Places Known For

main defense


Bryansk

son-in-law Svarn, and his son Vaišvilkas—were assassinated during the next seven years. Stability did not return until the reign of Traidenis, designated Grand Duke ca. 1270. The first blow took the Soviets completely by surprise as 2nd Panzer Army returning from the south took Oryol which was south of the Soviet first main defense line. Three days later the Panzers pushed on Bryansk while 2nd Army attacked from the west


Oryol

the south took Oryol which was south of the Soviet first main defense line. Three days later the Panzers pushed on Bryansk while 2nd Army attacked from the west. The Soviet 3rd and 13th Armies were now encircled. To the north, the 3rd and 4th Panzer Armies attacked Vyazma, trapping the 19th, 20th, 24th and 32nd Armies. Moscow's first line of defence had been shattered. The pocket eventually yielded 673,000 Soviet prisoners, bringing the tally since


Vilnius

''piliakalniai'' played a major role in conflicts with the Livonian Order (Livonian Brothers of the Sword) and the Teutonic Knights. During this period the number of ''piliakalniai'' decreased, but those that remained had stronger fortifications. Two main defense lines developed: one along the Neman River (against the Teutonic Order) and another along the border with Livonia. Two other lines started to form, but did not fully develop. One was to protect Vilnius, the capital


Soviet Union

and defense of his front, but kept a worried eye on the developments elsewhere. The Red Army offensive in Karelian Isthmus (Vyborg–Petrozavodsk Offensive) started on 9 June 1944, and broke through the Finnish main defense position on the next day. There was no unified command at place, and this was soon recognized as a serious flaw in the Finnish organisation. On the morning of 14 June 1944 Oesch received a call from Lieutenant General Aksel Airo: "''In the Isthmus everything is going to hell. Go get there on orders by the Commander-in-Chief, the army corps are yours. Laatikainen (Taavetti Laatikainen) is somewhere around Viipuri.''" Oesch was given the title Commander of the Isthmus Forces, and a staff was gathered to serve under him. For the second time Oesch was sent to take over a critical part of front, and this time it was the most critical ever. A decisive Soviet (Soviet Union) breakthrough in the Karelian Isthmus would probably have meant occupation and Finland becoming a Soviet satellite after the war. Trial for war crimes After the Continuation War Oesch’s career took a turn for worse. After serving again as the Chief of the General Staff for almost a year, Oesch retired on his own will in September 1945. He was aware that the Soviets (Soviet Union) demanded his arrest as a war criminal. For a moment Oesch thought of escaping to Sweden, but in the end decided to stay and face the charges. He was arrested in the same month and later tried. Four years earlier, in September 1941, Oesch had given an order that permitted the guards to use their arms if POW (Prisoner of War)s refused to follow orders. The details of the affair are not clear, but apparently some trigger-happy men took liberties with the orders, and a number of Soviet (Soviet Union) POW (Prisoner of War)s were killed. Oesch stood accused for ordering the execution of 17 POW (Prisoner of War)s. Trial for war crimes After the Continuation War Oesch’s career took a turn for worse. After serving again as the Chief of the General Staff for almost a year, Oesch retired on his own will in September 1945. He was aware that the Soviets (Soviet Union) demanded his arrest as a war criminal. For a moment Oesch thought of escaping to Sweden, but in the end decided to stay and face the charges. He was arrested in the same month and later tried. Four years earlier, in September 1941, Oesch had given an order that permitted the guards to use their arms if POW (Prisoner of War)s refused to follow orders. The details of the affair are not clear, but apparently some trigger-happy men took liberties with the orders, and a number of Soviet (Soviet Union) POW (Prisoner of War)s were killed. Oesch stood accused for ordering the execution of 17 POW (Prisoner of War)s. According to Finnish sources, proof for Oesch’s personal responsibility for these deaths was rather dubious. But in the postwar political climate it was imperative to fulfill the Soviet (Soviet Union) demands in order not to give them any excuses to intervene even more in Finnish affairs. Oesch was condemned to 12 years of penal servitude by a Finnish military court on 19 July 1946, although the sentence was commuted to three years by the Highest Court on 2 February 1948. Nevertheless, Oesch’s military career was finished. Oesch was the only senior Finn to be condemned of war crimes. Brown was a partisan participant in the Labour Party's internecine struggles in the early 1950s, opposing the Bevanite (Bevanism) campaign. His natural campaigning ability became prominent, but also his tendency to be rude to those with whom he had disagreements. Shortly after the 1955 general election (United Kingdom general election, 1955), Brown was elected to the Shadow Cabinet for the first time; from that December Brown found it easier to win promotion as his friend Hugh Gaitskell became Leader of the Labour Party. Brown had a private but widely publicised shouting-match with Soviet (Soviet Union) leaders Nikita Khrushchev and Nikolai Bulganin when he was part of a Labour Party delegation invited to dine with them on their British visit in April 1956. That year, he lost the election for Treasurer of the Labour Party to Aneurin Bevan. '''Victory in Europe''': News of the surrender broke in the West on May 8, and celebrations erupted throughout Europe. In the U.S., Americans awoke to the news and declared May 8 V-E Day (Victory in Europe Day). As the Soviet Union was to the east of Germany it was May 9 Moscow Time when German military surrender became effective, which is why Russia and many other European countries east of Germany commemorate Victory Day (Victory Day (Eastern Europe)) on May 9. right thumb Axis-held territory at the end of the war in Europe shown in blue. (Image:Second world war europe 1943-1945 map en.png) Soviet territories Before the beginning of Operation Barbarossa (the eastern front campaign against the Soviet Union) on 22 June 1941, the Nazi ideologist Alfred Rosenberg suggested the administrative division of conquered Soviet territory in the following ''Reichskommissariate'', only the first two of which would become reality through military success: *''Ostland (Reichskommissariat Ostland)'' (the Baltic countries, Belarus, and adjacent parts of Western Russia); After Operation Barbarossa After the German invasion (Operation Barbarossa) of the Soviet Union, vast areas were conquered to Germany's east. At first these areas would remain under military occupation by Wehrmacht authorities, but as soon as the military situation allowed it, a more permanent form of administration under German rule for these territories would be instituted. Rich, Norman. (1973). ''Hitler's War Aims: the Nazi State and the Course of Expansion'', page 217. W. W. Norton & Company Inc., New York. With time and growing atrocities by the Nazis, the educated and very capable Suzanne Spaak devoted herself to ridding France and her native Belgium of its suppressors. She joined the Red Orchestra (Red Orchestra (spy)) intelligence network, a Soviet (Soviet Union)-sponsored organization founded by a Polish (Poland) Jew, Leopold Trepper. Chris Pauly "Suzanne Spaak" The International Raoul Wallenberg Foundation This group conducted very effective intelligence gathering in Germany, France, the Netherlands and in neutral Switzerland with members known as the "Lucy Ring (Lucy spy ring)". The network would become so successful, even infiltrating the German military intelligence service Abwehr, that the Nazis set up the "Red Orchestra Special Detachment" (Sonderkommando Rote Kapelle) to try to destroy it. Iorga again toured Europe in 1935, and, upon his return to Romania, gave a new set of conferences under the auspices of the Cultural League, Iova, p.li inviting scholar Franz Babinger to lecture at the ISSEE. Eugen Ciurtin, "Eastern Europe", in Gregory D. Alles (ed.), ''Religious Studies: A Global View'', Routledge, London, 2008, p.62. ISBN 0-415-39743-X; Nastasă (2007), p.39, 425-426 Again in Iaşi, the historian participated in a special celebration of 18th century Moldavian Prince and Enlightenment (Age of Enlightenment) thinker Dimitrie Cantemir, whose remains had been retrieved from the Soviet Union to be reburied in the Romanian city. Among the books Iorga published in 1935 are a new version of ''Istoria lui Mihai Viteazul'', alongside ''Originalitatea lui Dimitrie Cantemir'' ("Dimitrie Cantemir's Originality"), ''Comemorarea unirii Ardealului'' ("The Commemoration of Transylvania's Union") and two volumes of his ''Memorii'' ("Memoirs"). His additional essays covered the careers of 17th century intellectuals (Anthim the Iberian, Axinte Uricariul, Constantin Cantacuzino (Constantin Cantacuzino (stolnic))). Călinescu, p.978, 979 Also in 1935, Iorga and his daughter Liliana co-authored a Bucharest guide book. Wikipedia:Post-Soviet states commons:Союз Советских Социалистических Республик


United States

after a brief stint as the founder of FrumForum.com (formerly NewMajority.com), a political group blog, FrumForum and serves on the board of directors of the Republican Jewish Coalition. He is the son of Barbara Frum. The Posse Comitatus Act, passed in 1878, generally prohibits Federal military personnel (except


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