Places Known For

religious scholarship


Sepphoris

. Following the expulsion of all Jews from Jerusalem after 135, Tiberias and its neighbor Sepphoris became the major Jewish centres. From the time when Yochanan bar Nafcha (d. 279) settled in Tiberias, the city became the focus of Jewish religious scholarship in the land. The Mishnah along with the Jerusalem Talmud, (the written discussions of generations of rabbis in the Land of Israel – primarily in the academies of Tiberias and Caesarea), was probably compiled in Tiberias by Rabbi Judah haNasi in around 200 CE. The 13 synagogues served the spiritual needs of a growing Jewish population. *Jerusalem Trail: A distinguished Biblical scholar, during the years 1922-27 Waterman was one of five members of the translation committee of the University of Chicago that produced "The Bible: An American Translation," sometimes called the “Chicago Bible.” From 1938-52 he was one of 31 scholars appointed by the National Council of Churches of Christ in America to the committee which produced the Revised Standard Version of the Bible, of which the New testament appeared in 1946 and the Old Testament in 1952. He served as the annual professor at the American School of Oriental Research in Baghdad, Iraq in 1928-29, and from 1928 to 1931 was director of a Mesopotamian archaeological expedition at Tel-Umar, twenty-five miles south of Baghdad, which was sponsored by the University of Michigan, the Toledo (OH) Museum of Art, and the Cleveland Art Museum. Waterman began the excavation of the ancient city of Seleucia on the Tigris, having located the site through his study of ancient documents and the use of aerial photographs. The results were published in the "Preliminary Report Upon the Excavations at Tel Umar, Iraq" (University of Michigan Press 1931) and the "Second Preliminary Report" (1933). Waterman was also director of a University of Michigan archaeological expedition at Sepphoris, near Nazareth, during the summer of 1931. These results were published in the "Preliminary Report of the University of Michigan at Sepphoris, Palestine" (University, of Michigan Press, 1931). Additional scholarly work included editing volume XIV of R.F. Harper's "Assyrian and Babylonian Letters" (1912), translating "Some Koujunjik Letters and Related Texts" (1912), "Business Documents of the Hammurabi Period" (1916), and "The Royal Correspondence of the Assyrian Empire" (four vol. 1930). *Jerusalem Trail - 40 km trail, connects the Israel National Trail with Jerusalem and the area of the Old City. *Jesus Trail - a 65 km hiking and pilgrimage route in the Galilee region of Israel that traces routes Jesus may have walked, connecting many sites from his life and ministry. The trail begins in Nazareth, and passes through Sepphoris, Cana (Kafr Kanna), the Horns of Hattin, Mount Arbel Cliffs, the Sea of Galilee, Capernaum, Tabgha, the Mount of Beatitudes, Tiberias, the Jordan River, Mount Tabor, and Mount Precipice. *Golan Trail - a 125 km route from the slopes of Mt. Hermon to the southern Golan Heights. It passes many towns and settlements including Majdal Shams, Nimrod (Nimrod, Golan Heights), Masade, Buq'ata, Odem, Merom Golan, and Ein Zivan.


Nouakchott

, Mauritania * ) lies 164 km south east of Mauritania's capital of Nouakchott. The town has been an important center of religious scholarship and training since its founding by an Islamic mystic and scholar in the 19th Century. Although


Najaf

centres of religious scholarship such as Karbala and Najaf. He attained sufficient recognition in such circles to be declared a mujtahid, an interpreter of Islamic Law. He contended with Sufi and Neo-Platonist scholars, and attained a positive reputation among their detractors. Most interestingly, he declared that all knowledge and sciences were contained (in essential form) within the Qur'an, and that to excel in the sciences, all knowledge must be gleaned from the Qur'an. To this end he developed systems of interpretation of the Qur'an and sought to inform himself of all the sciences current in the Muslim world. wikipedia:Najaf


Yazd

of Bábís of the town of Ardikán, near Yazd, Iran. When news of the declaration of Bahá'u'lláh came, he accepted immediately and travelled throughout the Persian Empire teaching the new message. Wikipedia:Yazd Commons:Yazd fa:یزد


Caesarea

of the Bible Edited by Watson E. Mills, Roger Aubrey Bullard, Mercer University Press, (1998) ISBN 0865543739 p 917 It was to be its final meeting place before its disbanding in the early Byzantine period. Following the expulsion of all Jews from Jerusalem after 135, Tiberias and its neighbor Sepphoris became the major Jewish centres. From the time when Yochanan bar Nafcha (d. 279) settled in Tiberias, the city became the focus of Jewish religious

scholarship in the land. The Mishnah along with the Jerusalem Talmud, (the written discussions of generations of rabbis in the Land of Israel – primarily in the academies of Tiberias and Caesarea), was probably compiled in Tiberias by Rabbi Judah haNasi in around 200 CE. The 13 synagogues served the spiritual needs of a growing Jewish population. thumb 375px Raymond of Poitiers welcoming Louis VII in Antioch. alt Painting of two men meeting in front of a city gate. Both men are in front of crowds of other people. The one on the left is bareheaded and holds his hat in one hand while he bows to the other figure, who is dressed in blue embroidered robes and wears a crown. (File:RaymondOfPoitiersWelcomingLouisVIIinAntioch.JPG) Louis eventually arrived in Antioch on March 19 after being delayed by storms; Amadeus of Savoy had died on Cyprus along the way. Louis was welcomed by Eleanor's uncle Raymond of Poitiers (Raymond of Antioch). Raymond expected him to help defend against the Turks and to accompany him on an expedition against Aleppo, the Muslim city that was the gateway to Edessa, but Louis refused, preferring instead to finish his pilgrimage to Jerusalem rather than focus on the military aspect of the crusade.


Tiberias

The combination of a text (מקרא ''miqra''), pronunciation (ניקוד ''niqqud'') and cantillation (טעמים ''te`amim'') enable the reader to understand both the simple meaning, as well as the nuances in sentence flow of the text. This Talmud is a synopsis of the analysis of the Mishnah that was developed over the course of nearly 200 years by the Academies in Israel (principally those of Tiberias and Caesaria.) Because of their location, the sages of these Academies devoted considerable attention to analysis of the agricultural laws of the Land of Israel. Traditionally, this Talmud was thought to have been redacted in about the year 350 CE by Rav Muna and Rav Yossi in the Land of Israel. It is traditionally known as the ''Talmud Yerushalmi'' ("Jerusalem Talmud"), but the name is a misnomer, as it was not prepared in Jerusalem. It has more accurately been called "The Talmud of the Land of Israel". The Yerushalmi--the Talmud of the land of Israel: an introduction, Jacob Neusner, J. Aronson, 1993 Tiberius refused to be worshipped as a living god, and allowed only one temple to be built in his honor at Smyrna. Tacitus, ''Annals'' IV.37–38 (wikisource:The Annals (Tacitus) Book 4#37), IV.55–56 (wikisource:The Annals (Tacitus) Book 4#55) The town Tiberias, in modern Israel on the western


Mauritania

. The city is located 16.150 degrees latitude and -13.500 degrees longitude, and is approximately 435 km from Mauritania's capital, Nouakchott. '''Boutilimit''' ( ) lies 164 km south east of Mauritania's capital of Nouakchott. The town has been an important center of religious scholarship and training since its founding by an Islamic mystic and scholar in the 19th Century. Although desertification has sapped much of the community's economic energy

. The town has been an important center of religious scholarship and training since its founding by an Islamic mystic and scholar in the 19th Century. Although desertification has sapped much of the community's economic energy, it remains the most important center of religious training in Mauritania. Its Qur'anic school is known for its library of manuscripts, set up by Shaykh Sidiyya "al-Kabir" (1774–1868), which is second only to the collection found in the ancient


Turkmenistan

: www.britannica.com eb article-9066688 LINK ): ''"... Because the Turkish Seljuqs had no Islamic tradition or strong literary heritage of their own, they adopted the cultural language of their Persian instructors in Islam. Literary Persian thus spread to the whole of Iran, and the Arabic language disappeared in that country except in works of religious scholarship ..."'' O.Özgündenli, ''"Persian Manuscripts in Ottoman and Modern Turkish


Alexandria

known for his chastity, sanctity, and religious scholarship. Upon the death of Simeon of Alexandria in 701, the Patriarchate of Alexdandria remained vacant for approximately four years, while the members of the church sought an appropriate successor. The lack of a patriarch, though, created economic problems for the church, so the secretary of state, or ''mutawallī al-diwān'' in Alexandria, a Copt named Athanasius, asked the governor to allow the bishop of al-Qays, Anbā Gregorius, to assume authority over the church's finances until a new patriarch would be elected. The governor, Abd al-Malik (Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan) agreed, which allowed the selection of a patriarch to take top priority. Athanasius gathered together all the Coptic scribes, clergy, and bishops, and the group unanimously selected Alexander based on his sterling reputation. Alexander was then taken to Alexandria to be consecrated. Atiya, Aziz S.. ''The Coptic Encyclopedia''. New York:Macmillan Publishing Company, 1991. ISBN 0-02-897025-X. Life Isidore was born in Alexandria. In Athens, he studied under Proclus, and learned the doctrine of Aristotle from Marinus (Marinus of Neapolis). Suda, μ199 According to Damascius, "Isidore was awestruck at the sight of Proclus, venerable and marvelous to see; he thought he was seeing in him the very face of true philosophy." Damascius, ''Life of Isidore'' fr. 248 (cf. Suda, αι89) Proclus for his part used to "marvel at Isidore's appearance, as it was possessed by the divine and full of the philosophical life within." Damascius, ''Life of Isidore'' fr. 80 (cf. Suda, ει40; ει301) Damascius further tells us that "Isidore, besides simplicity, loved truthfulness especially, and undertook to be straight-talking beyond what was necessary, and had no pretence in himself whatsoever." Damascius, ''Life of Isidore'' fr. 45 (cf. Suda, α4587) The claim made in the ''Suda'' that Isidore was the husband of Hypatia, Suda, υ166 must be in error since Isidore was born long after Hypatia died. "Isidorus 1" entry in John Robert Martindale, (1980), ''The Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire''. Cambridge University Press It is elsewhere related that Isidore had a wife called Domna, who died five days after the birth of their son whom they named Proclus. Damascius, fr. 399 (cf. Photius, 301) Like Aristarchus of Samothrace, Crates gave the greatest attention to the works of Homer, from his labours upon which he was also surnamed ''Homerikos''. He wrote a commentary on the Iliad and Odyssey in nine books. Some fragments of this commentary are preserved by the scholiasts and other ancient writers. His principles were opposed to those of Aristarchus, who was the leader of the Alexandrian school. Crates was the chief representative of the allegorical theory of exegesis, and maintained that Homer intended to express scientific or philosophical truths in the form of poetry. The spring of 1973 passed with no offensive being launched. On August 21 of that year, in complete secrecy, six senior Syrian commanders, using false names and passports, arrived from Latakia at Alexandria harbor in a Soviet passenger liner carrying holiday makers. Among the Syrian commanders were, principally, the Minister of Defense General Mustafa Tlass and the Chief of Staff General Yusuf Shakkour. For the next two days, they convened with their Egyptians counterparts at Egyptian Naval Headquarters in Ras el Tin Palace. By August 23, two documents were ratified by Shazly and Shakkour concluding that the Egyptian and Syrian armed forces were ready for war. All that remained was to choose a date; either September 7–11 or October 5–10. The date was to be chosen jointly by Presidents Sadat and Hafez al-Assad, but they were required to communicate their decision to their commanders fifteen days before the date of attack. Shazly, pp.201–203 Together with the city of Lviv, Chernivtsi is viewed at present to be a cultural center of western Ukraine. The city is also considered one of modern Ukraine's greatest cultural, educational and architectural centers. Historically in that role, Chernivtsi was even dubbed "Little Vienna," Wikipedia:Alexandria Dmoz:Regional Africa Egypt Localities Alexandria commons:الإسكندرية


Afghanistan

spread to the whole of Iran, and the Arabic language disappeared in that country except in works of religious scholarship ..."'' O.Özgündenli, ''"Persian Manuscripts in Ottoman and Modern Turkish Libraries"'', Encyclopædia Iranica, Online Edition, (LINK) M. Ravandi, ''"The Seljuq court at Konya


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