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of Palatinate-Neuburg. At war against the allied European powers, France's war council decided to destroy all fortifications and to lay waste to the Palatinate (''Brûlez le Palatinat!''), in order to prevent an enemy attack from this area. As the French withdrew from the castle on 2 March 1689, they set fire to it and blew the front off the Fat Tower. Portions of the town were also burned, but the mercy of a French general, René de Froulay de Tessé, who told the townspeople to set small fires in their homes to create smoke and the illusion of burning prevented wider destruction. Harry B. Davis: "What Happened in Heidelberg: From Heidelberg Man to the Present": Verlag Brausdruck GmbH, 1977, ISBN 0007C650K. in Alsace) was purchased from the Electoral Palatinate. Count Palatine Wolfgang dissolved the monasteries in his territory and thereby increased his revenues and acquired the territory of Disibodenberg Abbey. In 1557, he inherited Palatinate-Neuburg, half of the Rear County of Sponheim and half of the Lordship of Guttenberg from the Palatinate under the Treaty of Heidelberg; this more than doubled his territory. In 1558, he dissolved Hornbach Abbey an took its territory and half the County of Molsheim. In 1559, the Electoral line died out and Wolfgang inherited a share in the Front County of Sponheim. He used these large gains to give each of his five sons some territory: the sovereign Palatinate-Neuburg and Palatinate-Zweibrücken, which fell to John I's second son in 1569, and the non-sovereign collateral lines Palatinate-Sulzbach, Palatinate-Vohenstrauß-Parkstein (Palatinate-Zweibrücken-Vohenstrauss-Parkstein) and Palatinate-Birkenfeld. Biography He was the only son of Louis II, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken and his wife Elisabeth of Hesse (Elisabeth of Hesse (1503–1563)), daughter of William I, Landgrave of Hesse. His father died in 1532, so the regency of Palatinate-Zweibrücken passed to Louis' younger brother Rupert (Rupert, Count Palatine of Veldenz) until 1543. In 1557 Wolfgang received the territory of Palatinate-Neuburg in accordance with the Contract of Heidelberg. In 1548 the Holy Roman Emperor (Holy Roman Empire) Charles V (Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor) occupied his Protestant (Protestantism) territories and reintroduced Catholic practices. This imposition ended in 1552. The Peace of Augsburg of 1555 ended the religious conflict, and in 1557 several ecclesiastical states in Germany were secularised (secularisation), a few of which Wolfgang obtained. In 1566 he served as a cavalry officer in the Turkish Wars (Ottoman wars in Europe). After his death Wolfgangs land was split for his five sons who then created three branches: Philip Louis (House of Palatinate-Neuburg (Palatinate-Neuburg)), John (House of Palatinate-Zweibrücken (Palatinate-Zweibrücken)) and Charles (House of Palatinate-Birkenfeld). Otto Henry and Frederick had no surviving sons.

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