Germany — and West Berlin (w:West Berlin), a political exclave (w:exclave) (surrounded by the Berlin Wall (w:Berlin Wall) from 1961 to 1989) and a ''de facto'' (although not ''de jure'' (w:Allied Control Council)) state of the Federal Republic of Germany (w:Federal Republic of Germany), known colloquially in English as West Germany (w:West Germany) from 1949 to 1990. Following German reunification (w:German reunification) in 1990, the city was once more designated as the capital of all Germany. thumb right (File:Bundesarchiv Bild 183-S90733, Victor Klemperer.jpg) '''Victor Klemperer (w:Victor Klemperer)''' (9 October 1881 – 11 February 1960) worked as a commercial apprentice, a journalist and eventually a Professor of Literature, specialising in the French Enlightenment at the Technische Universität Dresden (w:Technische Universität Dresden). His diaries detailing his life under successive German states—the German Empire (w:German Empire), the Weimar Republic (w:Weimar Republic), Nazi Germany (w:Nazi Germany) and the German Democratic Republic (w:German Democratic Republic)—were published in 1995.


Saint Petersburg

. It was the basis of his patent method of translating visual images to electronic impulses, transmit said impulses to another device and successfully reassemble the impulses to visual images. Nipkow used a selenium photoelectric cell (Solar cell). How Products Are Made, Inventor Biographies: "Paul Gottlieb Nipkow (1860–1940)" Nipkow proposed and patented the first "near-practicable" electromechanical television system (History of television) in 1884. Although he never built a working model of the system, Nipkow's spinning disk design became a common television image rasterizer (Rasterisation) used up to 1939. George Shiers and May Shiers, ''Early Television: A Bibliographic Guide to 1940'', Taylor & Francis, 1997, p. 13, 22. ISBN 9780824077822. *1884: Alexander Mozhaysky of Kotka, Grand Duchy of Finland, Russian Empire makes the second known "powered, assisted take off of a heavier-than-air craft carrying an operator". His steam-powered (Steam engine) monoplane took off at Krasnoye Selo, near Saint Petersburg, making a hop and "covering between 65 and 100 feet". The monoplane had a failed landing, with one of its wings destroyed and serious damages. It was never rebuilt. Later Soviet (Soviet Union) propaganda would overstate Mozhaysky's accomplishment while downplaying the failed landing. The Grand Soviet Encyclopedia called this "the first true flight of a heavier-than-air machine in history". Carroll Gray, "Aleksandr Fyodorovich Mozhaiski 1825 – 1890" Hargrave the Pioneers, Aviation and Aeromodeling-Interdependent Evolutions and Histories:"Alexandr Fyodorovich Mozhaisky (1825–1890)" *1884–1885: Ganz Company engineers Károly Zipernowsky, Ottó Bláthy and Miksa Déri had determined that open-core devices were impracticable, as they were incapable of reliably regulating voltage. In their joint patent application for the "Z.B.D." transformers, they described the design of two with no poles: the "closed-core" and the "shell-core" transformers. In the closed-core type, the primary and secondary windings were wound around a closed iron ring; in the shell type, the windings were passed ''through'' the iron core. In both designs, the magnetic flux linking the primary and secondary windings traveled almost entirely within the iron core, with no intentional path through air. When employed in electric distribution systems, this revolutionary design concept would finally make it technically and economically feasible to provide electric power for lighting in homes, businesses and public spaces. ''Bláthy, Ottó Titusz (1860 – 1939)'', Hungarian Patent Office, January 29, 2004. Zipernowsky, K., M. Déri and O. T. Bláthy, ''Induction Coil'', Patent No. 352,105, U.S. Patent Office, November 2, 1886, retrieved July 8, 2009. Bláthy had suggested the use of closed-cores, Zipernowsky the use of shunt connections (Shunt (electrical)), and Déri had performed the experiments. Smil, Vaclav, ''Creating the Twentieth Century: Technical Innovations of 1867—1914 and Their Lasting Impact'', Oxford University Press, 2005, p. 71. Electrical and electronic systems the world over continue to rely on the principles of the original Z.B.D. transformers. The inventors also popularized the word "transformer" to describe a device for altering the EMF of an electric current, Nagy, Árpád Zoltán, "Lecture to Mark the 100th Anniversary of the Discovery of the Electron in 1897" (preliminary text), Budapest October 11, 1996, retrieved July 9, 2009. although the term had already been in use by 1882. commons:Category:Saint Petersburg WikiPedia:Saint Petersburg Dmoz:Regional Europe Russia Administrative Regions Saint Petersburg


Russian Empire

of translating visual images to electronic impulses, transmit said impulses to another device and successfully reassemble the impulses to visual images. Nipkow used a selenium photoelectric cell (Solar cell). How Products Are Made, Inventor Biographies: "Paul Gottlieb Nipkow (1860–1940)" Nipkow proposed and patented the first "near-practicable" electromechanical


Soviet Union

of Lębork, Kingdom of Prussia, German Empire invents the Nipkow disk,an image scanning device. It was the basis of his patent method of translating visual images to electronic impulses, transmit said impulses to another device and successfully reassemble the impulses to visual images. Nipkow used a selenium photoelectric cell (Solar cell). How Products Are Made, Inventor Biographies: "Paul Gottlieb Nipkow (1860–1940)" Nipkow proposed and patented the first "near-practicable" electromechanical television system (History of television) in 1884. Although he never built a working model of the system, Nipkow's spinning disk design became a common television image rasterizer (Rasterisation) used up to 1939. George Shiers and May Shiers, ''Early Television: A Bibliographic Guide to 1940'', Taylor & Francis, 1997, p. 13, 22. ISBN 9780824077822. *1884: Alexander Mozhaysky of Kotka, Grand Duchy of Finland, Russian Empire makes the second known "powered, assisted take off of a heavier-than-air craft carrying an operator". His steam-powered (Steam engine) monoplane took off at Krasnoye Selo, near Saint Petersburg, making a hop and "covering between 65 and 100 feet". The monoplane had a failed landing, with one of its wings destroyed and serious damages. It was never rebuilt. Later Soviet (Soviet Union) propaganda would overstate Mozhaysky's accomplishment while downplaying the failed landing. The Grand Soviet Encyclopedia called this "the first true flight of a heavier-than-air machine in history". Carroll Gray, "Aleksandr Fyodorovich Mozhaiski 1825 – 1890" Hargrave the Pioneers, Aviation and Aeromodeling-Interdependent Evolutions and Histories:"Alexandr Fyodorovich Mozhaisky (1825–1890)" *1884–1885: Ganz Company engineers Károly Zipernowsky, Ottó Bláthy and Miksa Déri had determined that open-core devices were impracticable, as they were incapable of reliably regulating voltage. In their joint patent application for the "Z.B.D." transformers, they described the design of two with no poles: the "closed-core" and the "shell-core" transformers. In the closed-core type, the primary and secondary windings were wound around a closed iron ring; in the shell type, the windings were passed ''through'' the iron core. In both designs, the magnetic flux linking the primary and secondary windings traveled almost entirely within the iron core, with no intentional path through air. When employed in electric distribution systems, this revolutionary design concept would finally make it technically and economically feasible to provide electric power for lighting in homes, businesses and public spaces. ''Bláthy, Ottó Titusz (1860 – 1939)'', Hungarian Patent Office, January 29, 2004. Zipernowsky, K., M. Déri and O. T. Bláthy, ''Induction Coil'', Patent No. 352,105, U.S. Patent Office, November 2, 1886, retrieved July 8, 2009. Bláthy had suggested the use of closed-cores, Zipernowsky the use of shunt connections (Shunt (electrical)), and Déri had performed the experiments. Smil, Vaclav, ''Creating the Twentieth Century: Technical Innovations of 1867—1914 and Their Lasting Impact'', Oxford University Press, 2005, p. 71. Electrical and electronic systems the world over continue to rely on the principles of the original Z.B.D. transformers. The inventors also popularized the word "transformer" to describe a device for altering the EMF of an electric current, Nagy, Árpád Zoltán, "Lecture to Mark the 100th Anniversary of the Discovery of the Electron in 1897" (preliminary text), Budapest October 11, 1996, retrieved July 9, 2009. although the term had already been in use by 1882. Wikipedia:Post-Soviet states commons:Союз Советских Социалистических Республик


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