Press. p. 464. ISBN 0195334027 Critics of French colonialism gained an international audience in the 1920s, and often used documentary reportage and access to agencies such as the League of Nations and the International Labor Organisation to make their protests heard. The main criticism was the high level of violence and suffering among the natives. Major critics included Albert Londres, Félicien Challaye, and Paul Monet, whose books and articles were widely read. J.P. Daughton, "Behind the Imperial Curtain: International Humanitarian Efforts and the Critique of French Colonialism in the Interwar Years," ''French Historical Studies,'' (2011) 34#3 pp 503–528 While the first stages of a takeover often involved the destruction of historic buildings in order to use the site for French headquarters, archaeologists and art historians soon engaged in systematic effort to identify, map and preserve historic sites, especially temples such as Angkor Wat, Champa ruins and the temples of Luang Prabang. Robert Aldrich, "France and the Patrimoine of the Empire: Heritage Policy under Colonial Rule," ''French History and Civilisation'' (2011), Vol. 4, pp 200–209 Many French museums have collections of colonial materials. Since the 1980s the French government has opened new museums of colonial artifacts including the Musée du Quai Branly and the Cité Nationale de l’Histoire de l’Immigration, in Paris; the Centre Culturel Tjibaou in New Caledonia; and the Maison des Civilisations et de l’Unité Réunionnaise in Réunion. Caroline Ford, "Museums after Empire in Metropolitan and Overseas France," ''Journal of Modern History,'' (Sept 2010), 82#3 pp 625–661, Decolonization (20th century) The French colonial empire began to fall during the Second World War, when various parts were occupied by foreign powers (Japan in Indochina, Britain in Syria, Lebanon, and Madagascar, the United States and Britain in Morocco and Algeria, and Germany and Italy in Tunisia). However, control was gradually reestablished by Charles de Gaulle. The French Union, included in the Constitution of 1946 (French Constitution of 1946), replaced the former colonial Empire. France was immediately confronted with the beginnings of the decolonisation movement. Paul Ramadier's (SFIO (French Section of the Workers' International)) cabinet repressed the Malagasy Uprising in 1947. In Asia, Ho Chi Minh's Vietminh declared Vietnam's independence, starting the First Indochina War. In Cameroun, the Union of the Peoples of Cameroon's insurrection, started in 1955 and headed by Ruben Um Nyobé, was violently repressed. When the Indochina War ended with defeat and withdrawal in 1954, France became almost immediately involved in a new, and even harsher conflict in Algeria, the oldest major colony. Ferhat Abbas and Messali Hadj's movements had marked the period between the two wars, but both sides radicalised after the Second World War. In 1945, the Sétif massacre was carried out by the French army. The Algerian War (Algerian War of Independence) started in 1954. Algeria was particularly problematic, due to the large number of European settlers (or ''pieds-noirs'') who had settled there in the 125 years of French rule (French rule in Algeria). Charles de Gaulle's accession to power in 1958 in the middle of the crisis ultimately led to the independence of Algeria with the 1962 Evian Accords. The Suez crisis in 1956 also displayed the limitations of French power, as its attempt to retake the canal along with the British was stymied when the United States did not back the plan. The French Union was replaced in the new 1958 Constitution of 1958 (French Constitution of 1958) by the French Community. Only Guinea refused by referendum to take part in the new colonial organisation. However, the French Community dissolved itself in the midst of the Algerian War; almost all of the other African colonies were granted independence in 1960, following local referendums. Some few colonies chose instead to remain part of France, under the status of overseas ''départements'' (territories) (French overseas departments and territories). Critics of neocolonialism claimed that the ''Françafrique'' had replaced formal direct rule. They argued that while de Gaulle was granting independence on one hand, he was creating new ties with the help of Jacques Foccart, his counsellor for African matters. Foccart supported in particular the Nigerian Civil War during the late 1960s. The Indian Ocean island of Mayotte voted in referendum in 1974 to retain its link with France and forgo independence. "Mayotte votes to become France's 101st département". ''The Daily Telegraph''. March 29, 2009. Demographics Population between 1919 and 1940 class "wikitable" style "margin: 1em auto 1em auto;" + style "font-weight: bold; font-size: 1.1em; margin-bottom: 0.5em" 520px (File:French Empire 1919-1939.png) Population of the French Empire between 1919 and 1939 ! !! 1921 !! 1926 !! 1931 !! 1936 - align center Metropolitan France align center 39,140,000 align center 40,710,000 align center 41,550,000 align center 41,500,000 - align center Colonies, protectorates, and mandates align center 55,556,000 align center 59,474,000 align center 64,293,000 align center 69,131,000 - align center '''Total''' align center '''94,696,000''' align center '''100,184,000''' align center '''105,843,000''' align center '''110,631,000''' - align center Percentage of the world population align center 5.02% align center 5.01% align center 5.11% align center 5.15% - colspan 5 align center Sources: INSEE, Further unique points included her Cafe Terrasse (:File:The Terrace Café of the SS France (1912).jpg) and the Salon Mauresque, the latter a reference to the French colonial empire in Africa. The ship also had a gymnasium, an elevator as well as a hair salon, all great novelties at the time. Style Louis seize (Louis XVI) (Louis XVI) was also used within the private apartments of the grand luxe suites onboard. According to a 1912 booklet publicising the liner, her second class accommodation was credited as "match ing the richness and comfort of first class on the old liners." Passengers in this class could also utilise a hair dressing salon. Third and steerage classes were also praised as being well-appointed. Recreation The game of ''El Koura'' is a traditional game that was played in Miliana, Laghouat and other places prior to French colonization (French colonial empire). Similar to association football, Sato, Daisuke. "Sport and Identity in Tunisia." International Journal of Sport and Health Science Vol 3 (2005): 27-34. Retrieved October 3, 2010. the game was played during the spring and times of extreme drought because it was believed to bring rain. Hartland, E. Sidney. "Games." Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Part 11. Whitefish, Montana: Kessinger, 2003. 167-71. After French colonization, European sports, especially association football, became more popular.
accessdate 2009-09-06 Nonetheless, Palin's selection was a surprise to many because a main criticism he had of Obama was his lack of experience, and speculation had centered on other candidates, such as Minnesota Governor Tim Pawlenty, Louisiana Governor Bobby Jindal, former Massachusetts Governor Mitt Romney, U.S. Senator Joe Lieberman of Connecticut, and former Pennsylvania Governor Tom Ridge. On August 29
of mobile medical applications. Lab on a Chip, 14(5), 833-840. http: dx.doi.org 10.1039 C3LC51235E Criticisms In what the Food and Drug Administration (w:Food and Drug Administration) is characterizing as one of the largest recalls in recent history, numerous types of products containing peanuts (w:Peanut) are being recalled in the United States. The FDA issued a recall on Wednesday on food items with peanut paste and other peanut products made after January 1, 2007 at a Peanut Corp. of America (PCA) center in Blakely, Georgia (w:Blakely, Georgia). The recall affects over 430 products containing peanut paste or peanut butter from the PCA plant. The president announced the nomination of a new agency commissioner for the Food and Drug Administration (w:Food and Drug Administration) (FDA), former New York City (w:New York City) Health Commissioner Margaret Hamburg (w:Margaret Hamburg). According to the Food and Drug Administration (w:Food and Drug Administration) (FDA), inspections of Nipro facilities last October revealed problems with the needles, which could allow parts of silicone (w:silicone) in the port to be dislodged. 60%–72% of tested needles had that problem. In a conference call with reporters, FDA officials remarked that they were concerned the silicone could enter the bloodstream of a patient, although, to date, no harm from this has been reported.
;. The film also received a 76% ("Generally favorable reviews") on Metacritic. As a motion picture, the main criticism, even among reviewers who praised the film, was the confusion created by following numerous stories. Most critics stated that it was almost impossible to follow the plot, though some, notably Roger Ebert, praised precisely that quality of the film and offered an interesting hidden story possibility (a covert deal between the U.S. and China involving oil being
stories. In recent years, it has become particularly known for its ranking system and annual reports on American colleges, graduate schools and hospitals. During the 1990s, three educational institutions in the United States were involved in a movement to boycott the ''U.S.News & World Report'' college rankings survey. The first was Reed College which stopped submitting the survey in 1995. The survey was also